The Campbell Playhouse

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The Campbell Playhouse
Orson Welles 1937.jpg
Orson Welles in 1937 (Carl Van Vechten)
Genre Anthology drama
Running time 60 minutes
Country United States
Language(s) English
Home station CBS
Host(s) Orson Welles
Starring Bea Benaderet
Frank Readick
Agnes Moorehead
Ray Collins
George Coulouris
Georgia Backus
Everett Sloane
Writer(s) Howard Koch
Howard Teichmann
John Houseman
Orson Welles
Director(s) Orson Welles
Producer(s) Orson Welles
John Houseman
Air dates December 9, 1938 (1938-12-09) to March 31, 1940 (1940-03-31)
No. of series 2
No. of episodes 56
Audio format Monaural sound
Opening theme Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-Flat Minor

The Campbell Playhouse (1938–1940) is a live CBS radio drama series directed by and starring Orson Welles. Produced by John Houseman, it was a sponsored continuation of The Mercury Theatre on the Air. The series offered 60-minute adaptations of classic plays and novels, plus some adaptations of popular motion pictures.

After the departure of Welles at the end of the second season, The Campbell Playhouse changed format as a 30-minute weekly series that ran for one season (1940–1941).

The Campbell Playhouse is also the title of an NBC television series later called Campbell Soundstage and Campbell Summer Soundstage (1952–1954).

History[edit]

As a direct result of the front-page headlines Orson Welles generated with his 1938 Halloween production The War of the Worlds, Campbell's Soup signed on as sponsor. The Mercury Theatre on the Air made its last broadcast December 4, 1938, and The Campbell Playhouse began December 9, 1938.

The series made its debut with Welles' adaptation of Rebecca, with guest stars Margaret Sullavan and Mildred Natwick. Bernard Herrmann composed and conducted the imaginative score, and later used much of it for the film Jane Eyre. The radio drama was the first adaptation of the 1938 novel by Daphne Du Maurier; the author was interviewed live from London at the conclusion of the broadcast.[1]

The same creative staff stayed on, but the show had a different flavor under sponsorship. This was partially due to a guest star policy which relegated the Mercury Players to supporting roles. There was a growing schism between Welles, still reaping the rewards of his Halloween night notoriety, and Houseman, who became more like an employee than a partner. The primary writer, as during the end of the unsponsored run, was Howard Koch.

Productions included The Citadel (with Geraldine Fitzgerald), A Christmas Carol (broadcast once with Lionel Barrymore as Scrooge, and once with Orson Welles himself in the role), a non-musical version of Show Boat (with Margaret Sullavan as Magnolia, Orson Welles as Cap'n Andy, Helen Morgan as Julie, and author Edna Ferber herself as Parthy), A Farewell to Arms (with Katharine Hepburn), Mutiny on the Bounty, Arrowsmith (with Helen Hayes), Les Misérables (with Walter Huston), Our Town, Ah, Wilderness, Dodsworth, Lost Horizon (with Ronald Colman), Dinner at Eight (with Hedda Hopper and Lucille Ball), Liliom (with Orson Welles in the title role and Helen Hayes as Julie), and Huckleberry Finn (with Jackie Cooper).[citation needed]

After signing a film contract with RKO in August 1939, Welles began commuting from Hollywood to New York for the two Sunday broadcasts of The Campbell Playhouse. In November 1939, production of the show moved from New York to Los Angeles.[2]

After 20 shows, Campbell began to exercise more creative control over The Campbell Playhouse, and had complete control over story selection. Diana Bourbon, an account executive from the Ward Wheelock agency, was appointed as liaison between Welles and Campbell. Bourbon acted as de-facto producer, and she and Welles frequently clashed over story and casting. Amiable classics were chosen over many of Welles's story suggestions, including Of Human Hearts; the rights to many works, including Rogue Male, Wuthering Heights and The Little Foxes, could not be obtained. As his contract with Campbell came to an end, Welles determined not to sign on for another season. "I'm sick of having the heart torn out of a script by radio censorship," he said. After the broadcast of March 31, 1940 — a reprise of Jane Eyre, after Welles's suggestion of Alice Adams was not accepted — Welles and Campbell parted amicably.[3]

The Campbell Playhouse returned to radio November 29, 1940, as a 30-minute weekly CBS series that was last broadcast June 13, 1941.[4] The program was produced by Diana Bourbon. The series' focus shifted away from classic play and novel adaptations to lighter, more popular fare, still with casts drawn from the ranks of film actors.

