The Bible and homosexuality

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Passages in the Old Testament book Leviticus that prohibit "lying with mankind as with womankind: it is abomination" and the story of Sodom and Gomorrah have historically been interpreted as condemning homosexual acts, as have several Pauline passages. Today too some interpreters uphold that understanding of these passages, while other interpreters maintain that they do not condemn homosexuality, saying that historical context suggests other interpretations or that rare or unusual words in the passages may not be referring to homosexuality.

Hebrew Bible[edit]

Leviticus 18 and 20[edit]

Main article: Leviticus 18

Chapters 18 and 20 of Leviticus, which form part of the Holiness code and list prohibited forms of intercourse, contain the following verses:

  • "You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination."[1]
  • "If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall surely be put to death; their blood is upon them."[2]

The two verses have historically been interpreted by Jews and Christians as clear blanket prohibitions against homosexual acts. More recent interpretations focus on its context as part of the Holiness Code, a code of purity meant to distinguish the behavior of Israelites from the Canaanites.[3][4]

Sodom and Gomorrah[edit]

Main article: Sodom and Gomorrah
Lot prevents sodomites from raping the angels, Heinrich Aldegrever, 1555

The story of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Genesis does not explicitly identify homosexuality as the sin for which they were destroyed. Most interpreters find the story of Sodom and a similar one in Judges 19 to condemn the violent rape of guests, rather than homosexuality,[5] but the passage has historically been interpreted within Judaism and Christianity as a punishment for homosexuality due to the interpretation that the men of Sodom wished to rape the angels who retrieved Lot.[5]

While the Jewish prophets spoke only of lack of charity as the sin of Sodom,[6] the exclusively sexual interpretation became so prevalent that the name "Sodom" became the basis of the word sodomy, still a legal synonym for homosexual and non-procreative sexual acts, particularly anal or oral sex.[7]

While the Jewish prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos and Zephaniah refer vaguely to the sin of Sodom,[6] Ezekiel specifies that the city was destroyed because of its commission of social injustice:[5]

Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me: therefore I took them away as I saw good.[8]

The Talmudic tradition of between c. 370 and 500 also interprets the sin of Sodom as lack of charity, with the attempted rape of the angels being a manifestation of the city's violation of the social order of hospitality;[9] as does Jesus in the New Testament, for instance in Matthew 10:14–15 when he tells his disciples that the punishment for houses or towns that will not welcome them will be worse than that of Sodom and Gomorrah.[6][10]

Later traditions on Sodom's sin, such as Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, considered it to be an illicit form of heterosexual intercourse.[11] In Jude 1:7 the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah are stated to have been "giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh,"[12] which may refer to homosexuality or to the lust of mortals after angels.[5] Jewish writers Philo (d. AD 50) and Josephus (37 – c. 100) were the first to assert unambiguously that homosexuality was among the sins of Sodom.[11] By the end of the 1st century Jews commonly identified the sin of Sodom with homosexual practices.[13]

David and Jonathan and Ruth and Naomi[edit]

The account of the friendship between David and Jonathan in the Books of Samuel has been interpreted by traditional and mainstream Christians as a relationship only of affectionate regard, but has been interpreted by some authors as of a sexual nature.[14][15]

One relevant Bible passage in this respect is 1 Samuel 18:1:

  • And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking unto Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul. (KJV)[16]

Another relevant passage is 2 Samuel 1:26, where David says:

  • I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou been unto me: thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women. (KJV)[17]

The story of Ruth and Naomi is also occasionally interpreted in this way.[18]

New Testament[edit]

Romans 1[edit]

This passage has been debated by some 20th and 21st-century interpreters both in terms of its relevance today and in terms of its actual prohibition: while Christians of several denominations have historically maintained that this verse is a complete prohibition of all forms of homosexual activity,[20] some 20th and 21st-century authors contend the passage is not a blanket condemnation of homosexual acts, suggesting, among other interpretations, that the passage condemned heterosexuals who experimented with homosexual activity[6][21] or that Paul's condemnation was relative to his own culture, in which homosexuality was not understood as an orientation and in which being penetrated was seen as shameful.[21] These interpretations are in a minority.[6][21]

Other Epistles[edit]

