The Cincinnati Post

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The Cincinnati Post
The Kentucky Post
The Cincinnati Post The Kentucky Post
The Cincinnati Post, Farewell Edition.jpg
"Farewell Edition" (last issue) of the Post
Type Defunct
Format Berliner
Owner(s) E. W. Scripps Company
(Scripps-Howard Newspapers)
Editor Mike Philipps
Staff writers 52[1][2]
Founded January 3, 1881
Language English
Ceased publication December 31, 2007
Headquarters 125 E. Court St.
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
United States
Circulation 27,000 (as of 2007[2])
OCLC number 51645668
Website KYPost.com
Country United States
City Cincinnati, Ohio

The Cincinnati Post was an afternoon daily newspaper published in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. It was distributed in Northern Kentucky as The Kentucky Post. The Post was a founding publication and onetime flagship of the E. W. Scripps Company. For much of its history, the Post was the most widely read paper in the Cincinnati market. Its readership was concentrated on the West Side of Cincinnati, as well as in Northern Kentucky, where it was considered the newspaper of record.[3] It published weekday afternoons and Saturday mornings but not on Sundays, in keeping with Scripps tradition.[4][5]

The Post began publishing in 1881 and launched its Northern Kentucky edition in 1890. It acquired The Cincinnati Times-Star in 1958. The Post ceased publication at the end of 2007, after 30 years in a joint operating agreement with The Cincinnati Enquirer.

The Post was known throughout its history for investigative journalism and focus on local coverage.[6][7] As one of the first successful penny presses outside the East Coast,[8] the Post was written primarily for blue collar laborers who had no time to read a newspaper in the morning.[9][10] Its articles were written to be easily readable.[8] In its heyday, the paper consistently championed good governance and labor rights. Though the Post considered itself politically independent, it tended to support progressive politicians relative to the Times-Star and Enquirer.[4][7][11] However, by the early 1990s, the paper's political stance had become more conservative, "a grumpily conservative sigh of resentment" according to journalist William Greider.[9]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

The Penny Paper on May 16, 1881.

The Post began on January 3, 1881, as The Penny Paper,[12] published from a second floor office at Vine and Longworth streets. The publishers, Walter E. Wellman and his brother Frank,[13] hoped to emulate the success of the Cleveland Penny Press.[8] By March, they ran out of funds and took an investment from James E. Scripps and half-brother Edward Willis Scripps, who ran the Penny Press.[14] The paper moved to Home Street. In October, Walter Wellman was framed for blackmail in retaliation for exposés of policy racketeers and the police.[15] Wellman fled to Kentucky, where he was unlikely to face extradition, and left the Scripps brothers in charge of operations at "the blackmailing sheet".[16][17]

The Cincinnati Enquirer called the Penny Paper "a fair success" in its first year, estimating the upstart's circulation at about 6,000, fifth in a market served by seven papers in English and five in German.[18][19] E. W. Scripps estimated daily circulation at 7,000 in the city and 6,000 in the countryside, before countryside distribution was discontinued.

With an editorial staff that leaned Republican and included a former minister, the Penny Paper avoided the usual dispassionate approach to religious matters. When in 1882 the "Boy Preacher" Rev. Thomas Harrison held 13 weeks of camp meetings in Cincinnati, "the boy preacher and the little Penny [Paper] were vying with each other and cooperating with each other in the way of saving souls." The paper's circulation quickly quadrupled.[20][21]

On February 11, 1883, the paper was given a more distinctive name, The Penny Post.[22] In July, the Scripps family assumed full ownership of the company, with E. W. having a controlling interest.[23] It was the first paper that he had ever owned.[24] It became The Evening Post on October 11, 1883, and finally The Cincinnati Post on September 2, 1890.[25] On September 15, a Kentucky edition debuted with coverage of Covington, Newport, Bellevue, Dayton, and Ludlow by a dedicated staff in Covington. One year later, Scripps renamed it The Kentucky Post and began distributing it as a full-fledged publication wrapped around the Cincinnati paper at no additional charge.[7] The Kentucky Post soon put its sole rival, The Commonwealth, out of business.[26] By the time the local typographical union debuted its own penny paper, the News, in 1894, the Post had added such thorough coverage of labor relations that the News folded within two months.[27]

In 1894, E. W. Scripps and his half-brother George H. organized their various papers into the first modern newspaper chain. In July 1895, it was named the Scripps-McRae League with the addition of Post general manager Milton A. McRae as a partner.[28] By 1903, the Post boasted of leading all Cincinnati dailies with a sworn daily average circulation of 146,884.[29]

Crusader for reform[edit]

The October 23, 1905, issue of the Post reprinted a speech by War Secretary William Howard Taft attacking Boss Cox.