Episodes[edit]

Unless otherwise noted, the source for episode and cast information is Orson Welles on the Air: The Radio Years (1988), published by The Museum of Broadcasting.[5]

# Date Program
1 December 9, 1938 Rebecca by Daphne du Maurier
Cast: Orson Welles (Max de Winter), Margaret Sullavan (Mrs. de Winter), Agnes Moorehead (Mrs. Van Hopper), Mildred Natwick (Mrs. Danvers), Alfred Shirley (Frith), Ray Collins (Frank Crawley), Frank Readick (the Idiot)
Interview with Daphne du Maurier
2 December 16, 1938 Call It a Day by Dodie Smith
Cast: Orson Welles (Roger Hilton), Beatrice Lillie (Dorothy Hilton), Jane Wyatt (Catherine Hilton)[6]
3 December 23, 1938 A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens
Cast: Orson Welles (Ebenezer Scrooge), Hiram Sherman (Bob Cratchit), Brenda Forbes (Mrs. Cratchit), Arthur Anderson (Ghost of Christmas Past), Eustace Wyatt (Ghost of Christmas Present), Frank Readick (Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come), Alfred Shirley (Marley's Ghost), Joseph Cotten (Scrooge's nephew Fred), Virginia Welles, as Anna Stafford (Belle), Kingsley Colton (Tiny Tim), George Spelldon (Mr. Fezziwig), Alice Frost (Charwoman), Ernest Chappell (Announcer)
4 December 30, 1938 A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway
Cast: Orson Welles (Frederick Henry), Katharine Hepburn (Catherine)[6]
5 January 6, 1939 Counsellor-at-Law by Elmer Rice
Cast: Orson Welles (George Simon), Gertrude Berg (Mrs. Simon), Aline MacMahon (Regina Gordon)
Remarks by legal advisor Sam Leibowitz
6 January 13, 1939 Mutiny on the Bounty by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall
Cast: Orson Welles (Captain Bligh), Joseph Cotten (Fletcher Christian)[6]
7 January 20, 1939 The Chicken Wagon Family by Barry Benefield
Cast: Orson Welles (Frank Fippany), Burgess Meredith[6]
8 January 27, 1939 I Lost My Girlish Laughter by Jane Allen
Cast: Orson Welles (Sidney Brandt), George S. Kaufman (John Tussler), Ilka Chase (Madge Lawrence), Tamara Geva (Sarya Tarn), Edgar Barrier (Bruce Anders), Everett Sloane (Roy), Myron McCormick (Leland Hayward), Ray Collins (Faye), Frank Readick (Palmer), Agnes Moorehead (Frances Smith), Joseph Cotten (Riley), William Alland (Assistant Director)
Interview with Jane Allen
9 February 3, 1939 Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Cast: Orson Welles (Martin Arrowsmith), Helen Hayes (Leora Arrowsmith), Ray Collins (Professor Gottlieb), Frank Readick (Sondelius), Al Swenson (Henry Novak), Effie Palmer (Mrs. Tozer), Everette Sloane (Mr. Tozer), Carl Frank (Dr. Stoups)
10 February 10, 1939 The Green Goddess by William Archer
Cast: Orson Welles (the Rajah), Madeleine Carroll (Lucilla Crespin), Robert Speaight (Major Crespin), Ray Collins (Dr. Traherne), Eustace Wyatt (Watkins)
11 February 17, 1939 Burlesque by Arthur Hopkins and George Manker Watters
Cast: Orson Welles (Skid), Sam Levene (Lefty)
Interview with Arthur Hopkins[6]
12 February 24, 1939 State Fair by Philip Duffield Stong
Cast: Orson Welles (Pat), Ray Collins, others
Interview with Philip Stong and comics Amos 'n' Andy (Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll)[6]
13 March 2, 1939 Royal Regiment by Gilbert Frankau
Cast: Orson Welles (Tom Rockingham), Mary Astor (Camilla Wethered); with Ray Collins, Alfred Shirley, Everett Sloane, Eustace Wyatt, Howard Teichmann, others
Interview with Gilbert Frankau[6]
14 March 10, 1939 The Glass Key by Dashiell Hammett
Cast: Orson Welles (Paul Madvig); with Ray Collins, Everett Sloane, Edgar Barrier, Paul Steward, Elspeth Eric, others
Interview with Warden Lewis E. Lawes of Sing Sing[6]
15 March 17, 1939 Beau Geste by P. C. Wren
Cast: Orson Welles (Beau Geste), Laurence Olivier (John Geste), Noah Beery (Sergeant Lajaune), Naomi Campbell (Isobel), Isabel Elson (Lady Brandon)
