The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
|The Adventures of Tom Sawyer|
Front piece of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
|Author(s)||Mark Twain aka Samuel Clemens|
|Cover artist||created by Mark Twain|
|Genre(s)||Bildungsroman, Picaresque, Satire, Folk, Children's Novel|
|Publisher||American Publishing Company|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|Pages||275pp (1st ed.)|
|Dewey Decimal||Fic. 22|
|LC Classification||PZ7.T88 Ad 2001|
|Preceded by||The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today|
|Followed by||A Tramp Abroad|
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is an 1876 novel about a young boy growing up along the Mississippi River. The story is set in the Town of "St. Petersburg", inspired by Hannibal, Missouri, where Twain lived.
Tom Sawyer lives with his Aunt Polly and his half-brother, Sid. After playing hooky from school on Friday and dirtying his clothes in a fight, Tom is made to whitewash the fence as punishment all of the next day. He soon cleverly persuades his friends to trade him small treasures for the privilege of doing his work. He trades the treasures he got by tricking his friends into whitewashing the fence for tickets given out in Sunday school for memorizing Bible verses, which can be used to claim a Bible as a prize. He received enough tickets to be given the Bible. However, in response to a question to show off his knowledge, he incorrectly answers that the first disciples were David and Goliath.
Tom falls in love with Becky Thatcher, a new girl in town, and persuades her to get "engaged" by kissing him. But their romance collapses when she learns that Tom has been "engaged" previously, to a girl named Amy Lawrence. Shortly after being shunned by Becky, Tom accompanies Huckleberry Finn, to the graveyard at night to try out a "cure" for warts with a dead cat. At the graveyard, they witness the murder of Dr. Robinson by Injun Joe. Scared, Tom and Huck run away and swear not to tell anyone what they have seen. Injun Joe frames his companion, Muff Potter, a hapless drunk, for the crime. Potter is wrongfully arrested, whereby Tom's anxiety and guilt begin to grow.
Tom, Huck, and Tom's friend run away to an island . While enjoying their newfound freedom, the boys become aware that the community is sounding the river for their bodies. Tom sneaks back home one night to observe the commotion. After a brief moment of remorse at the suffering of his loved ones, Tom is struck by the idea of appearing at his funeral and surprising everyone.
Back in school, Tom gets himself back in Becky's favor after he nobly accepts the blame for a book that she has ripped. Soon, Muff Potter's trial begins, in which Tom testifies against Injun Joe. Potter is acquitted, but Injun Joe flees the courtroom through a window. Tom then begins to fear for his life as Injun Joe is unapprehended and can easily find out where Tom is.
Summer arrives, and Tom and Huck go hunting for buried treasure in a haunted house. After venturing upstairs they hear a noise below. Peering through holes in the floor, they see Injun Joe enter the house disguised as a deaf and mute Spaniard. He and his companion plan to bury some stolen treasure of their own. From their hiding spot, Tom and Huck wriggle with delight at the prospect of digging it up. Huck begins to shadow Injun Joe every night, watching for an opportunity to nab the gold. Meanwhile, Tom goes on a picnic to McDougal's Cave with Becky and their classmates. That same night, Huck sees Injun Joe and his partner making off with a box. He follows and overhears their plans to attack the Widow Douglas. By running to fetch help, Huck forestalls the violence and becomes an anonymous hero.
A week later, Tom takes Huck to the cave and they find the box of gold, the proceeds of which are invested for them. The Widow Douglas adopts Huck, and, when Huck attempts to escape civilized life, Tom promises him that if he returns to the widow, he can join Tom's robber band. Reluctantly, Huck agrees.
Sequels and other works featuring Tom Sawyer 
Tom Sawyer, the story's title character, also appears in two other uncompleted sequels: Huck and Tom Among the Indians and Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy. He is also a character in Twain's unfinished Schoolhouse Hill.
Adaptations and influences 
Film and Television 
- Tom Sawyer (1917), directed by William Desmond Taylor, starring Jack Pickford as Tom.
- Tom Sawyer (1930), directed by John Cromwell, starring Jackie Coogan as Tom.
- Tom Sawyer (1936), a Soviet Union version directed by Lazar Frenkel and Gleb Zatvornitsky.
- In 1938, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was filmed in Technicolor by the Selznick Studio. It starred Tommy Kelly as Tom and was directed by Norman Taurog. Most notable was the cave sequence designed by William Cameron Menzies.
- "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer", a 1960 BBC television series in 6 episodes starring Fred Smith as Tom and Janina Faye as Becky. Series theme song was "John Gilbert is the Boat" sung by Peggy Seeger.
- A 1968 French/German made-for-television miniseries, directed by Wolfgang Liebeneiner, starring Roland Demongeot as Tom and Marc Di Napoli as Huck.
