The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

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The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina
Citadelcrest.jpg
Established 1842
Type Public university
Senior military college
Endowment $270 million[1]
President Lt Gen. John W. Rosa, Jr., USAF, Ret.
Students 3,350
Undergraduates 2,250 cadets
200 non-cadets (active duty, veteran and evening students)
Postgraduates 900 civilians
Location Charleston, SC, USA
32°47′50″N 79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111Coordinates: 32°47′50″N 79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111
Campus Urban, 300 acres (121 ha)
Colors Blue[2][3] and White         
Athletics NCAA Division ISoCon
Nickname Bulldogs
Mascot Spike and live mascots General and Boo V
Affiliations AASCU
Website www.citadel.edu

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly referred to simply as The Citadel, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina, United States. Founded in 1842, it is one of the six Senior Military Colleges in the United States. It has 17 academic departments divided into five schools offering 19 majors and 35 minors. The core day program consists of military cadets pursuing bachelor's degrees who are required to live on campus for all four years. The evening program, known as The Citadel Graduate College, includes a large postgraduate program, an on-line Masters Degree program and a small number of part-time students pursuing undergraduate degrees.[4] The Citadel is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.[5]

College overview[edit]

Cadet folding the US flag

The Citadel is a state military college which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. The South Carolina Corps of Cadets is one of the largest uniformed student bodies in the United States and the school is one of only two colleges where all full-time undergraduates are required to be cadets and participate in ROTC.[6] In addition to the cadet program, evening civilian programs are offered through the Citadel Graduate College with its undergraduate and graduate programs. The academic program is divided into five schools - Engineering, Science and Mathematics, Humanities and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Education; Bachelor's degrees are offered in 19 major programs of study and 36 minors. The graduate school offers 2 educational specialist courses, 16 master's degrees and 7 graduate certificates; a 2+2 evening program allows those with associate degrees from select community colleges to pursue bachelor's degrees in 4 subjects. 92% of the faculty hold doctoral degrees and the majority are full-time professors; the ratio of cadets to faculty is 13-1 and the average class size is 20.[7]

The Citadel enrolls 2,250 in its undergraduate Corps of Cadets and 900 civilian students in the evening programs; women comprise 7% of the Corps and minorities 14%. Approximately half of The Citadel's enrollment is from the state of South Carolina; cadets come from 45 states and 15 foreign countries.[8] South Carolina residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at state-sponsored schools. The Citadel receives 8% of its operating budget from the state.[9]

In 2013, the school's ROTC program commissioned 180 officers, more than any other senior military college and ranking only behind the service academies.[10][11][12][13]

All students, both cadets and civilian students, are eligible to compete on The Citadel's athletic teams. While all programs make use of the Citadel campus and professors, cadets and civilian students do not share classes and only cadets live on campus.[14][15] The exception to this is the veterans program, reinstated in the fall of 2007, which allows cadets who left The Citadel for active military duty to return as civilians, attend classes with cadets, and complete their degrees if certain criteria are met.[16] Enlisted members from the Marine Corps and Navy also attend cadet classes as part of a program to commission highly-qualified NCOs.[17]

The mission of The Citadel is:

to educate and develop our students to become principled leaders in all walks of life by instilling the core values of The Citadel in a disciplined and intellectually challenging environment. A unique feature of this environment for the South Carolina Corps of Cadets is the sense of camaraderie produced through teamwork and service to others while following a military lifestyle.[18]

History[edit]

The Citadel presidents
Captain William F. Graham, USA 1843–1844
Major Richard W. Colcock, USA 1844–1852
Major Francis W. Capers, CSA 1852–1859
Major Peter F. Stevens, SCM 1859–1861
Major James B. White, SCM 1861–1865
Colonel John P. Thomas, CSA 1882–1885
BrigGen George D. Johnston, CSA 1885–1890
Colonel Asbury Coward, CSA 1890–1908
Colonel Oliver J. Bond, SCM 1908–1931
General Charles P. Summerall, USA 1931–1953
Colonel Louis S. LeTellier, SCM 1953–1954 (Interim)
General Mark W. Clark, USA 1954–1965
General Hugh P. Harris, USA 1965–1970
MajGen James A. Duckett, SCM '32 1970–1974
LtGen George M. Seignious, USA '42 1974–1979
VADM James B. Stockdale, USN 1979–1980
MajGen James Grimsley, Jr., USA '42 1980–1989
LtGen Cladius E. Watts, USAF '58 1989–1996
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '59 1996–1997 (Interim)
MajGen John S. Grinalds, USMC 1997–2005
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '59 2005–2006 (Interim)
LtGen John W. Rosa, Jr., USAF '73 2006–present

