The Big Trail
|The Big Trail|
Movie poster for The Big Trail
|Directed by||Raoul Walsh|
|Produced by||Winfield R. Sheehan|
|Edited by||Jack Dennis|
|Distributed by||Fox Film Corporation|
|122 min. 70 mm version, 108 min. 35 mm version|
In 2006, the United States Library of Congress deemed this film "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant", and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry, saying "the plot of a trek along the Oregon Trail is aided immensely by the majestic sweep provided by the experimental Grandeur wide-screen process used in filming."
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2013)|
After the film was given the greenlight by the producers at Fox Studios in early 1930, Walsh offered the lead to actor Gary Cooper, who couldn't accept it. He then asked friend and fellow director John Ford for suggestions: Ford recommended a then-unknown named John Wayne because he “liked the looks of this new kid with a funny walk, like he owned the world.” When Wayne professed inexperience, Walsh told him to just “sit good on a horse and point.” [notes 1] Filming began on-location just outside Santa Fe, New Mexico in April 1930, which was unheard of at the time and quickly became very costly to the studio.
The film was shot in an early widescreen process using 70 mm film called "70 mm Grandeur film," which was first used in the film "Fox Movietone Follies of 1929."  The scene of the wagon train drive across the country was pioneering in its use of camera work and the depth and view of the epic landscape. An effort was made to lend authenticity to the movie, with the wagons drawn by oxen instead of horses - they were lowered by ropes down canyons when necessary for certain shots in narrow valleys. Tyrone Power's character's clothing looks realistically grimy, and even the food supplies the 'immigrants' carried with them in their wagons were thoroughly researched. Locations in five states, starting from New Mexico to California, were used to film the caravan's 2,000-mile (3,200 km) trek.
Legend has it that Walsh had co-star Tyrone Power, Sr. almost beaten to death for forcing himself on the leading lady Marguerite Churchill. (Power would die just a year later from a heart attack.) Also during production, John Wayne fell sick from dysentery and was nearly replaced.
Release in theaters and the effect on future widescreen viewings
After shooting, the film was previewed to select audiences and generally released on October 1930. The movie quickly became a box office bomb because it was released as a widescreen film during a time when theatres would not change over their standard screens due to the huge cost, and mainly because the Great Depression left so many exhibitors almost financially ruined and the film barely made its huge investment back. It would be almost 20 years before the concept of widescreen films would be put back into general production.
After completion of the film, Wayne found stardom only in low-budget serials and features (mostly Poverty Row westerns); it would take nine years and the film Stagecoach to return Wayne to mainstream prominence.
Actor Ward Bond had a minor role as an extra in the film, but he and Wayne became close friends. The film had him on camera for much of the movie (and can be seen somewhere in the frame in an extraordinary number of scenes), foreshadowing many future appearances in Wayne projects, especially in films directed by John Ford. Bond himself developed a successful career playing character roles and later portrayed wagon-master Seth Adams in the similarly themed TV Western "Wagon Train," which featured a scout dressed in buckskins similar to Wayne's outfit.
- John Wayne as Breck Coleman
- Marguerite Churchill as Ruth Cameron
- El Brendel as Gus, a comical Swede
- Tully Marshall as Zeke, Coleman's sidekick
- Tyrone Power, Sr. as Red Flack, wagon boss
- David Rollins as Dave "Davey" Cameron
- Frederick Burton as Pa Bascom
- Russ Powell as Windy Bill (uncredited)
- Ian Keith as Bill Thorpe, Louisiana gambler
- Charles Stevens as Lopez, Flack's henchman (Geronimo's Grandson)
- Louise Carver as Gus's mother-in-law
- John Big Tree as Indian Chief (uncredited)
- DeWitt Jennings as Boat Captain Hollister (uncredited)
- Ward Bond as Sid Bascom
- Marjorie Leet as Mildred Riggs (uncredited)
- Dodo Newton as Abigail Vance (uncredited)
- Jack Peabody as Bill Gillis (uncredited)
- William V. Mong as Wellmore (uncredited)
- Marcia Harris as Mrs. Riggs (uncredited)
- Emslie Emerson as Sairey (uncredited)
- Nino Cochise as Indian (uncredited) (Chief Cochise's Grandson)
- Iron Eyes Cody as Indian (uncredited)
- Alphonse Ethier as Marshal (uncredited)
- Victor Adamson as Wagon Train Man (uncredited)
- Don Coleman as Wrangler (uncredited)
- Andy Shuford as Ohio Man's Son (uncredited)
- Helen Parrish as Honey Girl Cameron (uncredited)
- Marilyn Harris as Pioneer Girl (uncredited)
- Jack Curtis as Pioneer (uncredited)
- Jack Padjan as Pioneer (uncredited)
- Pete Morrison as Wrangler (uncredited)
- Gertrude Van Lent as Sister from Missouri (uncredited)
- Lucille Van Lent as Sister from Missouri (uncredited)
- Robert Parrish as Pioneer Boy (uncredited)
- Apache Bill Russell (uncredited)
- Marion Lessing (uncredited)
- Dannie Mac Grant (uncredited)
- Frank Rainboth as Ohio Man (uncredited)