Interview with J. Alphonse de Redenet, French Legionnaire
16 March 24, 1939 Twentieth Century by Charles Bruce Millholland
Cast: Orson Welles (Oscar Jaffe), Elissa Landi (Lily Garland), Sam Levene (Owen O'Malley), Ray Collins (Oliver Webb), Gus Schilling (Max Jacobs), Toward Teichmann (Train Dispatcher), Edgar Kent (Clark), Everett Sloane and Teddy Bergman (the Two Players)
Interview with Broadway press agent Richard Maney
17 March 31, 1939 Show Boat by Edna Ferber
Cast: Orson Welles (Captain Andy Hawks), Edna Ferber (Parthy Ann Hawks), Margaret Sullavan (Magnolia), Helen Morgan (Julie), William Johnstone (Gaylord Ravenal), Ray Collins (Windy), Grace Cotten (Kim), Everett Sloane (Schultzy)
Interview with Edna Ferber
18 April 7, 1939 Les Misérables by Victor Hugo
Cast: Orson Welles (Javert, Walter Huston (Jean Valjean; with Ray Collins, Everett Sloane, Edgar Barrier, Alice Frost, William Alland, Richard Wilson, others[6]
19 April 14, 1939 The Patriot by Pearl S. Buck
Cast: Orson Welles (I-wan), Anna May Wong (Peony)
Interview with Pearl S. Buck[6]
20 April 21, 1939 Private Lives by Noël Coward
Cast: Orson Welles (Elyot Chase), Gertrude Lawrence (Amanda Prynne), Naomi Campbell (Sibyl Chase), Robert Speaight (Victor Prynne), Edgar Barrier (Hotel Manager)
Interview with Gertrude Lawrence
21 April 28, 1939 Black Daniel, a retelling of Stephen Vincent Benét's The Devil and Daniel Webster, by Honoré Morrow
Cast: Orson Welles (Daniel Webster), Joan Bennett (Carolyn LeRoy); with Ray Collins, Everett Sloane, William Alland, others[6]
22 May 5, 1939 Wickford Point by John P. Marquand
Cast: Orson Welles (Jim Calder); with Agnes Moorehead, Ray Collins, Everett Sloane, Paul Stewart, Carl Frank, others
Interview with John P. Marquand[6]
23 May 12, 1939 Our Town by Thornton Wilder
Cast: Orson Welles (Stage Manager); with Patricia Newton, Agnes Moorehead, Ray Collins, John Craven, Effie Palmer, Everett Sloane, Parker Fennelly
24 May 19, 1939 The Bad Man by Porter Emerson Browne
Cast: Orson Welles (Pancho Lopez), Ida Lupino (Lucia Pell), Frank Readick (Gilbert Phebbs), Ray Collins (Uncle Phipps), William Alland (Morgan Pell), Diana Stevens (Dot), Everett Sloane (Louie), Edward Jerome (Pedro)
Interview with Ida Lupino
25 May 26, 1939 American Cavalcade: The Things We Have by Orson Welles
Cast: Orson Welles (James Scott, Professor Shurtz, O'Shaughnessy, The Limey, John Brown), Cornelia Otis Skinner (Mary Scott, Frau Shurtz, Lady Townsend, Polish woman, Susan B. Anthony); with Frank Readick, Kenneth Delmar, Ray Collins, Agnes Moorehead, Paul Stewart, Kingsley Colton, others
Interview with Cornelia Otis Skinner[6]
26 June 2, 1939 Victoria Regina by Laurence Housman
Cast: Orson Welles (Prince Albert), Helen Hayes (Queen Victoria); with Eustace Wyatt, Ray Collins, Brenda Forbes, Agnes Moorehead, Alfred Shirley, Virginia Welles (as Anna Stafford)
Interview with Helen Hayes
27 September 10, 1939 Peter Ibbetson by George du Maurier
Cast: Orson Welles (Peter Ibbetson), Helen Hayes (Mary, Duchess of Towers), John Emery (Colonel Ibbetson), Agnes Moorehead (Mrs. Deane), Vera Allen (Madame Seraskier), Everett Sloane (Crockett), Eustace Wyatt (Warden), Ray Collins (Governor), George Coulouris (Chaplain), Edgar Barrier (Judge), Richard Wilson (Turnkey), Kingsley Colton (Peter as a child), Betty Philson (Mary as a child)
28 September 17, 1939 Ah, Wilderness! by Eugene O'Neill
Cast: Orson Welles (Richard Miller), Ray Collins (Nat Miller), Arlene Francis (Muriel McComber); with Agnes Moorehead, Everett Sloane, Joseph Cotten, Paul Stewart, Richard Wilson, Howard Teichmann
29 September 24, 1939 What Every Woman Knows by J. M. Barrie
Cast: Orson Welles (John Shand), Helen Hayes (Maggie Wylie), Alred Shirley (Alick Sylie), Everett Sloane (David Wylie), Agnes Moorehead (Countess), Naomi Campbell (Lady Sybil), Eustace Wyatt (Mr. Venables), Ray Collins (Willy Cameron)
