The Blind Leading the Blind
|Dutch: De parabel der blinden|
|Artist||Pieter Bruegel the Elder|
|Type||Distemper on linen canvas|
|Dimensions||86 cm × 154 cm (34 in × 61 in)|
|Location||Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy|
The Blind Leading the Blind (or Blind or The Parable of the Blind, Dutch: De parabel der blinden) is a painting of 1568 by Flemish renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Executed in distemper on linen canvas, it measures 86 cm × 154 cm (34 in × 61 in).[a] It is the earliest surviving painting to depict the Biblical parable of the blind leading the blind from the Gospel of Matthew 15:14. The painting is in the collection of the Museo di Capodimonte in Naples, Italy.
Painted the year before Bruegel's death, the painting has a bitter, sorrowful tone, which may be related to the establishment of the Council of Troubles in 1567 by the government of the Spanish Netherlands. The council ordered mass arrests and executions in order to enforce Spanish rule and suppress Protestantism. However it is not clear if the painting was meant as a political statement. The placement of Sint-Anna Church of the village Sint-Anna-Pede has led to both pro- and anti-Catholic interpretations.
The Blind Leading the Blind reveals Bruegel as a master of observation. Each figure has a different eye affliction, including corneal leukemia, atrophy of globe and removed eyes. The figures hold their heads up so as to make better use of their other senses. The diagonal composition reinforces the off-kilter motion of the six figures falling in progression, a concern with motion that has been seen as prefiguring the advent of film.
The Blind Leading the Blind is considered one of the masterworks of painting for its fine, accurate detail and dynamic composition. Copies include a larger version by Bruegel's son Pieter Brueghel the Younger, and the work has inspired literature such as poetry by Charles Baudelaire and William Carlos Williams and novels such as Gert Hofmann's The Parable of the Blind.
They are blind guides leading the blind, and if one blind person guides another, they will both fall into a ditch.
The painting depicts a procession of six blind and disfigured men. They pass before a path bordered by a river on one side and village with and a church of a village on the other. Their guide has fallen on his back into a ditch and, because they are all linked by their staffs, seems about to drag his companions down with him. In the background a cowherd stands indifferent to the peril of the blind men.
Bruegel based the work on the Biblical parable of the blind leading the blind from the Gospel of Matthew 15:14, Christ referring to the Pharisees.[b] The two blind men in the parable are expanded to six in Bruegel's painting. He does not dress them in the peasant clothes that typifies his later work. The first blind man's face is not visible; the second twists his head as he falls, perhaps to avoid landing face-first. The shinguard-clad third man, on his toes with knees bent and face to the sky, shares a staff with the second, by which his is being pulled down. The others have yet to stumble, but the same fate seems implied.
Background details, the faces and bodies of the blind men, and the church in the background are rendered in exceptional fine detail. Bruegel's settings tended to be fictional, but that of The Blind Leading the Blind has been identified[c] as the village Sint-Anna-Pede, and the church as Sint-Anna Church.
The work is a tüchlein, light paintings that use distemper made from pigment mixed with water-soluble glue. Tüchlein do not preserve well, but The Blind Leading the Blind is in good condition and has suffered no more than some erosion, such as of a herdsman and some fowl in the middle ground.[d] The grain of the linen canvas is visible beneath the delicate brushstrokes. The work is signed and dated BRVEGEL.M.D.LX.VIII.
The Blind Leading the Blind's austere tone is achieved through a colour scheme of mostly grey, greens brownish-red and black pigments. The diagonal movement of the bodies creates a dramatic tension in the foreground which is divided diagonally from the landscape background.
The painting is one of four surviving Bruegel paintings in distemper.[e] In contrast to earlier painters' depictions of the blind as beneficiaries of divine gifts, Bruegel's blind men are stumbling and decrepit, portrayed without sympathy. The eyeless figure would have been interpreted as a man who had suffered punishment for wrongdoing or fighting.