Early history[edit]

In 1829 South Carolina constructed an arsenal on what is now Marion Square in downtown Charleston to house arms and ammunition. The State entered into an agreement with the War Department in 1830 for Federal troops from nearby Fort Moultrie to guard this new arsenal, state militia replaced them in 1832. Over the next 10 years arsenals throughout the state were consolidated in Charleston and Columbia, Governor John Richardson eventually proposed converting both into military academies and on December 20, 1842 the South Carolina Legislature passed "an Act to convert the Arsenal at Columbia and the citadel and magazine in and near Charleston, into Military Schools" thereby transforming the two state arsenals into the South Carolina Military Academy. The act specified:

That the students when admitted, shall be formed into a military corps, and shall constitute the public guard of the Arsenal at Columbia, and of the Citadel and Magazine in and near Charleston ... to guard effectually, the public arms and other property at the places aforsaid ...[19]

The first 20 cadets reported to the Citadel Academy at Marion Square in downtown Charleston on March 20, 1843, a date now celebrated as "Corps Day". Initially both schools operated as separate institutions governed by a common Board of Visitors, in 1845 the Arsenal Academy in Columbia became an auxiliary to the Citadel Academy in Charleston; first year students attended the Arsenal then transferred to the Citadel Academy to complete their education. Both schools continued to operate during the Civil War but the Arsenal in Columbia was burned by Union forces and never reopened.[20]

Mexican–American War[edit]

Citadel cadets and faculty members trained South Carolina's "Palmetto Regiment" for service in the Mexican–American War; 17 graduates and cadets fought with the unit which teamed with U.S. Marines to enter the famous "Halls of Montezuma" in Mexico City in 1847.[21] Lt. William J. Magill, a member of the first graduating class of 1846 was the first alumnus to serve in the U.S. Army and was a member of the 3d Dragoons under future President Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War.[22]:10

Civil War and aftermath[edit]

When South Carolina seceded from the Union in December 1860, Major Robert Anderson moved his garrison of U.S. troops to Fort Sumter and requested reinforcements from the federal government. On January 9, 1861, a battery on Morris Island manned by Citadel Academy cadets fired on the Federal steamer Star of the West, preventing it from reaching Fort Sumter with troops and supplies and thus firing what some consider the first shots of the Civil War.[23] Citadel cadets also manned several guns at "the battery" on Charleston harbor during the firing on Fort Sumter of April 12–13, 1861;[22]:23 The first shot of the bombardment is believed by many historians to have been fired by Second Lieutenant Henry S. Farley, Class of 1860.[24]

On January 28, 1861 the Corps of Cadets of The SC Military Academy was made part of the military organization of the state and named the Battalion of State Cadets. The Academy continued to operate as a military academy, but classes were often disrupted when the governor called the cadets into military service. Mounting and manning heavy guns, performing guard duty, providing security and escorting prisoners were among the services performed by the cadets. The Battalion of State Cadets participated in eight engagements during the Civil War. As a result of these actions, the flag of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets carries the following Confederate battle streamers:[25][26][27]:11

The old Citadel, Charleston in 1940.
  1. Confederate States Army
  2. Star of the West, January 9, 1861
  3. Wappoo Cut, November 1861
  4. James Island, June 1862
  5. Charleston and Vicinity, July–October 1863
  6. James Island, June 1864
  7. Tulifinny, December 1864
  8. James Island, December 1864-February 1865
  9. Williamston, May 1865

(The Confederate States Army streamer is gray embroided in silver and the remainder embroidered in blue)[26]

