The Book of the New Sun
|The Book of the New Sun|
Front cover of the first half or first two books in one volume (Orb Books, 1994)
Book of the New Sun sub-series[a]
|Publisher||Simon & Schuster;
Orb / Tor Books (first two-volume)
|1980-1983 (four vols); 1994 (two)|
|Media type||Print (hardcover first; trade paperback first two-volume ed.)|
|Pages||1200+ pp (four vols);
|ISBN||ISBN 0-312-89017-6 (first two-volume ed., 1994, depicted) ISBN 0-312-89018-4|
|Dewey Decimal||813/.54 20|
|LC Class||PS3573.O52 S53 1994|
|Followed by||Book of the Long Sun sub-series|
The Book of the New Sun (1980–83) is a series of four science fantasy novels or one four-volume novel by the American author Gene Wolfe. Alternatively, it is a series comprising the original tetralogy, a 1983 collection of essays, and a 1987 sequel.[a] Either way, it inaugurated the so-called "Solar Cycle" (below) that Wolfe continued after 1987 by setting other multi-volume works in the same universe.
The tetralogy chronicles the journey of Severian, a disgraced journeyman torturer who is exiled and forced to travel to Thrax and beyond. It is a first-person narrative, ostensibly translated by Wolfe into contemporary English, set in the distant future when the Sun has dimmed and Earth is cooler (a "Dying Earth" story).
Place within the genre
The Book of the New Sun belongs to the Dying Earth subgenre of speculative fiction, named after the Dying Earth series by Jack Vance (1950 to 1984). Substantially that is fantasy or science fiction set in a distant future when Earth's sun is dying (cooling notably). The setting commonly includes mysterious and obscure powers and events.
- Refer to a summary of the first book or volume, The Shadow of the Torturer (1980)
New Sun series
Each of the four original volumes won at least one major fantasy or science fiction award as the year's "Best Novel" (see table). The tetralogy was not considered as a whole for any of the annual literary awards compiled by the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB).
The tetralogy was published in the U.K. by Sidgwick & Jackson (1981 to 1983). For the first volume, that was twelve months after its U.S. release, for the second volume seven months, for the latter two volumes only two months later. The Urth of the New Sun "coda" novel appeared three months earlier in the U.K. (Gollancz, August 1987) and the component volumes of subsequent series in the Solar Cycle, Long Sun and Short Sun, were published essentially at once in the U.S. and U.K.
|Title (volume or novel)||Award wins||losing finalist or high rank (#=rank)|
|The Shadow of the Torturer
(Simon & Schuster, 1980)
|British Science Fiction
|Balrog (fantasy), Campbell Memorial (3), Locus Fantasy (2), Nebula|
|The Claw of the Conciliator
(Timescape Books, 1981)
|Hugo (SF), Mythopoeic Fantasy, World Fantasy|
|The Sword of the Lictor
(Timescape Books, 1982)
|Balrog, British SF, Hugo, Nebula, World Fantasy|
|The Citadel of the Autarch
(Timescape Books, 1983)
|Campbell Memorial (SF)||Balrog, British SF, Locus Fantasy (2), Nebula|
|ISFDB recognizes a series of five novels and some short fiction, including a coda set years after the original tetralogy.|
|The Urth of the New Sun
(Tor Books, 1987)
|Hugo, Locus Science Fiction (3), Nebula|
Since the original four-volume novel, Wolfe has also written three short fictions and two book series that are set in Severian's universe (almost all subsequent to Urth). The Internet Speculative Fiction Database catalogues it all as the "Solar Cycle" (below) comprising the short works and three sub-series.
||This section possibly contains original research. (August 2011)|
The Book of the New Sun has been widely analyzed for its deeper meanings; some of these analyses have been published, such as Michael Andre-Druissi's Lexicon Urthus (ISBN 0-9642795-9-2) and Robert Borski's Solar Labyrinth. Wolfe makes extensive use of allegory within the series, as Severian is identified as a Christ/Apollo figure: he is destined to revitalize the Sun and save the Earth while at the same time destroying it. Adding further to the books' many riddles is Wolfe's usage of archaic, obscure (but never invented) words to describe the world of the far future. In an Appendix at the end of The Shadow of the Torturer, Wolfe explains that this is one of the difficulties in translating Severian's writing ("in a tongue that has not yet achieved existence") into English. An example can be found in Severian's fuligin cloak ("the color that is darker than black"), probably derived from fuliginous, an obscure and archaic word meaning sooty. Other examples are optimates, named for a political faction in Republican Rome, aquastor, a spiritual being that appears in the works of Paracelsus, and fiacre, a small carriage (which is, in fact, a French word with that meaning).
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2008)|
Interpretations abound in a variety of other books such as Michael Andre Druissi's Lexicon Urthus, Peter Wright's Attending Daedalus, John Clute's Strokes, and Robert Borski's Solar Labyrinth. Among other theories:
- Severian's home city of Nessus is actually a future Buenos Aires.
- The characters Agia and Agilus are Severian's cousins.
- Father Inire and Ossipago are not only the same character, but the offspring of Severian and one of the Hierodules.
- Wolfe's earlier book The Fifth Head of Cerberus is in fact set in the same universe, and is a prequel to the Book of the New Sun, the Book of the Long Sun, and the successor Short Sun books.
- Severian's companion and lover Dorcas is his paternal grandmother (Ouen the waiter is her son, and is hinted to be Severian's father).
- The Autarch is Thecla's father.
- Merryn is Severian's sister. Alternatively, as proposed by Robert Borski, Jolenta may be Severian's sister.
Since the original four-volume novel, Wolfe has also written three short fictions and two book series that are set in Severian's universe (almost all subsequent to Urth). The Internet Speculative Fiction Database catalogues it all as the "Solar Cycle" comprising the short works and three sub-series.
The two later subseries are The Book of the Long Sun (1993–1996, four volumes) and The Book of the Short Sun (1999–2001, three volumes). Long Sun is set on a generation ship and Short Sun features the inhabitants of that generation ship after their long journey. Two of the Long Sun books were nominated for Nebula Awards.
- ISFDB includes the non-fiction collection The Castle of the Otter (1983) and the "coda" novel The Urth of the New Sun (1987) in the Book of the New Sun sub-series (along with some separately published excerpts).
- Locus subscribers voted only two Middle-earth novels by J. R. R. Tolkien ahead of Wolfe's New Sun, followed by Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea series. Third and fourth ranks were exchanged in the 1987 rendition of the poll, "All-Time Best Fantasy Novels", which considered as single entries Wolfe's The Shadow of the Torturer and Le Guin's A Wizard of Earthsea, the first volumes of New Sun and Earthsea.
- Solar Cycle series listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved 2012-04-23. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents.
- The Locus Online website links multiple pages providing the results of several polls and a little other information. • The Locus Index to SF Awards: 1998 Locus All-Time Poll. Locus Publications. Archived from the original on 2004-01-13. Retrieved 2012-04-24. • See also "1998 Locus Poll Award". ISFDB. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
- "Gene Wolfe". The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index to Literary Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
- "1980 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "1981 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "1982 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "1983 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "1984 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- "1988 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05.
- (1979). The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (A-O). Oxford University Press, New York, New York.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Book of the New Sun|
- Gene Wolfe at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- "What Gene Wolfe Expects of His Readers: The Urth of the New Sun as an Answer to Mysteries in The Book of the New Sun", by Michael Andre-Driussi
- "Mapping a Masterwork: A Critical Review of Gene Wolfe's The Book of the New Sun" -(Peter Wright)