Bruegel painted with the empirical objectivity of the Renaissance. In earlier paintings the blind were typically depicted with eyes closed. Bruegel gave each of his blind men a different ocular affliction, each painted with a realism that allowed identification of their conditions by later experts, though there is still some diagnostic disagreement. Jean-Martin Charcot and Paul Richer published an early account, Les difformes et les malades dans l'art (1889), and Tony-Michel Torillhon followed with more research on Bruegel's figures in 1957. The first man's eyes are not visible; the second has had his eyes removed, along with the eyelids: the third suffers corneal leukoma; the fourth atrophy of globe; the fifth either blind with no light perception, or photophobic; and the sixth had pemphigus or bullous pemphigoid. Charcot and Richer noted Bruegel's accuracy in portraying the blind men facing not forward but with their faces raised in the air, as they would have had to rely on their senses of smell and hearing.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (died 1569) achieved fame for the detailed accurate and realistic portrayals of peasants. He painted on inexpensive linen canvas and oak panel and avoided scenes of magnificence and portraits of nobility or royalty. Bruegel's works were popular with the common people the paintings were crowded with. The peasants Bruegel at first depicted were featureless and undifferentiated; as his work matured their physiognomy became markedly more detailed and expressive.
Brugel's time was one of rapid advances in learning and knowledge, and a move towards the empirical sciences—the time of Copernicus's heliocentric theory in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Gutenberg's printing presses. Several contemporary compatriots of Bruegel were leading minds in their fields, such as Andreas Vesalius and Abraham Ortelius. Vesalius brought great advances in the study of anatomy via direct observation of dissected bodies; his observations motivated many artists to pay greater attention to the accuracy of the anatomy depicted in their works. The cartography of Ortelius influenced Bruegel's landscapes.
In 1563, Bruegel and his new wife moved to Brussels, the seat of government in the Spanish Netherlands (1556–1714). In 1567 the governor of the Netherlands, the Duke of Alba, established the Council of Troubles (popularly called the "Blood Council") to suppress non-Catholic religions and enforce Spanish rule, leading to mass arrests and executions.
A bitter, sorrowful tone characterises Bruegel's last works, such as The Blind Leading the Blind and The Magpie on the Gallows. Whether the former painting was intended to send a political message is not clear. Bruegel kept a number of preliminary drawings from becoming public by having his wife burn them upon his death. in 1569, when he was likely in his early forties.[f] Whether Bruegel had Calvinist sympathies is not clear, but the evidence indicates he likely held critical views of the Catholic Church.
In ancient Greece the blind were depicted in myths as having received gifts from the gods, and blind singers were held in high regard. In Mediaeval Europe, the blind were depicted as the subjects of miracles such as Bartimaeus in the healing the blind near Jericho in Mark 10:46–52. By the early Renaissance such painted depictions of saints and miracles fell out of favour, particularly in Protestant lands. Under Catholic influence, the blind and poor were the recipients of alms, but under Protestant thinking, such good deeds were not thought as any guaranteed way to heaven, and the path one's life took was believed the will of God. Regard for the poor and infirm dimished, and beggars saw their circumstances deteriorate. In popular literature of the time, the blind were depicted as rogues or targets of pranks. The parable of the blind leading the blind also appear as one of the illustrated proverbs in Bruegel's Netherlandish Proverbs (1559).[g]
In contrast to the posed figures common in contemporary paintings, "Here for the first time movement is visualized both in space and in time", wrote Charcot and Richer in praise of Bruegel's "happy stroke of inspiration" of presenting the tragectory of time and space in the accelerated movement of the figures. They write that the concept was not formulated until the 17th century, and it prefigured motion pictures and Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2. Medical researcher Zeynel A. Karcioglu sees the painting anticipating the 19th-century chronophotography of Étienne-Jules Marey. Dutch film director Joris Ivens stated, "If Bruegel were alive today he would be a film director."