A large caravan of settlers attempt to cross the Oregon Trail. Breck Coleman (John Wayne) is a young trapper who just got back to Missouri from his travels near Santa Fe, seeking to avenge the death of an old trapper friend who was killed the winter before along the Santa Fe Trail for his furs, by Red Flack (Tyrone Power, Sr.) and his minion Lopez (Charles Stevens). At a large trading post owned by a man named Wellmore, Coleman sees Flack and suspects him right away as being one of the killers. Flack likewise suspects Coleman as being somebody who knows too much about the killing. Coleman is asked by a large group of settlers to scout their caravan west, and declines, until he learns that Flack and Lopez were just hired by Wellmore to boss a bull train along the as-yet-unblazed Oregon Trail to a trading post north of Oregon, owned by another Missouri fur trader. Coleman agrees to scout for the train, so he can keep an eye on the villains and kill them as soon as they reach their destination. The caravan of settlers in their Prairie schooners would follow Wellmore's ox-drawn train of Conestoga Wagons, as the first major group of settlers to move west on the Oregon Trail. The action takes place between 1837 and 1845.[notes 2] This is historically accurate, as the first major wave of settlers on the Oregon Trail was in 1843, although the details were completely different.
Coleman finds love with young Ruth Cameron (Marguerite Churchill), whom he'd kissed accidentally, mistaking her for somebody else. Unwilling to accept her attraction toward him, Ruth gets rather close to a gambler acquaintance of Flack's, Thorpe (Ian Keith), who joined the trail after being caught gambling. Coleman and Flack have to lead the settlers west, while Flack does everything he can to have Coleman killed before he finds any proof of what he'd done. The three villains' main reason for going west is to avoid the hangman's noose for previous crimes, and all three receive frontier justice instead. The settlers trail ends in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, where Coleman and Ruth finally settle down together amidst giant redwoods.
Preservation and re-release
The film was mostly forgotten to history until the early 1980s, when the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, which housed the 65mm nitrate original camera negative, wanted to preserve the film but found that it was too shrunken and fragile to be copied due to lack of real preservation, and that no film lab would touch it.
They sought out and found Karl Malkames, a cinematographer and specialist and pioneer in film reproduction, restoration, and preservation. He immediately designed and built a special printer to handle the careful frame-by-frame reproduction of the negative to a 35mm anamorphic CinemaScope fine grain master to duplicate the original 70mm process. The printer copied at a speed of one frame a second, leading to the film's year-long process in preserving its original look.
The two versions
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2013)|
Beyond the format difference, the 70mm and 35mm versions vary substantially from each other. They were shot by different cameras, and footage for each format was edited separately in the cutting room. Some scenes were shot simultaneously by both cameras, the only difference being the angle (with the better angle usually given to the 70mm camera). Some scenes were shot first by one camera, and then retaken with the other camera. The 70mm cameras could not focus well up close, so their shots were mainly panoramas with very few close-ups. The 35mm cameras could move in and focus at short distances. Thus, scenes in the 70mm version might show two characters talking to each other in the same take, making greater use of the widescreen frame, while the 35mm version would have close-up shots cutting back and forth between the two characters.
In the editing of the films, some scenes were edited out for one version but allowed to remain in the other. The 35mm version was edited to be shorter, so many scenes in the 70mm version are not found in the 35mm. However, there are a few scenes in the 35mm version not found in the 70mm. The 35mm version was 108 minutes, but the 70mm was longer at 122 minutes.
The 70mm version has been released on VHS as well as DVD in its original widescreen format, but it was also panned and scanned to fit a traditional 4:3 aspect ratio TV screen, despite the availability of the 35mm version which is closer to that format.
Home video releases
According to the Nov. 12, 1930 issue of the Idaho Falls Post, this movie was once set to be titled "The Oregon Trail". The change, as stated, was made in response to the requests from nearby residents of Jackson, WY, where the bulk of the movie was filmed.
John Wayne's first movie role. Raoul Walsh was having trouble casting the movie when he saw Wayne taking furniture off a truck. Wayne worked for the studio in the prop department.
This was Marion Morrison's first starring role and the producers didn't like his name. They told Raoul Walsh (the director) Morrison needed a new name. Several names were suggested, one of them from Walsh, who had just read about American Revolutionary War general 'Mad' Anthony Wayne. The studio took the hint, added the first name John and the rest was history.
This was his only talking film of Tyrone Power Sr., father of Tyrone Power. He died in 1931.
Reportedly this film debuted at a running time of 158 minutes. However, this is unconfirmed as of May 2008.