From its founding to 1930, the Post crusaded against bossism, aligning with the Democratic Party locally.[30] In 1883, it launched a campaign against Col. Tom C. Campbell, a Covington jury fixer and affiliate of George B. Cox of Cincinnati. Campbell responded by suing the paper for libel in front of a partially fixed jury. Amid threats from the Cox machine, the Post hired bodyguards for its editors and managers. Boss Campbell's regime ended with the courthouse riots of 1884. In 1889, Scripps put the Cincinnati Telegram, an afternoon competitor once run by Campbell, out of business by secretly financing its unsuccessful move to morning publication.[31][32][27] In 1904 and 1905, the Post directed its fire against Boss Cox himself, exposing graft and lampooning his affiliates with the help of cartoonist Homer Davenport.[31][1] The Post's afternoon competitor, the Taft-owned Times-Star, strongly supported Boss Cox.[33]

In 1904, at President Theodore Roosevelt's suggestion, the Post became the first newspaper in the country to endorse William Howard Taft for President in 1908. Corporate president Milton A. McRae had long been a supporter of the Cincinnati native, despite the Taft family owning the Times-Star and generally supporting the Cox machine. McRae secured the help of Times-Star editor Charles Phelps Taft in publicizing the editorial. The Post retracted its endorsement just before the 1908 election and by 1910 had resumed its attacks on President Taft and the Republican Party.[34][11][35]

The Post's frequent reports of collusion would at times decimate advertising revenue but, on the other hand, would prove immensely popular with readers, so that the paper always turned a profit.[36][37] The Post's role in a 1905 Democratic mayoral victory led some advertisers to boycott the paper for up to a decade, and its valuation fell by half.[38] The paper habitually refused advertisements attacking labor unions, such as those by Postum Cereals in 1905.[39] In 1914, the Post weathered a severe drop in advertising after it exposed a scheme to extend the franchises of the local utilities and sided with striking streetcar workers.[40] Still, disappointed that the Post's advertising business always pressured the paper to moderate its investigative reporting, E. W. Scripps founded the Chicago Day Book in 1911 as an experimental daily paper entirely devoid of advertising. The Day Book folded in 1917.[37]

In 1924, the Post was the only Cincinnati daily that endorsed a new municipal charter based on the council–manager system, nonpartisan elections, and proportional representation. The enactment of this charter the following year propelled the Charter Committee to power and led to the demise of political machines in Cincinnati.[4] In 1936, the Post backed the nonpartisan movement as it expanded to the Hamilton County government.[38] In 1947, the Post successfully defended the proportional representation system against a campaign by Charles P. Taft to repeal it.[41]

Consolidation[edit]

In October 1935, parent company Scripps-Howard Newspapers purchased AM station WFBE 1230, changing its callsign to WCPO, which stands for "Cincinnati Post".[42] The station's news bulletins originated from a broom closet adjacent to the Post city room.[43] WCPO-TV signed on the air on July 26, 1949.[44]

By the late 1940s, sales of The Cincinnati Enquirer, Cincinnati's remaining daily, had boomed, fueled in part by the success of its Sunday morning monopoly; meanwhile, the Post and especially The Cincinnati Times-Star faced a declining afternoon market. In 1948 and 1949, lawyers for Scripps-Howard and The Times-Star Company discussed the possibility of jointly publishing a Sunday morning edition called the Times-Post. The two companies determined that they would be safe from Sherman Act investigations, which were rare in the newspaper industry; however, they eventually scrapped the idea for fear that the Enquirer would sue them for any losses. Another factor was the difficulty of establishing a Sunday carrier system.[45]

