The Bad Popes
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- Pope Stephen VI (896–897), who had his predecessor Pope Formosus exhumed, tried, de-fingered, briefly reburied, and thrown in the Tiber.
- Pope John XII (955–964), who gave land to a mistress, murdered several people, and was killed by a man who caught him in bed with his wife.
- Pope Benedict IX (1032–1044, 1045, 1047–1048), who "sold" the Papacy
- Pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303), who is lampooned in Dante's Divine Comedy
- Pope Urban VI (1378–1389), who complained that he did not hear enough screaming when Cardinals who had conspired against him were tortured.
- Pope Alexander VI (1492–1503), a Borgia, who was guilty of nepotism and whose unattended corpse swelled until it could barely fit in a coffin.
- Pope Leo X (1513–1521), a spendthrift member of the Medici family who once spent 1/7 of his predecessors' reserves on a single ceremony
- Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), also a Medici, whose power-politicking with France, Spain, and Germany got Rome sacked.
- Russell Chamberlin. 2003. The Bad Popes. Sutton Publishing. p. 19
- Russell Chamberlin. 2003. The Bad Popes. Sutton Publishing. p. 153
- Russell Chamberlin. 2003. The Bad Popes. Sutton Publishing. p. 204
- Russell Chamberlin. 2003. The Bad Popes. Sutton Publishing. p. 218
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