|Founder||Big Jim Colosimo|
|Founding location||Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
|Territory||Chicago metropolitan area and other parts of Illinois. Other territories are in Nebraska, Indiana, Las Vegas, Florida and Southern California|
|Ethnicity||"Made men" are people of Italian descent, and other ethnicities as associates.|
|Membership||28 members, 100+ associates|
|Criminal activities||Racketeering, gun running, bribery, conspiracy, arson, burglary, coercion, labor racketeering, hijacking, loansharking, drug trafficking, fencing, fraud, money laundering, murder, illegal gambling, assault, battery, extortion, threats.|
|Allies||Five Families, Detroit, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Patriarca and Los Angeles crime families, and the Outlaws|
|Rivals||Various Chicago criminal groups that rivals it for power.|
The Chicago Outfit (or simply the Outfit), also known as the Chicago Mafia, Chicago Mob, or Capone Mob, is an Italian American crime syndicate based in Chicago, Illinois. Dating back to the 1910s, it is part of the American Mafia. Originating in South Side Chicago, the Outfit rose to power in the 1920s under the control of Johnny Torrio and Al Capone, and the period was marked by bloody gang wars for distribution of illegal alcohol during Prohibition. Since then, the Outfit has been involved in a wide range of criminal activities including loansharking, gambling, prostitution, extortion, political corruption, and murder. Following Capone's conviction for income tax evasion, the Outfit was run by Paul Ricca and Tony Accardo for over 60 years.
Although the Outfit did not have a monopoly on organized crime in Chicago, they were by far the biggest criminal organization in the Midwestern United States. The Outfit's control at its peak reached throughout the western and eastern United States to places as far away as California and Florida. Higher law enforcement attention and general attrition led to the Outfit's gradual decline since the late 20th century. The Chicago Outfit is currently believed to be led by John DiFronzo.
- 1 History
- 2 Historical leadership
- 3 Current family members
- 4 Government informants and witnesses
- 5 Outfit associates
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The early years of organized crime in Chicago in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were marked by the division of various street gangs controlling the South Side and North Side as well as the Black Hand organizations of Little Italy.
Big Jim Colosimo centralized control in the early 20th century. Colosimo was born in Calabria, Italy, in 1877, emigrating to Chicago in 1895, where he established himself as a criminal. By 1909 he was successful enough that he was encroaching on the criminal activity of the Black Hand organization. Since its founding, the Chicago Outfit has been operating in order to keep and expand its status and profit throughout the Chicago area, among others.
His expanding organization required the procurement of extra muscle. This came in the form of Colosimo's nephew Johnny Torrio from New York. In 1919, Torrio brought in Al Capone, thus providing Capone's entrance to Chicago. In time, Colosimo and Torrio had a falling out over Torrio's insistence that they expand into rum-running, which Colosimo staunchly opposed. In 1920, Colosimo was killed on Torrio's order. Torrio reportedly brought in New York colleague, Frankie Yale, to murder Colosimo. Al Capone has also been suspected as Colosimo's assassin.
Torrio brought together different parts of Chicago criminal activity, with a lasting effect on Chicago in general, and Chicago crime in particular.
Al Capone's empire
During the Prohibition era, its leader Johnny Torrio, competed with other gangsters like Dean O'Banion for the bootlegging business and was involved in other rivalries. Because of this, there appears to have been a business and personal rivalry between the North Side (North Side Mob) and South Side Chicago gangs. Al Capone, Torrio's right-hand man, headed the southern and George Moran, the northern. There also appeared to have been cultural differences between the two sides, since the North Siders were more Irish-American and the South Siders were more Italian-American.
Severely injured in an assassination attempt by the North Side Mob in January 1925, the shaken Torrio returned to Italy and handed over control of the business to Capone. Capone was notorious during Prohibition for his control of the Chicago underworld and his bitter rivalries with gangsters such as George "Bugs" Moran and Earl "Hymie" Weiss. Raking in vast amounts of money (some estimates were that between 1925 and 1930 Capone was making $100 million a year), the Chicago kingpin was largely immune to prosecution because of witness intimidation and the bribing of city officials. The Chicago Outfit under Al Capone's leadership was certainly one of the most dangerous gangs in the world. In the 1930s, Al Capone and his successor, Frank Nitti, developed the Outfit rapidly in all the surrounding areas.