On April 26, 1956, Scripps-Howard purchased a 36.5% controlling interest in the Enquirer for $4,059,000, beating out The Times-Star Company and Tribune Publishing by far.[46][47] Then, on July 20, 1958, Scripps also acquired the Times-Star, folding the afternoon paper into the Post.[48][49] Only three Times-Star reporters were retained.[50] The combined paper, which operated out of the majestic Cincinnati Times-Star Building, would be published under the name The Cincinnati Post and Times-Star until December 31, 1974, when it reverted to The Cincinnati Post.[51] During this time, the paper's editorial position was reliably conservative.[52]

The Post published from the Times-Star Building from 1958 to 1984.[51] American Financial, the Enquirer's corporate parent, purchased the building in 1975.[53]

Combined Cincinnati Post and Kentucky Post circulation peaked at 275,000 in 1961,[2] including nearly 60,000 for the Northern Kentucky paper.[7] In 1968, the Post had 50,000 more daily subscriptions than the Enquirer.[53] In the 1960s, the Kentucky Post dominated the newspaper market in 12 Kentucky counties.[7]

With the Times-Star and Enquirer acquisitions, the Scripps family owned all of Cincinnati's dailies, along with WCPO-AM and WCPO-TV,[54] which consistently led local television ratings with Al Schottelkotte's news reports.[55] The E. W. Scripps Company operated the Enquirer at arm's length, even omitting the Scripps lighthouse logo from the Enquirer's nameplate. Nevertheless, the United States Department of Justice filed an antitrust suit against the company in 1964.[56] In 1968, Scripps entered into a consent decree to sell the Enquirer. It was sold to Carl Lindner, Jr.'s American Financial Corporation on February 20, 1971.[57]

Joint operating agreement[edit]

On September 22, 1977, the Post signed a joint operating agreement (JOA) with The Cincinnati Enquirer.[58] For two years, the Post had secretly negotiated the terms of the JOA with the Enquirer while securing concessions from labor unions. The two papers petitioned the Justice Department for an antitrust exemption under the Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970. This was the second JOA application under the Newspaper Preservation Act; the first, involving the Anchorage Daily News and Anchorage Times, was summarily approved but already seen as a failure.[53]

At Justice Department hearings, the Post claimed to be the brink of financial failure, with losses over the previous six years totaling $12 million. Scripps-Howard argued that the JOA would preserve a second editorial voice in Cincinnati, a "no-growth market". However, Post employees and suburban newspaper publishers accused the Post of producing artificial losses in an attempt to secure expected profits from a JOA.[53][59] Scripps-Howard rejected an informal offer by Larry Flynt to help fund a takeover of the Post by its employees instead of signing the JOA.[11] Post coverage of the proceedings was limited to a single Saturday article, in contrast to multiple reports published in the Enquirer.[53]

The EnquirerPost agreement was approved on November 26, 1979,[60] taking effect after negotiations and legal battles with unions, including with 131 Post printers who had been guaranteed jobs for life.[53] As the more viable paper, the Enquirer received an 80% stake in the business and handled all business functions of both papers, including printing, distribution, and selling advertising.[61] The Post forwent Sunday publishing, a major advantage the Enquirer had over the Post. The Post eliminated 500 of 600 jobs as a result of the agreement.[53]

On November 1, 1996, the Post launched its website, @The Post. Due to the JOA, it launched concurrently with the Enquirer's site, Enquirer.com. Classified advertising appeared on a shared website, GoCincinnati!,[62] which also offered Internet access subscriptions. Both papers' websites moved to Cincinnati.com in August 1998.