30 October 1, 1939 The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas
Cast: Orson Welles (Edmond Dantés, the Count), Everett Sloane (Abbé Faria), Richard Wilson (a Jailer), Agnes Moorehead (Mercédès)
31 October 8, 1939 Algiers by John Howard Lawson and James M. Cain
Cast: Orson Welles (Pepe Le Moko), Paulette Goddard (Gabby)
32 October 15, 1939 Escape by John Galsworthy
Cast: Orson Welles (Matt Denant), Wendy Barrie (Lady in the hotel), Ray Collins (Murdered /cop, Forgiving Judge, Unforgiving Farmer), Jack Smart (another Cop, Farmhand), Edgar Barrier (Priest and Cabbie), Bea Benaderet (Girl in park, Woman at picnic), Harriet Kay (Maid), Mabel Albertson (Bessie), Benny Rubin (Man at picnic)
33 October 22, 1939 Liliom by Ferenc Molnár
Cast: Orson Welles (Liliom), Helen Hayes (Julie), Agnes Moorehead (Mrs. Muskat), Joan Tetzell (Marie), Frank Readick (Ficsur), Bill Adams (Sheriff), Joseph Cotten (the Cashier), Betty Philson (Louise)
34 October 29, 1939 The Magnificent Ambersons by Booth Tarkington
Cast: Orson Welles (George Amberson Minafer), Walter Huston (Eugene Morgan), Nan Sunderland (Isabel Amberson), Ray Collins (Fred Amberson), Eric Burtis (Young George Minafer), Marion Burns (Lucy Morgan), Everett Sloane (Archie Malloch Smith), Richard Wilson (Reverend Malloch Smith), Bea Benaderet (Mrs. Foster)
Interview with Walter Huston and Nan Sunderlund, Mrs. Walter Huston
35 November 5, 1939 The Hurricane by James Norman Hall and Charles Nordhoff
Cast: Orson Welles (Eugene de Laage), Mary Astor (Germaine de Laage), Ray Collins (Father Paul), Everett Sloane (Captain Nagle), Edgar Barrier (Terangi), Bea Benaderet (Marani), Eric Burgess (Mako)
36 November 12, 1939 The Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Agatha Christie
Cast: Orson Welles (Hercule Poirot, Dr. James Sheppard), Edna May Oliver (Caroline Sheppard), Alan Napier (Roger Ackroyd), Brenda Forbes (Mrs. Ackroyd), George Coulouris (Inspector Hempstead), Ray Collins (Mr. Raymond), Everett Sloane (Parker, the butler)
Interview with Edna May Oliver
37 November 19, 1939 The Garden of Allah by Robert Hichens
Cast: Orson Welles (Boris Androvsky), Madeleine Carroll (Domini Enfilden), Everett Sloane (Count Anteoni), George Coulouris (Father Roubier), Ray Collins (Lt. de Trevignac)
38 November 26, 1939 Dodsworth by Sinclair Lewis
Cast: Orson Welles (Sam Dodsworth), Fay Bainter (Fran Dodsworth), Nan Sunderland (Edith Cortright), Dennis Green (Major Lockert), Edgar Barrier (Kurt von Obersdorf), Ray Collins (Tubby), Natasha Latische (Mme. de Penalbe), Brenda Forbes (the Baroness)
39 December 3, 1939 Lost Horizon by James Hilton
Cast: Orson Welles (Father Perrault/High Lama), Sigrid Gurie (Chinese Woman)
40 December 10, 1939 Vanessa by Hugh Walpole
Cast: Orson Welles (Benjie), Helen Hayes (Vanessa, Judith), Alfred Shirley (Adam), Eustce Wyatt (Uncle Will), Kingsley Colton (Benjie's son)
41 December 17, 1939 There's Always a Woman by Gladys Lehman
Cast: Orson Welles (Bill Reardon), Marie Wilson (Sally Rerdon), Ray Collins (Nicky Shane), Everett Sloane (Grigson, the butler), Edgar Barrier (Jerry Marlow), Mary Taylor (Lola Fraser), Georgia Backus (Ann Calhoun), Frank Readick (the D.A.), Richard Wilson (Walter Fraser)
42 December 24, 1939 A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens
Cast: Orson Welles (Narrator), Lionel Barrymore (Ebenezer Scrooge); with Everett Sloane (Marley's Ghost), Frank Readick (Bob Cratchit), Erskine Sanford (Fezziwig), George Coulouris (Ghost of Christmas Present), Ray Collins, Georgia Backus (Mrs. Cratchit), Bea Benaderet (Martha Cratchit). The Ghost of Christmas Past is uncredited, but the voice sounds suspiciously like that of Edgar Barrier.
43 December 31, 1939 Come And Get It by Edna Ferber
Cast: Everett Sloane (Narrator), Orson Welles (Barney), Frances Dee (Lotta)[6]
