The Andromeda Strain
|The Andromeda Strain|
First edition cover
|Publication date||May 12, 1969|
|Followed by||The Terminal Man|
The Andromeda Strain (1969), by Michael Crichton, is a techno-thriller novel documenting the efforts of a team of scientists investigating a deadly extraterrestrial microorganism which rapidly and fatally clots human blood, while inducing insanity in some people. The Andromeda Strain appeared in the New York Times Best Seller list, establishing Michael Crichton as a genre writer.
When a military satellite returns to Earth, a recovery team is dispatched to retrieve it; during a live radio communication with their base, the team members suddenly die. Aerial surveillance reveals that everyone in Piedmont, Arizona, the town closest to where the satellite landed, is apparently dead. The base commander suspects the satellite returned with an extraterrestrial organism and recommends activating Wildfire, a protocol for a government-sponsored team that counters extraterrestrial biological infestation.
The Wildfire scientific team studying the unknown strain includes:
- Dr. Jeremy Stone, bacteriologist specialist
- Dr. Peter Leavitt, disease pathologist
- Dr. Charles Burton, infection vectors specialist
- Dr. Mark Hall, M.D., surgeon and biochemistry specialist
Hall is the "odd man", since he is the only one without a spouse. The Robertson Odd Man Hypothesis states that unmarried men are capable of carrying out the best, most dispassionate decisions during crises and he is given the only key that can disarm the laboratory's self-destruct mechanism. A fifth scientist, Dr. Christian Kirke, anthropologist and electrolytes specialist, was unavailable for duty because of appendicitis.
The scientists believe the satellite, which was intentionally designed to capture upper-atmosphere microorganisms for bio-weapon exploitation, returned with a deadly microorganism that kills by nearly instantaneous disseminated intravascular coagulation (lethal blood clotting). Upon investigating the town, the Wildfire team discovers that the residents either died in mid-stride or went "quietly nuts" and committed bizarre suicides. Two Piedmont inhabitants, the sick, Sterno-addicted, geriatric Peter Jackson; and the constantly bawling infant, Jamie Ritter, are biologic opposites who somehow survived the organism.
The man, infant, and satellite are taken to the secret underground Wildfire laboratory, a secure facility equipped with every known capacity for protection against a biological element escaping into the atmosphere, including a nuclear weapon to incinerate the facility if necessary. Wildfire is hidden in a remote area near the fictional town of Flatrock, Nevada, sixty miles from Las Vegas hiding it in plain sight by locating it in the sub-basements of a legitimate Department of Agriculture research station.
Further investigation determines that the bizarre deaths were caused by a crystal-structured, extraterrestrial microbe on a meteor that crashed into the satellite, knocking it from orbit. The microbe contains chemical elements required for terrestrial life and appears to have a crystalline structure, but lacks DNA, RNA, proteins, and amino acids, yet it directly transforms matter to energy and vice versa.
The microbe, code named "Andromeda", mutates with each growth cycle, changing its biologic properties. The scientists learn that Andromeda grows only within a narrow pH range; in a too-acid or too-basic growth medium, it will not multiply—Andromeda's pH range is 7.39–7.43, like that of human blood. That is why Jackson and Ritter survived: both had abnormal blood pH. However, by the time the scientists realize that, Andromeda's current mutation degrades the lab's plastic shields and escapes its containment. Trapped in an Andromeda-contaminated laboratory, Dr. Burton demands that Stone inject him with Kalocin ("the universal antibiotic"); Stone refuses, arguing it would render Burton too vulnerable to infection by other harmful bacteria. Burton survives because Andromeda has already mutated to nonlethal form.
The mutated Andromeda attacks the neoprene door and hatch seals within the Wildfire complex, racing to the upper levels and the surface. The self-destruct atomic bomb is automatically armed when it detects a containment breach, triggering its detonation countdown to incinerate all exo-biological diseases. As the bomb arms, the scientists realize that given Andromeda's ability to generate matter directly from energy, the organism would feed, reproduce, and ultimately benefit from an atomic explosion.
To halt the atomic detonation, Dr. Hall must insert his special key to an emergency substation anywhere in Wildfire. Unfortunately, he is trapped in a section with no substation. He must navigate Wildfire's obstacle course of automatic defenses to reach a working substation on an upper level. He barely disarms the bomb in time before all the air is evacuated from the deepest level of the Wildfire complex. Andromeda eventually mutates to a benign form and is suspected to have migrated to the upper atmosphere, where the oxygen content is lower, better suiting Andromeda's growth.
The novel's epilogue reveals that a manned spacecraft, Andros V, was incinerated during atmospheric re-entry, presumably because Andromeda Strain ate the plastic heat shield of Andros V and caused it to burn up.