In the context of the broader immorality of his audience, Paul the Apostle wrote in the First Epistle to the Corinthians,

The Greek word arsenokoitai (ἀρσενοκοῖται) in verse 9 has challenged scholars for centuries, and has been variously rendered as "abusers of themselves with mankind" (KJV), "sodomites" (YLT), or "men who have sex with men" (NIV). Greek ἄῤῥην / ἄρσην [arrhēn / arsēn] means "male", and κοίτην [koitēn] "bed," with a sexual connotation.[23] Paul's use of the word in 1 Corinthians is the earliest example of the term; its only other use is in a similar list of wrongdoers given (possibly by the same author) in 1 Timothy 1:8–11: In the letter to the Corinthians, amid the list of those who will not inherit the kingdom of God, Paul uses two Greek words: malakoi and arsenokoitai. Malakoi is a common Greek word meaning, of things subject to touch, "soft" (used in Matthew 11:8 and Luke 7:25 to describe a garment); of things not subject to touch, "gentle"; and, of persons or modes of life, a number of meanings that include "pathic".[24] Nowhere else in scripture is it used to describe a person. Bishop Gene Robinson says the early church seemed to have understood it as a person with a "soft" or weak morality; later, it would come to denote (and be translated as) those who engage in masturbation, or "those who abuse themselves"; all we actually, factually, know about the word is that it means soft.[25]

Most scholars hold that Paul had two passages of the Book of Leviticus, 18:22 and 20:13, in mind when he used the word ἀρσενοκοῖται, which may be of his coinage.[5] with most commentators and translators interpreting it as a reference to male same-sex intercourse.[27] However, John Boswell states that it "did not connote homosexuality to Paul or his early readers", and that in later Christian literature the word is used, for instance, by Aristides of Athens (c. 138) clearly not for homosexuality and possibly for prostitution, Eusebius (d. c. 340) who evidently used it in reference to women, and in the writings of 6th-century Patriarch John IV of Constantinople. In a passage dealing with sexual misconduct, John speaks of arsenokoitia as active or passive and says that "many men even commit the sin of arsenokoitia with their wives". Although the constituent elements of the compound word refer to sleeping with men, he obviously does not use it to mean homosexual intercourse and appears to employ it for anal intercourse, not generic homosexual activity.[28] Particulars of Boswell's arguments are rejected by several scholars in a way qualified as persuasive by David F. Greenberg, who declares usage of the term arsenokoites by writers such as Aristides of Athens and Eusebius, and in the Sibylline Oracles, to be "consistent with a homosexual meaning".[29] A discussion document issued by the House of Bishops of the Church of England states that most scholars still hold that the word arsenokoites relates to homosexuality.[30]

Some scholars consider that the term was not used to refer to a homosexual orientation, but see it as referred instead to activities.[31][32]

Other scholars have interpreted arsenokoitai and malakoi (another word that appears in 1 Corinthians 6:9) as referring to weakness and effeminacy or to the practice of exploitative pederasty.[33][34]

Matthew 8; Luke 7[edit]

In Matthew 8:5–13 and Luke 7:1–10, Jesus heals a centurion's servant who is dying. According to James Neill, the Greek term "pais" used for the servant in Matthew's account almost always had a sexual connotation.[35] In support of this view, he remarks that the word pais, along with the word "erasthai" (to love) is the root of the English word "pederasty".[35] He sees in the fact that, in Luke's parallel account, the centurion's servant is described as "valued highly"[36] by the centurion an indication of a homosexual relationship between the two, and says that the Greek word "doulos" (a slave) used of him in Luke's account suggests he may have been a sex slave.[35] Daniel A. Helminiak writes that the word pais was sometimes given a sexual meaning.[37] Donald Wold states that its normal meaning is "boy", "child" or "slave" and its application to a boy lover escapes notice in the standard lexica of Liddell and Scott and Bauer.[38] The Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott registers three meanings of the word παῖς (pais): a child in relation to descent (son or daughter); a child in relation to age (boy or girl); a slave or servant (male or female). In her detailed study of the episode in Matthew and Luke, Wendy Cotter dismisses as very unlikely the idea that the use of the Greek word "pais" indicated a sexual relationship between the centurion and the young slave.[39] Neill himself compares the meanings of Greek "pais" to those of French "garçon", which, though also used to mean "waiter", "most commonly means 'boy'".