On April 10, 2000, the Enquirer and Post downsized from the traditional broadsheet format to the Berliner format.[63]

Decline and closure[edit]

In a pattern seen throughout the industry, the Post declined severely during the 30-year term of the JOA, particularly during the 1980s.[64] In 1977, when the agreement was announced, the Post had a daily circulation of 195,000,[61] more than the Enquirer,[53] but by September 2003, the Post's daily circulation had fallen to 42,219, or 23% of the Enquirer's 182,176.[58] By this time, the Post had shifted its focus to the Kentucky edition, and sister station WCPO-TV more often partnered with the Enquirer than with the Post.[65]

In January 2004, the Enquirer informed the Post of its intention to let the JOA expire on December 31, 2007.[58][66] That spring, the Post ended distribution in the northern suburbs in Butler and Warren counties to concentrate on Hamilton County and its Northern Kentucky edition. Also that year, political cartoonist Jeff Stahler left the Post for The Columbus Dispatch. In June 2005, the Post closed its Kentucky newsroom and announced early retirement offers to employees in advance of its probable closure. These changes resulted in profits of $23.5 million in 2005 and $20.7 million the following year.[61]

In 2006, the Post ended its 115-year practice of bundling the Cincinnati Post inside the Kentucky Post. By then, the Kentucky paper had eclipsed its Cincinnati counterpart in circulation, despite the Enquirer limiting distribution to certain parts of three Northern Kentucky counties.[7]

By 2007, the paper employed only 52 newsroom staff,[1] while its circulation had declined to 27,000,[2][67] an estimated four percent of local households.[68] On July 17, parent company E. W. Scripps confirmed that both The Cincinnati Post and The Kentucky Post would cease publication on the day of the JOA's expiration.[69]

The Post published its final print edition on December 31, 2007.[19] The commemorative "Farewell Edition" led with the headline "–30–", meaning "the end" in newsroom jargon.[70] About 30 Enquirer employees assigned to Post operations lost their jobs.[71] At a farewell party in the Post newsroom, a band played for the first time the "Cincinnati Post March",[70] which was composed by John N. Klohr and Frank Simon in 1931 for the paper's 50th anniversary.[72]

The Post came to an end due to a number of factors, including the end of the joint operating agreement, a 75% decrease in readership, and decreasing advertising revenues.[4] However, some Post employees faulted the Enquirer for neglecting its partner, citing empty or outdated newsboxes[61] and uncooperative subscription agents.[4]

Legacy[edit]

The day after the Post's closure, Scripps launched KYPost.com as a Northern Kentucky news website to compete with Enquirer sister site NKY.com. A dedicated staff embedded in WCPO-TV's newsroom supplemented content from WCPO.com.[73] In 2009, the website had two staff members plus interns.[74] In 2013, KYPost.com began redirecting visitors to WCPO.com.

WCPO-TV replaced the Post as sponsor of the local qualification round of the Scripps National Spelling Bee.[75]

A 2009 study attempted to measure the impact of the Post's closure on the political process in Northern Kentucky, a traditional stronghold for the paper. It concluded that the closure caused an initial short-term decline in political competition and voter turnout, despite the Post having low circulation in its final years.[67]

Archives of Post articles from 1990 to 2007 are available online via NewsBank.[76][77]

Notable former employees[edit]