44 January 7, 1940 Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray
Cast: Orson Welles (the Marquis), Helen Hayes (Becky Sharp), John Hoysradt (Rawdon Crawley), Agnes Moorehead (Miss Crawley), Naomi Campbell (Amelia Sedley)
45 January 14, 1940 Theodora Goes Wild by Mary McCarthy, screenplay by Sidney Buchman
Cast: Orson Welles (Michael Grant), Loretta Young (Theodora Lynn), Ray Collins (Jed Waterbury), Mary Taylor (Mrs. Stevenson), Clara Blandick (Aunt Rebecca), Frank Readick (Arthur Stevenson)
46 January 21, 1940 The Citadel by A. J. Cronin
Cast: Orson Welles (Andrew Manson), Geraldine Fitzgerald (Christine), Everett Sloane (Dr. Ivory), Mary Taylor (Mrs. Laurence), Ray Collins (the Rector), Edgar Barrier (Dr. Freedman), George Coulouris (Dr. Denny), Georgia Backus (Mrs. Higgins), Robert Coote (Dr. Fred Hampton)
47 January 28, 1940 It Happened One Night by Samuel Hopkins Adams, motion picture screenplay by Robert Riskin
Cast: Orson Welles (Mr. Andrews), William Powell (Peter Grant), Miriam Hopkins (Ellie Andrews)
48 February 4, 1940 The Broome Stages by Clemence Dane
Cast: Orson Welles (Harry Broome, Edmond Broome), Helen Hayes (Donna Broome), John Hoysradt (Steven Broome)
49 February 11, 1940 Mr. Deeds Goes to Town by Clarence Budington Kelland, motion picture screenplay by Robert Riskin
Cast: Orson Welles (Longfellow Deeds), Gertrude Lawrence (Brenda Bennett), Everett Sloane (John Cedar), Paul Stewart (Cornelius Cobb), Frank Readick (the Judge), Edgar Barrier (Mr. Buddington), Agnes Moorehead (a Pixilated Lady), Jane Hauston (a Pixilated Lady), Ernest Chappell (Bailiff), Edwin C. Hill (Ernest Chappell); with Richard Wilson, Howard Teichmann and Joseph Cotten as a number of people
50 February 18, 1940 Dinner at Eight by George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber
Cast: Orson Welles (Dan Packard, Larry Renault), Marjorie Rambeau (Carlotta Vance), Hedda Hopper (Millicent Jordan), Lucille Ball (Kitty Packard), Charles Trowbridge (Oliver Jordan), Clara Blandick (Hattie Loomis), Mary Taylor (Paula Jordan), Edgar Barrier (Dr. Talbot), Benny Rubin (Max, the agent)
51 February 25, 1940 Only Angels Have Wings by Howard Hawks, motion picture screenplay by Jules Furthman
Cast: Orson Welles (Geoff Carter), Joan Blondell (Bonnie Lee), Regis Toomey (the Kid), Edmond McDonald (Les Peters), Edgar Barrier (Ashton Stevens), George Coulouris (Dutchy), William Alland (Joe Souther), Richard Baer (Tex), Richard Wilson (Pete)
52 March 3, 1940 Rabble In Arms by Kenneth Roberts
Cast: Orson Welles (Benedict Arnold), Frances Dee (Ellen Phipps), George Coulouris (Captain Peter Merrill), Robert Warwick (Captain Nason), Richard Baer (Huck), Edward Donahue (Guy), Richard Wilson (Scott Flick), Georgia Backus (Madame)
53 March 10, 1940 Craig's Wife by George Kelly
Cast: Orson Welles (Walter Craig), Ann Harding (Harriet Craig), Janet Beecher (Miss Austen), Mary Taylor (Ethel Landreth), Regis Toomey (Billy Birkmire), Clara Blandick (Mrs. Harold), Bea Benaderet (Mazie), Richard Baer (Policeman)
54 March 17, 1940 Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
Cast: Orson Welles (Dauphin, Huckleberry Finn), Jackie Cooper (Huckleberry Finn), Walter Catlett (Duke), Clarence Muse (Jim)[6]
55 March 24, 1940 June Moon by Ring Lardner and George S. Kaufman
Cast: Orson Welles (Candy Butcher on train), Jack Benny (Fred Stevens), Benny Rubin (Maxie Schwartz), Gus Schilling (Paul Sears), Bea Benaderet (Lucille Sears), Lee Patrick (Eileen), Virginia Gordon (Edna Baker)
56 March 31, 1940 Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë
Cast: Orson Welles (Mr. Rochester), Madeleine Carroll (Jane Eyre), Cecilia Loftus (Mrs. Fairfax), Robert Coote (Mr. Brocklehurst), Serita Whooton (Young Jane), George Coulouris (the Innkeeper), Edgar Barrier (the Priest)