The church in the background, identified as Sint-Anna Church, has sparked much commentary. One major view holds that the church is evidence of the painting's moralistic intent—that while the first two blind men stumble and are beyond redemption, the other four are behind the church and thus may saved. Another major interpretation has it the church, with a whithered tree placed before it, is an anti-Catholic symbol, and that those who follow it will fall following a blind leader as do the men in the ditch. Others deny any synbolism in the church, noting that churches frequently appear in Breugel's village scenes as they were a common part of the village landscape. Zeynel A. Karcioglu suggests the church represents indifference to the plight of the handicapped.
Art historian Gustav Glück noted incongruities in that the blind beggars were well-dressed and carried staves and full purses. Kenneth C. Lindsay and Bernard Huppé suggest Bruegel may have implied that the blind men represent false priests who ignored Christ's admonitions not to carry gold, purses, or staffs.[h]
Charles Bouleau wrote of the tension in Bruegel's compositional rhythms. The picture is divided into nine equal parts divided by a set of parallel oblique lines. These are divided by another network of lines at constnt angles to the first. The composition invites the reader to follow the action rather than dwell on the individual figures. The blind men resemble each other in dress and facial features, and they appear as if they succeed one another in a single movement culminating in a fall, beginning on the left with "rambling, then hesitation, alarm, stumbling, and finally falling". The succession of heads follows a curve, and the further the succession, the greater the space between heads, suggesting increasing speed. The steep roofs of the background houses contribute to the compositions feeling of motion.
The Blind Leading the Blind is considered one of the great masterpieces of painting. Bruegel's is the earliest surviving painting of the parable of the blind leading the blind, though there are two earlier Dutch engravings known, including one attributed to Hieronymus Bosch that Bruegel likely knew and imitated. Bruegel's paintings have enjoyed worldwide popularity and have been the subjects of scholarly works in disciplines even outside of the arts, such as medicine.
Bruegel's depictions of beggars in paintings such as The Blind Leading the Blind left a strong influence on those who followed him, such as David Vinckboons. Hieronymus Wierix incorporated a copy of The Blind Leading the Blind into the series Twelve Flemish Proverbs. A forgery attributed to Jacob Savery called The Blind appeared c. 1600 bearing a false inscription dating it 1562. Bruegel's son Pieter Brueghel the Younger painted a larger copy with extra details, including a flock of sheep, that now hangs in the Louvre. Italian Baroque painter Domenico Fetti may have been influenced by Bruegel's painting when he executed his own version of the parable (c. 1621–22); Bruegel's was in the collection of Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, who was Fetti's patron.
French poet Charles Baudelaire's "The Blind"[i] was inspired by Bruegel's painting. The painting was the subject of several other poems, including those by Germans Josef Weinheber and Walter Bauer, and American William Carlos Williams who wrote a series of poems on Bruegel's paintings including "Parable of the Blind" which focuses on the meaning of the composition—a word that appears three times in the poems eight tercets. The figures stumble diagonally downward, and—
follows the other stick in
hand triumphant to disaster
Bruegel's painting served as a model for Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck's one-act The Blind. West German writer Gert Hofmann's 1985 novel The Parable of the Blind features Bruegel and the six blind men. To accomplish a realistic portrayal, Bruegel repeatedly has the men cross a bridge and fall into a creek in midwinter until their expressions achieve the desolation Bruegel believes represents the human condition. Claude-Henri Roquet (fr)'s 1987 historical novel Bruegel, or the Workshop of Dreams has Bruegel painting the blind out of fear of losing his own eyesight.
The Blind Leading the Blind and The Misanthrope were discovered in the collection of the Count Giovanni Battista Masi of Parma in 1612 when Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma confiscated Masi's property for his part in a conspiracy against the House of Farnese. How the painting arrived in Italy is unknown; it is known that Masi's father Cosimo returned from the Netherlands in 1595 with a number of Netherlandish paintings. The painting hangs in Naples, Italy, in the National Museum of Capodimonte.
- The painting was the largest of 1568.