The city copy desk in 1907[78] or 1910. O. O. McIntyre is shown seated at 1 o'clock.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rutledge, Mike (December 30, 2007). "A voice is stilled". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). 
  2. ^ a b c d Driehaus, Bob (December 31, 2007). "In Cincinnati, a 126-Year-Old Paper Goes to Press for the Last Time". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  3. ^ Chandler, A. B. III; Emerson, Thomas R. (March 24, 1997). "In re: Theodore Steward/City of Walton". Office of the Attorney General of Kentucky. Retrieved November 28, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Osborne, Kevin (February 21, 2007). "The Light Dims". Cincinnati CityBeat. 
  5. ^ "The Cincinnati Post, The Kentucky Post". The E. W. Scripps Company. Archived from the original on October 20, 2006. 
  6. ^ Sewell, Dan (December 31, 2007). "Post newspapers close after 126 years". USA Today (Gannett Company). Associated Press. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Philipps, Mike (October 29, 2009). "Kentucky Post". The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. pp. 513–515. ISBN 978-0-8131-2565-7 – via Issuu. 
  8. ^ a b c Stevens 1969, p. 207.
  9. ^ a b c Greider, William (1992). Who Will Tell The People: The Betrayal Of American Democracy. New York City: Simon & Schuster. pp. 291–293. ISBN 0-671-68891-X. 
  10. ^ Crowley, Pat (December 30, 2007). "Post can't be forgotten". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). Retrieved November 29, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d Rutledge, Mike (December 30, 2007). "Some little-known facts about the Cincinnati Post". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  12. ^ About The penny paper. (Cincinnati Ohio) 1881–1882
  13. ^ Scripps (1926) and Philipps (2009) give the name of Walter Wellman's brother as Albert, but most sources, including Stevens (1969), give his name as Frank E. Wellman.
  14. ^ Scripps 1926, p. 161.
  15. ^ "Penny Paper: It Falls a Victim to the Cunning of Detectives, And Its Editors Arrested on the Charge of Black-Mail". The Cincinnati Enquirer 39 (281). October 8, 1881. p. 4. (subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ Scripps 1926, p. 162.
  17. ^ McRae 1924, p. 39.
  18. ^ "A Word About the Enquirer". The Cincinnati Enquirer 39 (293). October 20, 1881. p. 4. (subscription required (help)). 
  19. ^ a b Winternitz, Felix; Bellman, Sacha DeVroomen (November 18, 2008). Insiders' Guide to Cincinnati (7th ed.). Globe Pequot Press. p. 381. ISBN 0-7627-4180-5. ISSN 1527-1188. Retrieved August 1, 2013. 
  20. ^ Scripps 1926, pp. 177–178.
  21. ^ "The Revival in Cincinnati: The Results of the Religious Awakening Started by the 'Boy Preacher'". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). April 18, 1882. 
  22. ^ McRae 1924, p. 40.
  23. ^ Stevens 1969, p. 209.
  24. ^ Scripps 1926, p. 165.
  25. ^ Stevens 1969, pp. 211–212.
  26. ^ McRae 1924, pp. 64–65.
  27. ^ a b Baldasty 1999, pp. 83–84.
  28. ^ McRae 1924, p. 119.
  29. ^ Haarmayer, H. O. (August 5, 1903). "In Cincinnati". Printer's Ink 45: 34 – via Google Books. 
  30. ^ Stevens 1969, p. 215.
  31. ^ a b McRae 1924, pp. 41–45.
  32. ^ McRae 1924, pp. 72–73.
  33. ^ Miller, Zane L. (2000). Boss Cox's Cincinnati: Urban Politics in the Progressive Era. Ohio State University Press. pp. 183–187 – via Google Books. 
  34. ^ Stevens 1969, pp. 213–215.
  35. ^ McRae 1924, pp. 53–57.
  36. ^ Scripps 1926, p. 183.
  37. ^ a b Stoltzfus, Duane C. S. (2007). Freedom from Advertising: E.W. Scripps's Chicago Experiment. Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 0-252-03115-6 – via Google Books. 
  38. ^ a b Stevens 1969, pp. 215–216.
  39. ^ Baldasty 1999, p. 97.
  40. ^ Russell, Charles Edward (May 1914). "How Business Controls News". Pearson's Magazine 31 (6): 552–554 – via Google Books. 
  41. ^ "Cincinnati to Vote on PR; Issue on Keeping Voting System Overshadows Council Race". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). November 2, 1947. p. 4. 
  42. ^ Martini, Michael A. (2011). Cincinnati Radio. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7385-8864-3. 
  43. ^ Wood, Mary (July 1990). "Mort's Machine". Cincinnati (CM Media) 23 (10): 33 – via Google Books. 
  44. ^ Friedman, Jim (2007). Cincinnati Television. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7385-5169-2. 
  45. ^ Taft 1960, pp. 261–263.
  46. ^ "36% of Cincinnati Enquirer Stock Sold to Affiliate of Scripps Chain; Chicago Investment House Accepts Its Offer of $4,059,000 for Debentures—Two Other Papers Also Bid". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Associated Press. April 27, 1956. 
  47. ^ Taft 1960, pp. 270–274.
  48. ^ "The Press: Death of the Times-Star". Time. August 4, 1958. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  49. ^ "Cincinnati Times-Star Is Sold And Merged With Scripps' Post". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Associated Press. July 21, 1958. 