One of the prime areas of interest was in Canada, the main source of alcohol which the Outfit was smuggling into the States. This illicit alcohol was then distributed to all the "titty bars" (brothels) of Chicago. During prohibition, this was one of the greatest sources of income for the Outfit. The Outfit, as established by Capone, functioned on relationships with a high degree of trust between the gangsters and the "boss of bosses".
The Boss controlled the heads of various divisions of the outfit through a system of informants placed throughout the various levels of the organization. Anyone who betrayed the honor of the organization was executed. Among the most active representatives of the Al Capone Outfit were "Happy Memories" DeLuca (assets in Illinois and Wisconsin), Bob Calandra (Ontario), Vince DeLuca, Tom Ciampelletti (Montreal) and Frank Nitti, who acted as intermediary between Al Capone, the Boss, and the other gangsters. Frankie La Porte and Ross Prio out of Chicago Heights, carried some heavy weight with Capone organizing his gang into an empire. Frankie La Porte, being Sicilian and having the ability to work in confidence with New York gangsters Joe Bonanno and Charles "Lucky" Luciano, who were also Sicilian, is believed to have been Capone's connection to the Commission. The conflict who the others gang led to numerous crimes, such as the St. Valentine's Day Massacre and numerous drive-by shootings resulting in the death of George Moran's associates and others on both sides. The Tommy gun was a trademark weapon for drive-bys.
While Al Capone was in charge of the Chicago Outfit it has been reported that some members of organization would take the train from Chicago to Wabash County, Illinois and stay at a remote hotel called the Grand Rapids Hotel on the Wabash River next to the Grand Rapids Dam. The hotel was only in existence for nine years but many residents of the area remember seeing men who claimed to be from the Chicago Outfit at the Grand Rapids Hotel. Suspiciously, the Grand Rapids Hotel was burned down by a man with one leg who dropped a blowtorch.
From Nitti through Accardo
After Capone was jailed for tax evasion, his hand-picked successor, Frank Nitti, a former barber and small-time jewelry thief, only nominally assumed power. In truth, power was seized by Nitti's underboss, Paul Ricca, who was acknowledged as "boss" by the leaders of the growing National Crime Syndicate. Ricca would rule the Outfit, either in name or in fact, for the next 40 years.
Over the next decade, The Outfit moved into labor racketeering, gambling, and loan sharking. Geographically, this was the period when Outfit muscle extended its tendrils to Milwaukee and Madison, Wisconsin, Kansas City, and especially to Hollywood and other California cities, where The Outfit's extortion of labor unions gave it leverage over the motion picture industry.
In the early 1940s, a handful of top Outfit leaders went to prison because they were found to be extorting Hollywood by controlling the unions that compose Hollywood's movie industry, and the manipulation and misuse of the Teamsters Central States Pension fund. There were also allegations that The Outfit was involved in strong-arm tactics and voter fraud at polling places, under Salvatore Giancana in the 1960 presidential election. In 1943, the Outfit was caught red-handed shaking down the Hollywood movie industry. Ricca wanted Nitti to take the fall. However, Nitti had found, years earlier while in jail for 18 months (for tax evasion), that he was claustrophobic, and he decided to end his life rather than face more imprisonment for extorting Hollywood. Ricca then became the boss in name as well as in fact, with enforcement chief Tony Accardo as underboss—the start of a partnership that would last for almost 30 years. Around this time, the Outfit began bringing in members of the Forty-Two Gang, a notoriously violent youth gang. Among them were Sam "Momo" Giancana, Sam "Mad Sam" DeStefano, Felix "Milwaukee Phil" Alderisio and Fiore "Fifi" Buccieri.
However, later in 1943, following the "Hollywood Scandal" trial, Ricca was sent to prison for his part in The Outfit plot to control Hollywood. He, along with a number of other mobsters, was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Through the "magic" of political connections, the whole group of Outfit mobsters was released after three years, largely due to the efforts of Outfit "fixer" Murray "The Camel" Humphreys. As a condition of his parole, Ricca could not associate with mobsters. Accardo nominally took power as boss, but actually shared power with Ricca, who continued behind the scenes as a senior consultant—one of the few instances of shared power in organized crime.
