Le Réveil de Flore

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Ballets and revivals of Marius Petipa
Marius Petipa -1898.JPG

*Paquita (1847, *1881)
*Le Corsaire (1858, 1863, 1868, 1885, 1899)
The Pharaoh's Daughter (1862, *1885, *1898)
Le Roi Candaule (1868, *1891, *1903)
Don Quixote (1869, *1871)
La Bayadère (1877, *1900)
*Giselle (1884, 1899, 1903)
*Coppélia (1884)
*La fille mal gardée (1885)
*La Esmeralda (1886, 1899)
The Talisman (1889)
The Sleeping Beauty (1890)
The Nutcracker (1892)
Cinderella (1893)
Le Réveil de Flore (1894)
*Swan Lake (1895)
*The Little Humpbacked Horse (1895)
Raymonda (1898)
The Seasons (1900)
Harlequinade (1900)

* revival

Le Réveil de Flore (en. The Awakening of Flora), (ru. «Пробуждение Флоры») is a ballet anacréontique in one act, with choreography by Marius Petipa and music by Riccardo Drigo, to a libretto written by Petipa and Lev Ivanov.[1] First presented by the Imperial Ballet at Peterhof Palace on 6 August [O.S. 25 July] 1894. The ballet was originally produced for the Imperial Russian Court in honor of the wedding of the Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna to the Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich.[2] The work was transferred to the stage of the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre where it was first performed on 20 January [O.S. 2 January] 1895.[1] This performance took place during a farewell benefit for the ballerina Anna Johansson.

The principal dancers for both performances were Mathilde Kschessinskaya as the Goddess Flora, Olga Leonova as the Goddess Diana, Anna Johansson as the Goddess Aurora, Nikolai Legat as the God Zephyr, Pavel Gerdt as the God Apollo, Alexander Gorsky as the God Aquilon, Vera Trefilova as the God Cupid and Claudia Kulichevskaya as the Goddess Hebé.[1]

Drigo's score was issued in piano reduction by the music publisher Zimmerman in 1914.

The choreography for Le Réveil de Flore was originally credited as a joint effort between Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov in the original printed theatre programmes.[2] A review in the St. Petersburg Gazette of the first dress rehearsal also credited the choreography to both Petipa and Ivanov. In light of this, Marius Petipa wrote a letter of correction to the newspaper, stating that, "In no. 201 of your much respected newspaper, a not fully accurate communication was reported about the production of the ballet "Le Réveil de Flore". The programme of the ballet was created by L. I. Ivanov and me together, (but) the production of the dances and the mise-en-scène belong exclusively to me; Mr. L. I. Ivanov had no part in them."[1]

The ballet was given its final performance in 1919.[1]

In 2007, the Mariinsky Ballet presented a reconstruction of the original 1894 production. The choreographic revival and reconstruction was supervised by Sergei Vikharev, with Pavel Bubelnikov, Lyudmila Sveshnikova and Elena Belyaeva restoring Drigo's score. Vikharev restored Marius Petipa's choreography from the Stepanov Choreographic Notation of the Sergeyev Collection. The production was first presented at the Mariinsky Theatre during the VIIth International Ballet Festival on 12 April 2007 at the Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. The principal dancers were Evgenia Obraztsova as the Goddess Flora, Xenia Ostreikovskaya as the Goddess Aurora, Svetlana Ivanova as the Goddess Diana, Vladimir Shklyarov as the God Zephyr, Maxim Chaschegorov as the God Apollo, Valeria Martynyuk as the God Cupid and Daria Sukhorukova as the Goddess Hebé.[3]

Sergei Vikharev told the St. Petersburg Times that the ballet was " ... like an ornate Faberge egg. The concentration of solo dancing for the role of Flora is enormous and there would be enough to stretch it into a two- or three-act work." [4]

Structure[edit]

List of scenes and dances of Le Réveil de Flore taken from the piano score that was published in 1914.[5]