Matthew's account has parallels in Luke 7:1–10 and John 4:46–53. There are major differences between John's account and those of the two synoptic writers, but such differences exist also between the two synoptic accounts, with next to nothing of the details in Luke 7:2–6 being present also in Matthew.[40] The Commentary of Craig A. Evans states that the word pais used by Matthew may be that used in the hypothetical source known as Q used by both Matthew and Luke and, since it can mean either son or slave, it became doulos (slave) in Luke and huios (son) in John.[40] Writers who admit John 4:46–53 as a parallel passage generally interpret Matthew's pais as "child" or "boy", while those who exclude it see it as meaning "servant" or "slave".[41]

Theodore W. Jennings Jr. and Tat-Siong Benny Liew write that Roman historical data about patron-client relationships and about same-sex relations among soldiers support the view that the pais in Matthew's account is the centurion's "boy-love" and that the centurion did not want Jesus to enter his house for fear the boy would be enamoured of Jesus instead. D.B. Saddington writes that while he does not exclude the possibility, the evidence the two put forward supports "neither of these interpretations",[42] with Stephen Voorwinde saying of their view that "the argument on which this understanding is based has already been soundly refuted in the scholarly literature"[41] and Wendy Cotter saying that they fail to take account of Jewish condemnation of pederasty.[39] Others interpret Matthew's pais merely as a boy servant, not a male lover, and read nothing sexual into Luke's "valued highly".

Matthew 19:12[edit]

In Matthew 19:12, Jesus speaks of eunuchs who were born as such, eunuchs who were made so by others, and eunuchs who choose to live as such for the kingdom of heaven.[43] Jesus' reference to eunuchs who were born as such has been interpreted as having to do with homosexual orientation; Clement of Alexandria, for instance, is citing in his book "Stromata" (chapter III,1,1[44]) an earlier interpretation from Basilides on it that some men, from birth, are naturally averse to women and should not marry.[45] "The first category - those eunuchs who have been so from birth - is the closest description we have in the Bible of what we understand today as homosexual."[46]

Acts 8[edit]