Accardo joined Ricca in semi-retirement in 1957 due to some "heat" he was getting from the IRS. From then on, Ricca and Accardo allowed several others, such as Giancana, Alderisio, Joey Aiuppa, William "Willie Potatoes" Daddano and Jackie "the Lackey" Cerone to nominally serve as boss. Most of the front bosses originated from the Forty-Two Gang. However, no major business transactions, and certainly no "hits," took place without Ricca and Accardo's knowledge and approval. By staying behind the scenes, Ricca and Accardo lasted far longer than Capone. Ricca died in 1972, leaving Accardo as the sole power behind the throne.
Along with the voting allegations, The Outfit was involved in a Central Intelligence Agency-Mafia collusion during Castro's overthrow of the Cuban government. In exchange for its help, the Outfit was to be given access to its former casinos if it helped overthrow Fidel Castro in (Operation Mongoose or Operation Family Jewels). Having failed in that endeavor, and facing increasing indictments under the administration of President John F. Kennedy (JFK), the Outfit is the subject of conspiracy theories regarding the JFK assassination and that of JFK's brother Robert Kennedy.
The Outfit reached the height of its power in the early 1960s. With the aid of Meyer Lansky, Accardo used the Teamsters pension fund to engage in massive money laundering through the Outfit's casinos, aided by the likes of Sidney Korshak and Jimmy Hoffa. The 1970s and 1980s were a hard time for the Outfit, as law enforcement continued to penetrate the organization, spurred by poll-watching politicians. Off-track betting reduced bookmaking profits and illicit casinos withered under competition from legitimate casinos. Replacement activities like auto theft and professional sports betting did not replace the lost profits. The Outfit controlled casinos in Las Vegas and "skimmed" millions of dollars over the course of several decades. Most recently, top mob figures have been found guilty of crimes dating back to as early as the mid-1960s. It has been rumored that the $2 million skimmed from the casinos in the Court case of 1986 was used to build the Old Neighborhood Italian American Club, the founder of which was Angelo J. "The Hook" LaPietra.
Operation PENDORF (codenamed for penetrate Allen Dorfman) and the "Strawman" case ended the Outfit's skimming and control of their Las Vegas casinos. These events are fictionalized in the film Casino.
Operation GAMBAT proved to be a crippling blow to the Outfit's tight grip on the Chicago Political Machine. Pat Marcy, a made man in the Outfit, ran the city's First Ward, which represented most of downtown Chicago. With the help of Alderman Fred Roti and Democratic Committeeman John D'Arco, Sr., close Outfit associates, Marcy and company controlled the circuit courts from the 1950s until the late 1980s. Together, the First Ward fixed cases involving everything from minor traffic violations to murder.
Attorney and First Ward associate Robert Cooley was one of the attorneys who represented many mafiosi and associates in which cases were fixed. As a trusted man within the First Ward, Cooley was approached and asked to take out a city police officer. Cooley, who was also an addicted gambler and in debt to certain undesirables, approached the U.S. Justice Department's Organized Crime Strike Force, declaring he wanted to "destroy Marcy and the First Ward."
Cooley was soon in touch with the FBI and began cooperating as a federal informant. Through the years, Cooley kept close with Marcy and the big shots of the First Ward. He wore a wire, recording valuable conversations at the notorious "First Ward Table", located at "Counselor's Row" across the street from Chicago City Hall. The results in Operation Gambat (Gambling Attorney) were convictions of 24 corrupt judges, lawyers, and cops.
Accardo died in 1992. In a measure of how successfully he'd managed to stay out of the limelight, he never spent a day in jail (or only spent one day, depending on the source) despite an arrest record dating to 1922. Compared to how organized crime leadership transitions take place in New York City, Chicago's transition from Accardo to the next generation of Outfit bosses has been more of an administrative change than a power struggle.