Television[edit]

The Campbell Playhouse is also the title of a 1952 television series that aired on NBC. The collection of 30-minute dramas aired Fridays at 9:30 p.m. June through August as a summer replacement series for The Aldrich Family. Episodes included "The Cavorting Statue" starring Cesar Romero and Ann Rutherford; "Return to Vienna" starring Ruth Warrick and Cameron Mitchell; and "This Little Pig Cried" starring Frances Rafferty and Robert Rockwell.

In July 1953 the series returned as a permanent replacement for The Aldrich Family, with a new format — hour-long dramas produced live in New York — and a new title, Campbell Soundstage. James Dean, Lillian Gish, Brian Keith, Jack Lemmon, Roddy McDowall, E. G. Marshall, Walter Matthau and Betsy Palmer were among those starring in the series of O. Henry-style stories with surprise endings.

In June 1954 the title of the series was changed to Campbell Summer Soundstage, and filmed presentations (many previously aired on Ford Theatre) were featured until the show left the air in September 1954.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Callow, Simon, Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. London: Jonathan Cape, 1995; New York: Viking Books, pp. 417–422
  2. ^ Welles, Orson, and Peter Bogdanovich, This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers 1992 ISBN 0-06-016616-9 Welles's career chronology by Jonathan Rosenbaum page 353
  3. ^ Brady, Frank, Citizen Welles: A Biography of Orson Welles. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1989 ISBN 0-385-26759-2 pp. 221–226
  4. ^ Hickerson, Jay, The Ultimate History of Network Radio Programming and Guide to All Circulating Shows. Hamden, Connecticut, second edition December 1992, page 62
  5. ^ Orson Welles on the Air: The Radio Years. New York: The Museum of Broadcasting, catalogue for exhibition October 28–December 3, 1988, pp. 53–62
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Welles, Orson, and Peter Bogdanovich, This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers 1992 ISBN 0-06-016616-9. Welles career chronology by editor Jonathan Rosenbaum, pp. 348–360
  7. ^ Brooks, Tim, and Earle Marsh, The Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows 1946–Present. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988 (fourth edition), ISBN 0-345-35610-1 pp. 127–128

References[edit]

External links[edit]