- A 1968 Romanian movie Aventurile lui Tom Sawyer directed by Mircea Albulescu.
- The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1968) was a half-hour live-action/animated series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions.
- A 1969 Mexican film called Las Aventuras de Juliancito.
- Tom Sawyer (1973), A musical adaptation by Robert B. Sherman and Richard M. Sherman, with Johnny Whitaker in the title role, Jeff East as Huck Finn, Jodie Foster as Becky Thatcher and Celeste Holm as Aunt Polly.
- A TV movie version sponsored by Dr Pepper was released that same year. It starred Buddy Ebsen as Muff Potter and was filmed in Upper Canada Village.
- Huckleberry Finn and His Friends (1979 TV series).
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (anime) (1980), a Japanese anime TV series by Nippon Animation, part of the World Masterpiece Theater; aired in the United States on HBO.
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (Приключения Тома Сойера и Гекльберри Финна), a 1981 Soviet Union version directed by Stanislav Govorukhin.
- Tom Sawyer (1984), Canadian claymation version produced by Hal Roach studios.
- Tom and Huck (1995), starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas as Tom and Brad Renfro as Huck Finn.
- A 1995 episode for the PBS television series Wishbone, entitled "A Tail in Twain".
- Tom Sawyer, an animated adaptation, featuring the characters as anthropomorphic animals with an all-star voice cast, including country singers Rhett Akins (as Tom), Mark Wills (as Huck Finn), Lee Ann Womack, Waylon Jennings and Hank Williams Jr. as well as Betty White as Aunt Polly.
- Tom Sawyer appears as a United States Secret Service agent in the 2003 movie The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen.
- Tom Sawyer also appeared in the The Fairly OddParents episode "Shelf Life" on September 10, 2004. He was the main antagonist of this episode.
- Tom Sawyer (2011), German Film directed by Hermine Huntgeburth.
In 1956, We're From Missouri, a musical adaptation of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, with book, music and lyrics by Tom Boyd, was presented by the students at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. In 1960, Boyd's musical version (re-titled Tom Sawyer) was presented professionally at Theatre Royal Stratford East in London, England, and in 1961 toured provincial theatres in England. Tom Boyd's musical of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was produced again in April and June 2010 in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England.
Another musical adaptation is Mississippi Melody, a musical by Jack Hylton.
In April 2010, The Hartford Stage presented a theatrical adaptation titled Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer as part of a centennial observation of Mark Twain's passing.
In 2007, B Street Theatre presented a theatrical adaptation titled,Tom Sawyer that was written by David Pierini.
"Tom Sawyer: A Ballet in Three Acts" premiered on October 14, 2011 at the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts in Kansas City, Missouri. The score was by composer Maury Yeston, with choreography by William Whitener, artistic director of the Kansas City Ballet.
Don Borchert's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Undead is a retelling of the story set in an alternate universe with a zombie outbreak.
On November 30, 2011 to celebrate Twain’s 176th birthday, the Google doodle was a scene from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
- A song called "Tom Sawyer" is featured on the Canadian rock band Rush's eighth studio album Moving Pictures.
- The German punk rock band Muff Potter took their name from the character in the book.
According to an October 2012 article published in Smithsonian magazine, Twain named his fictional character after a San Francisco fireman whom he met in June 1863. The real Tom Sawyer was a local hero, famous for rescuing 90 passengers after a shipwreck. The two remained friendly during Twain's three-year stay in San Francisco, often drinking and gambling together.
See also 
- Facsimile of the original 1st edition.
- Mark Twain 2010 : "The Stories Started Here" – Hannibal, MO (4 March 2011). "Exploring the Life and Literature of Mark Twain". Retrieved MT2010.
- "Tom Sawyer".
- "Tom Sawyer (1930)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Tom Sawyer (1936)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER (1938)". tcm.com. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1960– )". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Les aventur Sawyer (1968– )". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1968–1969)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Aventuras de Juliancito (1969)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Tom Sawyer (1973)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Tom Sawyer (TV 1973)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Huckleberry Finn and His Friends (1979– )". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1981)". nytimes.com. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Tom and Huck (1995)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "A Tail in Twain: Part One". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Tom Sawyer (Video 2000)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Tom Sawyer (2011)". IMDB. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Macaulay, Alastair.Review New York Times, October 24, 2011
- Graysmith, Robert (October 2012). "The Adventures of the Real Tom Sawyer". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer at Project Gutenberg
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 135th Anniversary Edition, University of California Press, 2010.
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer with embedded audio (PDF available)
- Free audio book at LibriVox
- Twain, Mark, 1835-1910. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer - Free eBook in HTML format at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.
- First edition illustrations by True Williams