Higher law enforcement investigations and general attrition led to the Outfit's gradual decline since the late 20th century. The Old Neighborhood Italian American Club is considered to be hangout of Old Timers, as they live out their golden years. The Club's founder was Angelo J. LaPietra "The Hook", who at the time of his death in 1999 was the main Council. On April 25, 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice launched Operation Family Secrets, which indicted 14 Outfit members and associates under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). U.S. District Court Judge James Zagel presided over the Family Secrets trial. The federal prosecutors were Mitchell A. Mars, T. Markus Funk, and John Scully.
As of 2007, the Outfit's size is estimated to be 28 official members (composing its core group) and over 100 associates. Other references report that the Outfit has around 50-60 made members, and then more associates. The Chicago Outfit is currently believed to be led by John DiFronzo.
- 1910–1920 — Giacomo "Big Jim" Colosimo — murdered in 1920.
- 1920–1925 — John "Papa Johnny" Torrio — retired in 1925.
- 1925–1931 — Alphonse "Scarface Al" Capone — imprisoned in 1931, deceased in 1947.
- 1931–1947 — Paul "The Waiter" Ricca — stepped down in 1947, deceased in 1972.
- 1947–1992 — Tony "Joe Batters" Accardo — died of natural causes in 1992.
- 1992-1996 — Samuel "Sam Wings" Carlisi — arrested in 1996, deceased in 1997.
- 1996–present — John "No Nose" DiFronzo
Street boss (front boss)
The position of "front boss" was created by boss Paul Ricca in efforts to divert law enforcement attention from himself. The family maintained this "front boss" deception for the next 60 years.
- 1931–1943 — Frank "The Enforcer" Nitti — imprisoned and committed suicide in 1943.
- 1957–1966 — Salvatore "Mooney Sam","MoMo" Giancana — fled in Mexico in 1966, murdered in 1975.
- 1966–1967 — Samuel "Teets" Battaglia — arrested in 1967, deceased in 1973.
- 1967–1971 — Felix "Milwaukee Phil" Alderisio — imprisoned in 1967-1969, deceased in 1971.
- 1971–1986 — Joseph "Joey Doves" Aiuppa — imprisoned in 1986, deceased in 1997.
- 1986–1989 — Joseph "Joe Nagall" Ferriola — deceased for natural causes in 1989.
- 1989–1992 — Samuel "Sam Wings" Carlisi — became official boss in 1992.
- 1996-2007 — James "Jimmy the Man" Marcello — sentenced in 2007, imprisoned for life in 2009.
- 1910-1920 — John "Papa Johnny" Torrio — became boss in 1920.
- 1920–1925 — Alphonse "Scarface Al" Capone — became boss in 1925.
- 1925-1931 — Frank "The Enforcer" Nitti — became "front boss" in 1931.
- 1931-1943 — Louis "Little New York" Campagna — arrested in 1943, deceased in 1955.
- 1943–1947 — Tony "Joe Batters" Accardo — became boss in 1947.
- 1947-1957 — Salvatore "Mooney Sam" Giancana — became "front boss" in 1957, murdered in 1975.
- 1957-1967 — Felix "Milwaukee Phil" Alderisio — imprisoned in 1967-1969, deceased in 1971.
- 1967-1986 — John "Jackie the Lackey" Cerone — imprisoned in 1986, deceased in 1996.
- 1986-1992 — Ernest "Rocky" Infelise — arrested in 1992, deceased in 2005.
- 1992-1996 — James "Jimmy the Man" Marcello — became front boss in 1996.
- 1996-2006 — Anthony "Little Tony" Zizzo — disappeared and probably murdered in 2006.
- 2006–present — Joseph "Joe the Builder" Andriacchi
- 1925-1928 — Antonio "Tony the Scourge" Lombardo — murdered in 1928.
- 1928-1947 — Charles "Trigger Happy" Fischetti — retired in 1947, deceased in 1951.
- 1947-1957 — Paul "The Waiter" Ricca — retired in 1957, deceased in 1972.
- 1957-1992 — Tony "Joe Batters" Accardo — deceased for natural causes in 1992.
- 1992-1999 — Angelo J. LaPietra — deceased for natural causes in 1999.
- 1999-2007 — Joseph "Joey the Clown" Lombardo — sentenced in 2007, imprisoned for life in 2009.
- 2007-2009 - Alfonso "Al the Pizza Man" Tornabene — deceased in 2009.