The "Odd-Man Hypothesis" is a fictional hypothesis articulated in the novel's story and named in the film. In the novel, the Odd-Man explanation is a page in a RAND Corporation report of the results of test series wherein different people (unmarried men and women) were to make command decisions in nuclear and biological wars and chemical crises. This is in the film:
|“||Results of testing confirm the Odd-Man Hypothesis, that an unmarried male should carry out command decisions involving thermonuclear destruct contexts.||”|
The Odd-Man Hypothesis states that unmarried men are better able to execute the best, most dispassionate decisions in crises—in this case, to disarm the nuclear weapon intended to prevent the escape of organisms from the laboratory in the event the auto-destruct sequence is initiated.
Statistics follow, Group: Index of Effectiveness: 0.343 for married men, 0.824 for single, male scientists, et cetera; then each scientist's command decision effectiveness index: Stone 0.687, Burton 0.543, Kirke 0.614, Leavitt 0.601, and Hall 0.899; thus, Dr. Hall is given the key to halt the Wildfire Laboratory's automated self-destruction, should it become necessary. Moreover, considering Hall's knowledge of electrolytes (a field in which Kirke also specializes), Leavitt admits that the Odd-Man Hypothesis is essentially why Hall was drafted to the Wildfire team.
In the book, Stone admits the Odd-Man Hypothesis was essentially a complicated work of fiction created to justify handing over a nuclear weapon to private individuals (the Wildfire team). Hall initially derides this idea, saying he has no intention of committing suicide. Stone then reveals that the weapon could be automatically triggered in the event of a breach of containment, and that Hall is, in fact, the only man who can disarm the weapon in that situation.
In both book and film, Hall is briefed on the Hypothesis after his arrival at Wildfire. In the film, he is criticized for failure to read the material ahead of time, while in the book, his copy of the briefing materials has the Hypothesis pages removed.
- Dr. Jeremy Stone – Professor of Bacteriology at the University of California at Berkeley; a Nobel Prize winner.
- Dr. Charles Burton – Professor of pathology at the Baylor College of Medicine
- Dr. Peter Leavitt – Clinical microbiologist; suffers from epilepsy
- Dr. Mark Hall – Medical doctor and surgeon
- Dr. Christian Kirke – Anthropologist and electrolytes specialist; does not participate in Wildfire project due to illness
In 1971, The Andromeda Strain was the basis for the film of the same name directed by Robert Wise, and featuring Arthur Hill as Stone, James Olson as Hall, Kate Reid as Leavitt (changed to a female character, Ruth Leavitt), and David Wayne as Dutton (Burton in the novel).
In 2008, The Andromeda Strain was the basis for an eponymous miniseries executive-produced by Ridley and Tony Scott and Frank Darabont, and featuring Benjamin Bratt as Stone. Other characters' names and personalities were radically changed from the novel.
- death metal band Nocturnus has a song called "Andromeda Strain" on their début album, The Key
- Progressive metal band Shadow Gallery has a song titled "The Andromeda Strain" about genetically engineered biological weapons on Room V
- Klaus Schulze has a concert recording titled "Andromeda Strain"
- In 1995 an independent band from Indianapolis called Odd Man and released a CD called Hypothesis
- In 1996, Apollo 440, an electronic music group from Liverpool, sampled "Lets go back to the rock and see it at 440" from the rock examination scene as the intro to Aint Talkin' 'Bout Dub.
Reviews for The Andromeda Strain were overwhelmingly positive, and the novel was an American bestseller, establishing Michael Crichton as a respected novelist and science-fiction writer.
The Pittsburgh Press said it was "Relentlessly suspenseful... A hair-raising experience."
Detroit Free Press called it "Hideously plausible suspense... [that] will glue you to your chair.'
Library Journal said The Andromeda Strain was "One of the most important novels of the year (1969)."
The New York Times's Christopher Lehmann-Haupt said "Tired out by a long day in the country, I was awake way past bedtime. My arms were numb from propping up my head. By turning from side to side, I had driven the cats from their place at the foot of the bed, and they were disgruntled. I was very likely disturbing my wife's sleep. But I was well into Michael Crichton's The Andromeda Strain. And he had me convinced it was all really happening."
- Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg was convinced that "Jeremy Stone" was modeled strongly after himself, and wrote to Knopf Publishers to protest on June 25, 1969. See http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/BBGAAI.pdf.
- In 1984, "the real Dr. Jeremy Stone" expressed complete surprise that Crichton had named the lead character for him.)
- Odd Man page at CD Baby.
- First Ballantine Books Edition: January 1993
- Crichton, Michael (1969). The Andromeda Strain. ISBN 0-345-37848-2.