In early December, 1864 Governor Bonham ordered the Battalion of State Cadets to Tulifinny Creek near Yemassee, South Carolina to join a small Confederate force defending the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. On December 7 and 9 the entire Corps of Cadets fought a much larger Union force (including a contingent of U.S. Marines), successfully defending the rail line and forcing the Union troops to withdraw; the cadets suffered eight casualties including one killed and they were commended for their display of discipline and gallantry under fire winning the admiration of the veteran troops who fought with them. This battle is the only occasion when the entire student body of a U.S. college fought in combat,[28][29][30] The Citadel is one of only 7 colleges to have received a battle streamer for wartime service. During the conflict 43 graduates and 200 former cadets were Killed in Action.[31]

On February 18, 1865, the school ceased operation as a college when Union troops entered Charleston and occupied the site. Following the war, the Board of Visitors eventually regained possession of The Citadel campus and with the urging of Governor Johnson Hagood, Class of 1847 the South Carolina Legislature passed an act to reopen the college. The 1882 session began with an enrollment of 185 cadets.

Into the 20th century[edit]

The Citadel bulldog mascot

In the war with Spain in 1898 more Citadel alumni volunteered for service than were needed.[32] In World War I, Citadel graduates were among the first contingents of American troops to fight with the Australian, and later British and French divisions; several served prominently with the Marine Corps at the Battle of Belleau Wood. The name of the college was officially changed in 1910 to "The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina"; the word "Academy" had become synonymous with secondary schools and the public had the misconception that the South Carolina Military Academy was a preparatory school.[33] By that time the school had outgrown its facility despite numerous additions, in 1918 the city of Charleston offered the state of South Carolina 176 acres (71 ha) on the banks of the Ashley River for a new campus on the condition that the state fund the construction.[34] The state accepted the offer on February 26, 1919 and alloted $300,000 towards the construction of a new campus.[35] In 1921 the title of the head of the school was changed from Superintendent to President, Colonel Oliver J. Bond was the last Superintendent and first President of The Citadel.

The college moved to its current location in 1922; the new campus initially consisted of only a barracks, admin/classroom building, mess hall, gym and hospital but in the next 3 decades grew rapidly. New barracks were constructed in 1926, 1938 and 1942 bringing bed capacity up to nearly 2,000; between 1936 and 1939 a chapel, armory/field house, new mess hall and 2 more academic buildings were added. Capers Hall, the main academic building was built in 1951, a student activities building was added in 1957 and Daniel Library was completed in 1960; Deas Hall, the Physical Education facility opened in 1976.

In World War II The Citadel had the distinction of having the highest percentage of its students enter the military out of any US college; the entire Class of 1944 was drafted and only 2 graduated. By 1943 so many cadets had left school to join the military that enrollment had dropped to less than 500 but was soon bolstered with the addition of active duty servicemembers attending as part of the Army Specialized Training Program. Of the 2,976 living alumni in 1946 all but 49 served their country. Citadel alumni were members of some of the most famous units of the war to include the Flying Tigers, the Doolittle Raiders and the RAF Eagle Squadrons; 280 alumni were Killed in Action, 67 were declared Missing and 65 became Prisoners of War. In the immediate postwar period veteran students utilizing the GI Bill swelled the size of the school to record levels and at one time outnumbered cadets more than 2 to 1. [31][32]

Starting in the late 1980s a major initiative was begun to renovate older campus facilities and replace aging ones; McAlister Field House underwent an extensive rebuilding in 1987–89 that increased seating capacity from 4,500 to 6,000; in 1991 a new mess hall and classroom building (Grimsley Hall) were completed, a major renovation of the administration building (Bond Hall) was finished in 1993 and the beach house was rebuilt in 1995 after having been destroyed by Hurricane Hugo in 1989. A new barracks was constructed in 1996 and over the next decade three of the original four barracks were razed and rebuilt, the newest academic building (Thompson Hall) was completed in 2003. The Holliday Alumni Center located on Hagood Avenue just south of campus was dedicated in 2001, Johnson Hagood Stadium has had major improvements in recent years including a new field house and reconstruction of the home stands including a new press box tower that features club level seating and luxury boxes.[36]

