The Birds of America
|The Birds of America|
|Author(s)||John James Audubon|
|Original title||The Birds of America; from original drawings by John James Audubon|
|Illustrator||John James Audubon|
|Subject(s)||Birds — North America; Birds — pictorial works|
|Publication date||1827 - 1838|
|LC Classification||QL674 .A9 1827|
The Birds of America is a book by naturalist and painter John James Audubon, containing illustrations of a wide variety of birds of the United States. It was first published as a series in sections between 1827 and 1838, in Edinburgh and London.
The work consists of hand-coloured, life-size prints, made from engraved plates, measuring around 39 by 26 inches (99 by 66 cm). It includes images of six now-extinct birds: Carolina Parakeet, Passenger Pigeon, Labrador Duck, Great Auk, Esquimaux Curlew, and Pinnated Grouse.
Early publication history 
About 1820, around the age of 35, Audubon declared his intention to paint every bird in North America. In his bird art, he mainly forsook oil paint, the medium of serious artists of the day, in favour of watercolours and pastel crayons (and occasionally pencil, charcoal, chalk, gouache, and pen and ink). As early as 1807, he developed a method of using wires and threads to hold dead birds in lifelike poses while he drew them.
In 1823, Audubon went to Philadelphia and New York, looking for financial support in the form of subscribers to enable him to publish his artwork, but he found support lacking. As a result, in 1826, he set sail for the United Kingdom with 250 of his original illustrations, looking for the financial support of subscribers and the technical abilities of engravers and printers. After exhibiting his drawings in Liverpool and Manchester, he journeyed to Edinburgh, where he met the accomplished engraver William H. Lizars. Lizars engraved up to ten of the first plates but was unable to continue the project when his colourists went on strike. In 1827, Audubon engaged the noted London animal engraver Robert Havell Jr., and his father, Robert Havell Sr. Havell Jr. oversaw the project through to its completion in 1838.
The original edition of Birds of America (sometimes called the Havell Edition after its printer, and sometimes called the "Double Elephant Folio" (because of its size) was printed on handmade paper 39.5 inches tall by 28.5 inches wide. The principal printing technique was copperplate etching, but engraving and aquatint were also used. Watercolour was then added by hand.
Audubon funded the costly printing project through a pay-as-you-go subscription. From 1826 to 1829, he travelled around the UK and to Paris, lecturing on ornithology and frontier American life  in an effort to entice wealthy patrons to subscribe to the series of prints. Subscribers included Charles X of France, Queen Adelaide of Britain (wife of William IV), Earl Spencer, and, later, the Americans Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.
Prints were issued in sets of five every month or two in tin cases and each set usually included one very large bird, one medium-sized bird, and three small birds. In 1838, at the end of the thirteen-year project, 435 plates (87 sets of five) had been issued at a total cost of $870 or 175 British guineas (£183.75). The plates were published unbound and without any text to avoid having to furnish free copies to the public libraries in England. It is estimated that not more than 200 complete sets were ever compiled. An accompanying text, issued separately, was written by Audubon and the Scottish naturalist and ornithologist William MacGillivray and published in five volumes in Edinburgh between 1831 and 1839, under the title Ornithological Biography, or, An account of the habits of the birds of the United States of America. The additional cost of the five volumes of text brought the total cost of plates and text to about $1000.
After the folio edition was completed, Audubon decided to produce a more affordable edition and employed a lithographer from Philadelphia named J. T. Bowen. Bowen and his team created a smaller Royal Octavo edition, which was issued to subscribers in seven volumes and completed in 1844 after selling 1,199 sets. Five more octavo editions were completed through 1877. The octavo edition used the text of the Ornithological biography but increased the number of plates to 500, separating some birds which had originally appeared together. Some new drawings were included, mostly by John Woodhouse though Audubon and members of Bowen's team also contributed.
The Bien Edition (after chromolithography pioneer Julius Bien), was a full-sized reissue published in 1858 by Roe Lockwood in New York under the supervision of Audubon’s youngest son, John Woodhouse Audubon. Due in part to the Civil War, the edition was never finished; only 15 parts of the 44 part series were completed. This edition consisted of 105 plates and included none of the original text. Fewer than 100 subscriptions were sold, making this edition rarer than other early editions.
Public exhibition 
A full 8 volume, double elephant folio version is on public display in the Audubon Room at the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. One page is turned weekly. This was the first book purchased by the University of Michigan. It was purchased in 1839 for $970, then an amazing sum. The entire volume of 425 plates is also available for viewing online at: http://www.lib.umich.edu/audubon-room/pictureit-rare-book-reader
In 2003, the University of Pittsburgh, which owns a complete collection of Birds of America that had been recently restored and preserved by the Etherington Conservation Center, mounted a major exhibition of 62 selected plates and other materials in its University Art Gallery. Following this, the university constructed an exhibit case on the ground floor of the school's Hillman Library in order to continuously display a rotating selection of plates to the public. Single plates are exhibited for two weeks at a time in plate number order. In 2007, the university undertook a project to digitize every plate from Birds of America, as well as Audubon's Ornithological Biography, and, for the first time, presented the complete set for public viewing in one place on the web.