- 2009–present - Marco "The Mover" D'Amico
Current family members
- John "Pudgy" Matassa Jr. and Anthony Maggio — capos of Melrose Park-based crew, Matassa was involved in the Operation Family Secrets.
- Frank "Tootsie" Caruso — son of Frank T. Caruso, deceased gambling racketeer and capo of the Outfit. Caruso controls the South Side crew.
- Robert "Bobby the Boxer" Salerno — Salerno was a former boxing trainer who knew Ernie Terrell very well. In 1995, he was sentenced to life in prison for murder, which he stated he didn't do.
- Nicholas "Nick" Ferriola — he was sentenced for three years in federal prison for his role in the Family Secrets case. Ferriola is also involved in bookmaking all over Chicago.
- Michael "Handsome Mike" Talerico — he is related Angelo LaPietra, and was a small-time bookie. Talerico was also once married to former Chicago Outfit hitman Frank Schweihs's daughter.
- Richard "Richie the Cat" Catazone — during the 1980s, he was involved in an Outfit gambling operation, which included former Cincinnati Reds manager, Pete Rose.
- Michael "Big Mike" Spano — Spano and his father Sr. had great influence in Cicero, Illinois and controlled the town after Rocky Infelice was convicted during the 1990s.
- Salvatore DeLaurentis ("Solly D") - He was sentenced to 18 years in federal prison after he was convicted under racketeering, extortion, and tax fraud.
- Peter Difronzo - Brother of John "No Nose" Difronzo.
Government informants and witnesses
|Name||Rank and Year|
|William Morris Bioff||associate (1943)|
|Ken Eto||associate (1983)|
|Robert Cooley||associate (1986)|
|Leonard Patrick||associate (1992)|
|Nicholas Calabrese||captain (2007)|
Richard Cain turned informant in 1971, but he didn't become a witness, because he was murdered in 1973 after the discovery of his pact with the authorities.
The Outfit is notable for having had other ethnic groups besides Italians as high ranking associates since the family's earliest days. A prime example of this was Jake "Greasy Thumb" Guzik, who was the top "bagman" and "accountant" for decades until his death. He was a Polish Jew. Others were Murray Humphreys, who was of Welsh descent, and Ken Eto (aka Tokyo Joe), who was Japanese-American. The Outfit also had Michael J. Corbitt, who was a police officer.
In popular culture
The Chicago Outfit has a long history of portrayal in Hollywood as the subject of film and television.
- Scarface (1932)
- Chicago Syndicate (1955)
- The Scarface Mob (Television Film, 1959)
- The St. Valentine's Day Massacre (1967)
- Bullitt (1968)
- The Outfit (1973)
- Thief (1981)
- The Untouchables (1987)
- The Firm (1993)
- Casino (1995)
- Payback (1999)
- Road to Perdition (2002)
- Public Enemies (2009)
- The Untouchables (1959–63)
- The F.B.I. (1965–1974)
- Crime Story (1986–1988)
- The Untouchables (1993–1994)
- The Simpsons episode "Viva Ned Flanders" (mentioned by a Las Vegas wedding chapel officiant as investing him with the power to perform weddings) (1999)
- Prison Break (2005–2009)
- The Firm (2012)
- Mob Wives: Chicago (2012)
- The Mob Doctor (2012–2013)
- Boardwalk Empire (2010–2014)
- Joe Aiello - rival to Al Capone during Prohibition-Era, Aiello was also allied to Salvatore Maranzano during the Castellammarese War 
- North Side Gang - a rival gang to Al Capone
- Hired Truck Program scandal
- Organized Crime in Chicago
- Unione Siciliane
- Grand Rapids Hotel
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- Binder, John. The Chicago Outfit. Arcadia Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7385-2326-7
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- Russo, Gus. The Outfit: The Role of Chicago's Underworld in the Shaping of Modern America, Bloomsbury USA, 2002. ISBN 1-58234-279-2
- Mark Lombardi: Global Networks. Mark Lombardi, Robert Carleton Hobbs, Judith Richards; Independent Curators, 2003. (published for the traveling exhibition of his work, "Mark Lombardi Global Networks"). ISBN 0-916365-67-0
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