- According to Margaret Sullivan, Bruegel's audience was likely as familiar with classical literature as with the Bible; Erasmus had published his Adagia two years before Bruegel's painting, and it contained the quotation "Caecus caeco dux" ("the blind leader of the blind") by Roman poet Horace.
- Of Bruegel's oeuvre only the Naval Battle in the Gulf of Naples (1560) also has an identifiable setting.
- The herdsman can be seen in later derivative paintings, such as the one by Pieter Brueghel the Younger.
- The others are The Adoration of the Kings (1564), The Misanthrope (1568) and the recently-attributed Wine of Saint Martin's Day.
- Bruegel's birth date is not known.
- The proverb in Dutch is: "Als de ene blinde de andere leidt, vallen ze beiden in de gracht."
(English: "When one blind man leads another, they both fall into the ditch.")
- Matthew 10:10
- "Les Aveugles"
- Contemple-les, mon âme; ils sont vraiment affreux!
- Pareils aux mannequins; vaguement ridicules;
- Terribles, singuliers comme les somnambules;
- Dardant on ne sait où leurs globes ténébreux.
- Leurs yeux, d'où la divine étincelle est partie,
- Comme s'ils regardaient au loin, restent levés
- Au ciel; on ne les voit jamais vers les pavés
- Pencher rêveusement leur tête appesantie.
- Ils traversent ainsi le noir illimité,
- Ce frère du silence éternel. Ô cité!
- Pendant qu'autour de nous tu chantes, ris et beugles,
- Eprise du plaisir jusqu'à l'atrocité,
- Vois! je me traîne aussi! mais, plus qu'eux hébété,
- Je dis: Que cherchent-ils au Ciel, tous ces aveugles?
- Karcioglu 2002, p. 58.
- Hagen & Hagen 2003, p. 191.
- Charcot & Richer 1889, p. 74.
- Delevoy & Skira 1959, p. 124.
- Silver 2012, p. 52.
- Sullivan 1991, p. 463.
- Brown 2010, p. 179.
- Karcioglu 2002, p. 57.
- Delevoy & Skira 1959, p. 126.
- Vries 2007, p. 232.
- Edwards 2013, p. 60.
- Edwards 2013, p. 71.
- Bordin & D'Ambrosio 2010, p. 30.
- Grossmann 1966, p. 203.
- Delevoy & Skira 1959, pp. 125–126.
- Huxley & Videpoche 1938, p. 52.
- Orenstein 2001, p. 31.
- Hagen & Hagen 2003, p. 192.
- Hagen & Hagen 2003, p. 194.
- Karcioglu 2002, pp. 61–62.
- Karcioglu 2002, p. 59.
- Delevoy & Skira 1959, p. 124; Charcot & Richer 1889, p. 74.
- Karcioglu 2002, p. 55.
- Karcioglu 2002, p. 56.
- Orenstein 2001, p. 9.
- Hagen & Hagen 2003, pp. 191–192.
- Hagen & Hagen 2003, p. 193.
- Karcioglu 2002, p. 57; Lindsay & Huppé 1956, p. 384.
- Delevoy & Skira 1959, p. 126; Funch 1997, p. 120.
- Lindsay & Huppé 1956, p. 384.
- Bouleau 1963, p. 123.
- Funch 1997, p. 120.
- Huxley & Videpoche 1938, p. 51; Delevoy & Skira 1959, p. 126.
- Karcioglu 2002, pp. 55–56.
- Orenstein 2001, p. 77.
- Orenstein 2001, p. 78.
- Askew 1961, pp. 23, 36.
- Burness 1972–1973, p. 161.
- Denham 2010, p. 18.
- Heffernan 2004, pp. 163–165.
- Nöller 1998, p. 147.
- Hafrey 1986.
- Richardson 2011, p. 10.
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- The Blind Leading The Blind at the Capodimonte Gallery
- Media related to Pieter Bruegel the Elder at Wikimedia Commons
- Media related to The Blind Leading the Blind by Pieter Bruegel the Elder at Wikimedia Commons