Natan Slifkin (also Nosson Slifkin) (born 25 June 1975 in Manchester, England), also popularly known as the "Zoo Rabbi", is a British-born Israeli ordained but non-pulpit serving Orthodox rabbi best known for his interest in zoology, science and for his books on these topics, which are controversial in the Haredi world.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2014)|
Natan Slifkin was born and raised in Manchester, United Kingdom, where he studied at a local yeshiva. He left in 1995 to continue his studies in the Medrash Shmuel yeshiva and Mir Yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel. He was ordained at Ohr Somayach Institutions, where he taught Talmud and contemporary Judaism. He now lives with his family in Ramat Beit Shemesh, where he teaches at Yeshivat Lev HaTorah. Slifkin has a Master's degree in Judaic Studies from the Lander Institute in Jerusalem, and is studying for his doctorate in Jewish History at Bar-Ilan University.
Science, Zoology and Torah
Slifkin explores traditional rabbinic perspectives in his books and discusses how they may relate to issues of interest to modern science. Slifkin is the author of numerous books dealing with the Torah, science and zoology. In Slifkin's approach to the reconciliation of Genesis and modern scientific theory, traditional Judaism mandates neither a literalistic approach to Biblical cosmology, nor a belief that the Talmud is always correct about scientific matters. Views similar to these were accepted by some as within the realm of Orthodox Judaism. A public debate began about Slifkin's books about the question of how literally Orthodox Judaism interprets the Torah and how much weight should be given to the scientific discussions of rabbinic sages.
Slifkin is the author of numerous books on Torah, zoology and cryptozoology:
- The Science of Torah: The Reflection of Torah in the Laws of Science, The Creation of the Universe and the Development of Life (Targum Press 2001) ISBN 1-56871-288-X. Later republished in a revised and expanded edition as The Challenge of Creation: Judaism's Encounter with Science, Cosmology and Evolution (Zoo Torah/Yashar Books 2006) ISBN 1-933143-15-0
- Mysterious Creatures (Targum Press 2003) ISBN 1-56871-248-0. Republished in a revised and expanded edition as Sacred Monsters: Mysterious and Mythical Creatures of Scripture, Talmud and Midrash (Zoo Torah/Yashar Books 2006) ISBN 1-933143-18-5
- The Camel, the Hare and the Hyrax: A Study of the Laws of Animals with One Kosher Sign in Light of Modern Zoology (Targum Press 2004) ISBN 1-56871-312-6. Republished with corrections in 2011.
- Lying for Truth: Understanding Yaakov's Deception of Yitzchak (Targum Press 1998) ISBN 1-56871-106-9
- Second Focus: Original and Stimulating Essays on Jewish Thought (Targum Press 1999) ISBN 1-56871-176-X
- In Noah's Footsteps: Biblical Perspectives on the Zoo (The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens 2000)
- Nature's Song: An Elucidation of Perek Shirah, the Ancient Text that Lists the Philosophical and Ethical Lessons of the Natural World (Targum Press 2001) ISBN 1-56871-274-X. Republished in 2009.
- Man and Beast: Our Relationship with Animals in Jewish Law and Thought (Zoo Torah/Yashar Books 2006) ISBN 1-933143-06-1
Slifkin has a website called "Zoo Torah" and writes a blog called "Rationalist Judaism," in which he promulgates his opinions on Jewish thought. He has also published e-books on this topic. A new book, The Torah Encyclopedia of the Animal Kingdom, will be published in 2014 (estimated).
In 2005, a group of Haredi rabbis in Israel and the United States declared a ban on Slifkin's books, so that Haredi Jews in their communities would not purchase or read his work. The main objection is Slifkin's suggestion that the Talmud is mistaken on certain scientific matters and the universe is really billions of years old.
The rabbis object to the tone of Slifkin's work, stating that "even what is not heretical is expressed in a way only a heretic would speak." 
The ban sparked a debate, largely on the Internet which led to Slifkin's publisher, Targum Press discontinuing distribution of his books. Yashar Books, a smaller Jewish publisher, agreed to distribute them. Materials written by Slifkin were removed from the websites of influential Orthodox kiruv (Jewish outreach) organizations, such as Aish HaTorah.
Moment magazine quoted an anonymous rabbi who said: “The Slifkin ban is a huge break. It’s a kind of power struggle, and those who didn’t sign the ban are outraged right now. I’m talking about rabbis with long white beards who are furious about it...He’s saying out loud what a lot of people have been talking about quietly all along. To those people, he’s a kind of figurehead." 
Rabbi Aharon Feldman and Rabbi Shlomo Miller wrote articles in defense of the ban, and Rabbi Moshe Meiselman gave three lectures on this topic at Toras Moshe, although Rabbi Feldman grants that, even in the opinion of Rabbi Eliashiv, Slifkin "cannot be called a heretic" even though parts of the books are, in their view, heretical, because "he did follow, at least, a minority opinion."  These defenses of the ban were themselves controversial, and Rabbi Slifkin posted them all on his website, together with rebuttals written by various people. Rabbi Meiselman requested that Rabbi Slifkin remove the lectures from his website, a request to which Slifkin did not acquiesce.
On October 5, 2008, Slifkin published an essay entitled In Defense of My Opponents in which he acknowledges that there is a reasonable basis for a ban on his books in certain communities.
- Slifkin, Natan (May 12, 2005). "A General Response to the Condemnations of the Books". Zoo Torah.
- "The Opinion of the Gedolai Hador Shlita". Zoo Torah.
- Schroeder, Gerald. "According to a possible reading of ancient commentators' description of God and nature, the world may be simultaneously young and old". Aish haTorah.
- Rothenberg, Jennie (October 2005). "The Heresy of Nosson Slifkin". Moment Magazine.
- http://zootorah.org/controversy/SLIFKINARTICLE.doc (footnote 39)
- http://www.zootorah.com/controversy Rabbi Slifkin's website's section with the condemnations and responses.
- Slifkin, Natan. In Defense of My Opponents, October 5, 2008
- Zoo Torah - Slifkin's main project
- Rabbi Natan Slifkin's blog -- Rationalist Judaism
- Interview with Nosson Slifkin, http://www.zootorah.com/Reviews/mishpachah.html
- Controversy over Rabbi Slifkin's books
- A satire on the Slifkin Debate