Philadelphia's Academy of Natural Sciences, an original subscriber to Birds of America has a daily "page turning" event at 3:15 p.m. in the Academy's Ewell Sale Stewart Library. The Academy's website also includes a digital version of the event.
In 2007 the book was the subject of an exhibition by the Teylers Museum in Haarlem, which owns a copy it ordered from the original subscription, along with the table sold to house and display it. The book's subsections fit into special drawers around a fly-leaf table; the table formed the centerpiece for gatherings of the Teyler's gentleman's society of science. To commemorate the book's record-breaking sale, the museum decided to display its copy (for which the museum eventually paid 2200 guilders—a fortune at the time—during the years 1827-1838) until January 2011.
One of the original books was bought by Laurance Spelman Rockefeller, who had each plate individually framed. They are all hanging throughout the public areas of the Woodstock Inn, in Woodstock, Vermont, which he built in 1969.
Recent sales 
In December 2010, The Economist magazine estimated that, adjusted for inflation, five of the ten highest prices ever paid for printed books were paid for copies of Birds of America. Of the 119 copies known to survive, only eleven are held in private collections. In March 2000 the Fox-Bute copy sold at Christie's (New York) for $8,802,500. In December 2005 an unbound copy, the Providence Athenaeum Set, sold, again at Christie's (New York), for $5.6 million.
On 6 December 2010, a complete copy of the first edition was sold in London at Sotheby's for £7,321,250 (approximately $11.5 million) during the sale of Magnificent Books, Manuscripts and Drawings from the Collection of Frederick, Second Lord Hesketh. The winning bid was a record auction price for a printed book and was placed by London-based art dealer Michael Tollemache, who outbid three others during the auction. According to the provenance details reported by the auction house, the copy's original owner was Henry Witham of Durham, listed as subscriber 11 in Audubon's Ornithological Biography; the first volume of the set bears a presentation inscription from Witham's wife, dated 24 June 1831. Lord Hesketh had bought the copy from a descendant of Witham at a Christie's auction on 3 July 1951, paying £7,000.
On January 20, 2012 a complete copy of the first edition was sold, by heirs of the Fourth Duke of Portland, at Christie's auction house in Manhattan, for $7.9 million. The buyer was identified only as "an American collector who bid by phone." The sale brought to 120 the number of copies known to have survived - 107 in institution collections and 13 in private hands.
- "The birds of America; from original drawings". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- Birds of America By John James Audubon - Extinct Birds from the National Audubon Society
- Central Park's Winged Tenants, By Audubon in The New York Times 26 December 2003.
- Audubon Art Prints: A Collector’s Guide to Every Edition by Bill Steiner excerpts at minniesland.com
- Audubon and men of influence at National Library of Scotland
- Birds of America and Audubon's legacy at University of Liverpool
- Havell Edition at minniesland.com
- Rarae Aves: Audubon At Auction in The New York Times 3 March 2000.
- Vibrant Birds Of America, Via Germany in The New York Times 25 June 2004.
- Biography of William MacGillivray at Natural History Museum
- Bowen Royal Octavo Gallery - Birds of America - Audubon House Gallery from the National Audubon Society
- The Registry Of Nature Habitats - Audubon Birds of America - GENUS I.-CATHARTES, Illiger. TURKEY-VULTURE from abirdshome.com
- Flynn, Ron. "The Bien Edition / The Project, Quality, Errors and Market Value". Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Audubon Galleries Original Audubon Books and Prints". Audubongalleries.com. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
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- "Audubon at Pitt". University Library System, University of Pittsburgh. 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- Hoover, Bob (2008-03-04). "Audubon's 'Birds' now in flock on one Web site". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA). Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "Teyler's 2007 exhibition website". Vogelsxxl.nl. 2007-11-03. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "Teyler's announcement to show the book". Teylersmuseum.eu. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- Stark Audubon, KOGT Radio, 1600 AM 11 December 2010.
- Audubon, North Carolina Museum of Art, 20 February 2011.
- "Rekindling Liverpool Central Library". Sevenstreets.com. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Birds Of America’ Sells for $8.8 Million, Art&Antiques.
- "Book value". The Economist.
- Collett, Mike. "Rare ‘Birds of America’ book fetches $11.5M at auction - Books - booknews - TODAYshow.com". Today.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- BBC, 9 September 2010, World's most expensive book goes back on sale
- Shakespeare first edition breaks Sotheby's record with £2.8m sale, The Independent, 14 July 2006.
- Stalking a Masterpiece, The Wall Street Journal 26 November 2010.
- "Lot 50: The Birds of America; from original drawings by John James Audubon. London: published by the author, 1827-1838". Sotheby's. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- Reyburn, Scott (7 December 2010). "‘Birds of America' Book Fetches Record $11.5 Million". Bloomberg.
- "Audubon's ‘Birds' sells for $7.9M". New York Daily News. Associated Press. January 20, 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Furnishing fabric, Lancashire, 1830s, Victoria and Albert Museum, CIRC.305-1956". Retrieved 23 February 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Birds of America|
- Birds of America at the University of Pittsburgh with high resolution images of all 435 double elephant folios
- Meisei University Birds of America consists of the complete sets of 435 plates of drawings together with the accompanying five volumes of textbooks.
- The short film John James Audubon: The Birds of America (1986) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]