  • №01 Introduction
  • №02 L’apparition de Diane (nocturne)
  • №03 L’apparition d’Aquilon
  • №04 Scène et danse de la rosée (scherzo)
  • №05 L’apparition d’Aurore
  • №06 Valse
  • №07-a L’apparition d’Apollon
  • №07-b Entrée de Zéphyr
  • №07-c Entrée de Cupidon suivi des amours (pizzicato)
  • №08 Pas d’action
a. Scène et Pas d'ensemble (cadenza for violin for Leopold Auer)
b. Variation de Zéphyr
c. Variation de Flore (cadenza for harp for Albert Zabel)
d. Grande valse-coda
  • №09 L’arrivée de Mercure, Ganymède et Hébé
  • №10 Grand cortège (bacchanale)
  • №11 Grand pas
  • №12 Galop générale
  • №13 Apothéose – La révélation d’Olympe
  • interpolation: Pizzicato d'Hébé (added after the 1894 premiere)
  • interpolation: Variation d'Aurore (added after the 1894 premiere)

Libretto[edit]

Taken from the original published piano score of 1894.[5]

Tableau 1 — It is night. Flora, the goddess of Spring, is deep asleep with her nymphs; Diana, the goddess of Moon, guards their peace. With the approach of dawn, a freshness is felt in the air. Diana hides in the clouds.

Tableau 2 — Aquilon, the northern wind, rushes stormily over the locale; his cold breath of wind awakens Flora and forces her to seek refuge in the foliage. The appearance of chilling dew brings Flora to despair, and she implores Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, to help them.

Tableau 3 — Aurora consoles Flora with tender caresses and announces that Apollo, the god of day, who will end their sufferings, is following behind her. Aurora, Flora, and her nymphs perform a waltz.

Tableau 4 — With the appearance of resplendent Apollo, everything becomes animated. Smitten with the beauty of Flora, Apollo kisses her. At his call, Zephyr, the god of the gentle west wind, flies to his beloved Flora's embrace. He is followed by Cupid and her little amours. "You must be his helpmate," Apollo tells her, "It is the will of the gods." Everyone is delighted; Cupid, amours, and nymphs rejoice over the lover's happiness. A classical Pas d’action is performed.

Tableau 5 — Mercury, messenger of the gods, announces Hebé, the goddess of youth, and Ganymede, cupbearer to the gods. They present Flora and Zephyr a cup of nectar and proclaim that Jupiter has given them eternal youth.

Tableau 6 — A procession. The chariot of Bacchus and Ariadne is accompanied by bacchantes, satyrs, fauns, sylvans, and others. A Grand pas is performed by all assembled, followed by a rousing finale.

Apotheosis — Olympus is revealed; Jupiter appears, Juno, Neptune, Vulcan, Minerva, Ceres, Mars, Pluto, Proserpina, Venus, and others.

Notes[edit]

  • The libretto for this ballet contains several mythological inaccuracies because three of the characters are inaccurately credited, though it seems neither Petipa, Ivanov or Drigo were aware of this. Contrary to popular belief, Apollo and Diana were not the god and goddess of the sun and moon; the Roman god of the sun and rider of the sun chariot was Sol and the Roman goddess of the moon was his sister, Luna. The libretto also credits the god of the west wind as Zephyr, but the Roman god of the west wind was actually Favionus; Zephyrus was his Greek counterpart.

Gallery[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Wiley, Roland John (1997). The Life and Ballets of Lev Ivanov. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198165675. 
  2. ^ a b Celebration at Peterhof, Ezhegodnik Imperatorskikh Teatrov. St. Petersburg Imperial Theatres, 426-9. 1894. 
  3. ^ Souvenir program for the reconstruction of "The Awakening of Flora". State Academic Mariinsky Theatre. 2007. 
  4. ^ "The Awakening of Flora: The Mariinsky Ballet". Retrieved September 11, 2013
  5. ^ a b Drigo, Riccardo Eugenio (1914). Piano score of "Le Réveil de Flore". Zimmerman.