  50. ^ a b Andrew, Karen (January 16, 2003). "Obituary: Reds writer Earl Lawson, 79". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). Retrieved November 30, 2014. 
  51. ^ a b Suess, Jeff (January 13, 2013). "Did you know? Times-Star Building is news icon". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). Retrieved January 20, 2013. 
  52. ^ Stevens 1969, p. 221.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h Dillehay, Whayne (October 1978). "How To Succeed In Newspapering Without Really Trying". Cincinnati (Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce) 12 (1): 77–81, 123–127. 
  54. ^ Murtha, Lisa (November 8, 2014). "Scripps: Once, They Bought Ink by the Barrel". City Wise. Emmis Communications. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  55. ^ Horstman, Barry M. (March 22, 1999). "Al Schottelkotte: He set the pace for TV news". The Cincinnati Post (E. W. Scripps Company). Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. 
  56. ^ "Newspapers: Separation in Cincinnati". Time. October 11, 1968. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  57. ^ "Scripps O.K.'s Sale of Enquirer Control". Chicago Tribune 124 (31). United Press International. February 20, 1971. p. 2:7. 
  58. ^ a b c Peale, Cliff (January 17, 2004). "Post pact will expire". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  59. ^ Barnett, Stephen Roger (December 14, 1978). "Local Monopoly in the Newspaper Industry: Some Skepticism About Its Economic Inevitability and Governmental Embrace". Symposium on Media Concentration. Washington, D.C.: Federal Trade Commission (published 1979). p. 513 – via HathiTrust. 
  60. ^ "Joint Operation Backed For 2 Cincinnati Papers". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Associated Press. November 27, 1979. 
  61. ^ a b c d Driehaus, Bob (February 21, 2007). "Cover Story: The Deal That Changed Everything". Cincinnati CityBeat. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  62. ^ Brewer, Charles (October 27, 1996). "Most papers tiptoeing onto Internet". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). 
  63. ^ "News for the New Century". Cincinnati.com. Gannett Company. Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  64. ^ "Cincinnati's newspapers" (Adobe Flash). The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). December 12, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2014. 
  65. ^ Strupp, Joe (January 1, 2005). "Will Cincy Paper Find New Kentucky home?". Editor & Publisher (Duncan McIntosh Company). Retrieved November 30, 2014. 
  66. ^ "Newspaper JOA in Cincinnati will not be renewed after 2007" (Press release). E. W. Scripps Company. January 16, 2004. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. 
  67. ^ a b Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Garrido, Miguel (2009). "Do newspapers matter? Evidence from the closure of The Cincinnati Post". Discussion papers in economics (Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs) (236). hdl:10419/59031. 
  68. ^ "Cincinnati Post ceases publication; Ky. Web news site to launch". Cincinnati Business Courier (American City Business Journals). December 31, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  69. ^ "Local Post newspapers to fold at end of year". Cincinnati Business Courier (American City Business Journals). July 17, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  70. ^ a b Coolidge, Sharon (January 1, 2008). "For Post, one final edition". The Cincinnati Enquirer (Gannett Company). Retrieved November 18, 2014. 
  71. ^ "Enquirer workers to lose jobs in Post closing". Cincinnati Business Courier (American City Business Journals). October 23, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2014. 
  72. ^ Osborne, William (2004). Music in Ohio. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. pp. 462, 621. ISBN 0-87338-775-9 – via Google Books. 
  73. ^ Malone, Michael (February 22, 2008). "Paper Now a Station Site". Broadcasting & Cable (NewBay Media). Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  74. ^ "Blog draws in readers; boosts KyPost.com's hits" (Press release). E. W. Scripps Company. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 
  75. ^ "WCPO to sponsor local Scripps bee". Cincinnati Business Courier (American City Business Journals). August 16, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  76. ^ "America's Newspapers Title List". NewsBank. Retrieved November 28, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Newspapers" (PDF). Florida A&M University. August 28, 2012. p. 3. Retrieved November 28, 2014. 
  78. ^ Stevens 1969, p. 214.
  79. ^ a b Stevens 1969, p. 213.
  80. ^ Stevens 1969, p. 212.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]