Incredibly, six different versions of this film were shot simultaneously. (1) a 70mm version in the Grandeur process for exhibition in the biggest movie palaces; (2) a standard 35mm version for general release; (3) a 35mm alternate French language version La piste des géants (1931)' (4) a 35 mm alternate Spanish language version La gran jornada (1931),(5) a 35 mm alternate German language version Die große Fahrt (1931)and (6) a 35mm alternate Italian language version Il grande sentiero (1931). The four alternate language versions were shot with (mostly) different casts.
This film was shot in both a format known as Fox Grandeur, a 70mm wide screen film process developed by the Fox Film Corporation and used commercially on a small scale in 1929-31, as well as a standard Academy ratio format. Both versions survive, and differ significantly in composition, staging and editing. Grandeur was a forerunner of the Todd-AO 70mm system which was introduced in 1955.) Grandeur was one of a number of wide screen processes which were developed by the major Hollywood studios alongside sound in the late 1920s and early 1930s. A combination of the Great Depression and the costs of converting thousands of cinemas to sound prevented the successful introduction of any of these projection systems on a commercial scale.
Gary Cooper was originally offered the role of Breck Coleman and wanted it, but he was under contract to Paramount Pictures, which refused to loan him out. The role was eventually given to John Wayne.
Foreign language versions
A fairly common practice in the early sound era was to simultaneously produce at least one foreign-language version of a film for release in non-English speaking countries; an approach later replaced by simply dubbing the dialogue. There were at least four foreign-language versions made of The Big Trail, all filmed in 35mm, 1.20:1 ratio and using different casts and different character names:
- French: La Piste des géants (1931), directed by Pierre Couderc, starring Gaston Glass (Pierre Calmine), Jeanne Helbling (Denise Vernon), Margot Rousseroy (Yvette), Raoul Paoli (Flack), Louis Mercier (Lopez). La Piste des géants at the Internet Movie Database
- German: Die Große Fahrt (1931), directed by Lewis Seiler and Raoul Walsh, starring Theo Shall (Bill Coleman), Marion Lessing (Ruth Winter), Ullrich Haupt (Thorpe), Arnold Korff (Peter), Anders Van Haden (Bull Flack), Peter Erkelenz (Fichte), Paul Panzer (Lopez). Die Große Fahrt at the Internet Movie Database
- Italian: Il grande sentiero (1931), starring Franco Corsaro and Luisa Caselotti.[notes 3]
- Spanish: La Gran jornada (1931), directed by David Howard, Samuel Schneider, and Raoul Walsh, starring Jorge Lewis (Raul Coleman), Carmen Guerrero (Isabel Prados), Roberto Guzmán (Tomas), Martin Garralaga (Martin), Al Ernest Garcia (Flack), Tito Davison (Daniel), Carlos Villarías[notes 4] (Orena), Charles Stevens[notes 5] (Lopez). La Gran jornada at the Internet Movie Database
- Elyes, Allen. John Wayne. South Brunswick, N.J.: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1979. ISBN 0-498-02487-3.
- (Almost a decade later, Ford would claim that he himself had discovered Wayne as a prop man when casting Stagecoach, despite the fact that Wayne had done more than 30 movies by the time it was produced.)
- Ruth tells Honey Girl that there are 26 stars in the flag, dating the movie between Jan., 1837 and March 1845.
- Luisa Caselotti's younger sister, Adriana Caselotti, was the voice of Snow White in Walt Disney's animated classic Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937).
- Villarías is best known for playing the title character in the Spanish-language version of Dracula (1931).
- Stevens plays the same part in both the English and Spanish versions of The Big Trail.
- Motion Picture News, 24 May 1930 - http://archive.org/stream/motionnew41moti#page/n821/mode/2up
- "Films Added to National Film Registry for 2006" (Press release). Library of Congress. December 27, 2006. Retrieved 2013-10-12.
The story goes that director Raoul Walsh was seeking a male lead for his new Western and asked his friend John Ford. Ford recommended an unknown actor named John Wayne because he “liked the looks of this new kid with a funny walk, like he owned the world.” When Wayne professed inexperience, Walsh told him to just “sit good on a horse and point.” The plot of a trek along the Oregon Trail is aided immensely by the majestic sweep provided by the experimental Grandeur wide-screen process used in filming. However, Wayne’s starring role in the movie did not lead to stardom. He languished in low-budget pictures until John Ford cast him in the 1939 classic “Stagecoach.”
- McKelvey, Tara (9 October 2013). "Searching for John Wayne in the Alabama Hills". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 2013-10-12.
- Magnified Grandeur – The Big Screen, 1926–31, David Coles, 2001
- "Wide Film Cinematography: Some Comments on 70 mm Camerawork From a Practical Cinematographer", Arthur Edeson, A.S.C., American Cinematographer, September 1930.
- The Big Trail at the Internet Movie Database
- The Big Trail at AllMovie
- The Big Trail at the TCM Movie Database
- The Big Trail at Rotten Tomatoes