Main article: Ethiopian eunuch

The Ethiopian eunuch, an early gentile convert encountered in Acts 8, has been described as an early gay Christian, based on the fact that the word "eunuch" in the Bible was not always used literally, as in Matthew 19:12.[46][47] Commentators generally suggest that the combination of "eunuch" together with the title "court official" indicates a literal eunuch—not a homosexual—who would have been excluded from the Temple by the restriction in Deuteronomy 23:1.[48][49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leviticus 18:22 Bible Gateway provides 42 other English translations of the verse.
  2. ^ Leviticus 20:13. Bible Gateway provides 42 other English translations of the verse.
  3. ^ Jeffrey S. Siker, ''Homosexuality and Religion'' (Greenwood Publishing Group 2007 ISBN 978-0-31333088-9), p. 67. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  4. ^ "John Gill, Lev. 18:22". Biblestudytools.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Mark Allan Powell, ''HarperCollins Bible Dictionary'' (HarperCollins 2011 ISBN 978-0-06207859-9), entry "homosexuality". Books.google.com. 2011-10-25. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Crompton, Louis (2006). Homosexuality & Civilization. Harvard University Press. pp. 37–39. 
  7. ^ "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-11-22. 
  8. ^ Ezekiel 16:49–50
  9. ^ J.A. Loader, ''A Tale of Two Cities: Sodom and Gomorrah in the Old Testament, Early Jewish and Early Christian Traditions''. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  10. ^ Matthew 10:14–15
  11. ^ a b David F. Greenberg, ''The Construction of Homosexuality'' (University of Chicago Press 1990 ISBN 978-0-22630628-5), p. 201. Books.google.com. 1990-08-15. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  12. ^ Jude 1:7
  13. ^ J. Harold Ellins, ''Sex in the Bible'' (Greenwood Publishing 2006 ISBN 0-275-98767-1), p. 117. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  14. ^ Boswell, John. Same-sex Unions in Premodern Europe. New York: Vintage, 1994. (pp. 135–137)
  15. ^ Halperin, David M. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality. New York: Routledge, 1990. (p. 83)
  16. ^ 1 Samuel 18:1, King James version.
  17. ^ 2 Samuel 1:26, King James version.
  18. ^ ''Soliciting Interpretation''. Books.google.com. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  19. ^ Romans 1:26–27
  20. ^ Mark Hertzog (1996). The lavender vote: Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals in American electoral politics. NYU Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-8147-3530-4. 
  21. ^ a b c Kruse, Colin (2012). Paul Letter to the Romans. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 111. 
  22. ^ 1 Corinthians 6:9-11
  23. ^ Russell Pregeant (2008). Stefan Koenemann & Ronald A. Jenner, ed. Knowing truth, doing good: engaging New Testament ethics. Fortress Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-8006-3846-7. 
  24. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', entry μαλακός". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  25. ^ Robinson 2012
  26. ^ 1 Timothy 1:8–11
  27. ^ Geoffrey W. Bromiley, ''The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia'' (Eerdmans 1995 ISBN 978-0-80283784-4) Q-Z, p. 437. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  28. ^ Boswell, John (1981). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-06711-7. 
  29. ^ David F. Greenberg, ''The Construction of Homosexuality'' (University of Chicago Press 1990 ISBN 978-0-22630628-5), pp. 213–214. Books.google.com. 1990-08-15. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  30. ^ ''Some Issues in Human Sexuality: A Guide to the Debate'' (Church House Publishing 2003 ISBN 978-0-71513868-7), pp. 137, 139. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  31. ^ Jeffrey S. Siker, ''Homosexuality and Religion'' (Greenwood 2007 ISBN 978-0-31333088-9), p. 70. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  32. ^ James D.G. Dunn, ''The Theology of Paul the Apostle'' (Eerdmans 2006 ISBN 978-0-80284423-1), pp. 121–122. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  33. ^ Scroggs, Robin (1983). The New Testament and homosexuality: contextual background for contemporary debate. Fortress Press. pp. 62–65; 106–109. ISBN 978-0-8006-1854-4. 
  34. ^ Berlinerblau, Jacques (2005). The secular Bible: why nonbelievers must take religion seriously. Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-521-85314-9. 
  35. ^ a b c Neill, James (2009). The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations In Human Societies. McFarland. p. 216. 
  36. ^ Luke 7:2
  37. ^ Daniel A. Helminiak, ''Sex and the Sacred'' (Routledge 2012 ISBN 978-1-13657075-9), p. 192. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  38. ^ Stephen D. Moore, ''God's Beauty Parlor'' Stanford University Press 2001 ISBN 978-0-80474332-7, p. 257. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  39. ^ a b Wendy Cotter, ''The Christ of the Miracle Stories'' (Baker Academic 2010 ISBN 978-0-80103950-8), p. 125. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  40. ^ a b Craig A. Evans (editor), ''The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Matthew-Luke'' (David C. Cook 2003 ISBN 978-0-78143868-1), p. 169. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  41. ^ a b Stephen Voorwinde, ''Jesus' Emotions in the Gospels'' (Continuum 2011 ISBN 978-0-56743061-8), p. 18. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  42. ^ The Centurion in Matthew 8:5–13: Consideration of the Proposal of Theodore W. Jennings, Jr., and Tat-Siong Benny Liew
  43. ^ Matthew 19:12
  44. ^ Clemente de Alejandria: Stromata II-III, Fuentes Patristicas, vol.10 (Marcelo Merino Rodriguez ed.), Madrid 1998, p. 315
  45. ^ [1] "Those who are naturally so constituted do well not to marry."
  46. ^ a b McNeill, John J. (1993). The Church and the homosexual (4 ed.). Beacon Press. pp. 64–65. 
  47. ^ McNeill, John J. (2010). Freedom, Glorious Freedom: The Spiritual Journey to the Fullness of Life for Gays, Lesbians, and Everybody Else. Lethe. p. 211. 
  48. ^ MacArthur, John (1994). New Testament Commentary, Volume 6: Acts 1–12. Moody. p. 254. ISBN 0-8024-0759-5. 
  49. ^ Johnson, Luke T.; Harrington, Daniel J. (1992). The Acts of the Apostles. Liturgical Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-8146-5807-5. 

Literature[edit]