The growth of the college has allowed for continuously expanding academic offerings; in 1916 only 3 majors were offered, at present 65 courses of study are available at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level. A Graduate School, the first in the Lowcountry area was established in 1968 to fill the educational needs of a growing metropolitan area. In recent years new majors in high demand fields such as Computer Science, Criminal Justice, Sports Management and Mechanical Engineering have been established; minors are now offered in diverse subjects including cybersecurity, East Asian Studies, International Relations, Management Information Systems and African American Studies.[37][38][39]

Women in the Corps of Cadets[edit]

The Corps of Cadets was officially all male until 1996, in 1995 Shannon Faulkner won a legal battle and was granted admission by order of a federal judge; she reported the first day of knob (freshmen) orientation, but was admitted to the school's infirmary immediately following lunch on the first day of military training. Faulkner remained in the infirmary for less than a week and quit.[40][41][42][43]

A Supreme Court ruling in a discrimination lawsuit against Virginia Military Institute eventually compelled the school to officially change its admission policy to admit women.[44] The first group of four female cadets matriculated in August, 1996;[45] using credits from another college Nancy Mace completed her degree in three years and became the first female graduate in Corps history on May 9, 1999.[46][47] Czech born Petra Lovetinska was the first female graduate to have attended for four years, the first foreign female cadet, and after receiving her U.S. citizenship by Act of Congress, the first female graduate to be commissioned into the U.S. military,[48][49] the other two women did not remain to finish their first year.[50] As of September, 2013 women comprise 7% of the Corps of Cadets and 21% of the overall student body.[51]

Graduation 2012 marked another milestone in the history of women at The Citadel when Shanna M. Couch and Alexandria R. Burns were named First and Second Honor Graduates respectively. This was the first time in school history that either of the top two graduates of a class were women. A four year starter on the soccer team, Couch was also the first woman at The Citadel to receive an NCAA Postgraduate Scholarship.[52] Burns, a native of Pendleton South Carolina, was recognised for her remarkable academic achievement by the Anderson County Council in a resolution passed in June 2012.[53]

Rankings[edit]

Replica of The Citadel flag flown by cadets between 1861 to 1865

In 2013 for the third consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report ranked The Citadel highest among public institutions in the "Regional Universities - South" category and fourth out of all 92 universities (public and private) in the same category,[54] defined as those institutions offering "a full range of undergrad programs and some master's programs but few doctoral programs".[55] In 2012 U.S. News & World Report also ranked The Citadel as the eighth best value among institutions in the "Regional Universities - South" category,[54] In 2005 Newsweek magazine named The Citadel as one of America's "hottest colleges".[56]

U.S. News & World Report also ranked The Citadel's School of Engineering 17th among all undergraduate engineering programs in the United States in 2012 and ranked the civil engineering program eighth in undergraduate engineering specialty programs.[54][57]

In 2010, The Citadel ranked first nationally in graduation rate for public colleges with students having an average SAT score of 1000–1200.[58] As of 2012, the 4 year graduation rate is 63% compared to a national average of 30%;[59] the 6 year rate is 72%.[60]

Student life[edit]

Undergraduate cadets at The Citadel are members of the South Carolina Corps of Cadets. Cadets must meet physical fitness and SAT/ACT testing standards for acceptance into the Corps of Cadets.[61] On occasion, waivers to height/weight standards can be granted upon successful completion of the physical training test. On most days, cadets have both morning and afternoon physical (fitness) training, called "PT", military instruction on leadership, weapons, drill, and discipline, in addition to their regular college classes.

Most weekdays start with a formal muster and inspection of all personnel and their rooms. Cadets then march to structured military meals. After a day spent in classes, sports, intramurals and other activities, the day usually ends with an evening muster formation and mandatory evening study period during which there is enforced quiet time and all cadets are required to be in the barracks, library or academic buildings. Cadets are restricted to campus during the week but are allowed general leave on weekends and have limited but gradually escalating privileges for weekend and overnight passes.

Because The Citadel emphasizes corps unity and discipline, cadets may not be married and must live on campus in the barracks with their assigned company. The Citadel emphasizes an extremely strict disciplinary and physical fitness indoctrination for fourth-class cadets, who are called knobs because of the shaved heads of the males[27]:93, which they must maintain until the end of their first year when they are then recognized as upperclassmen.

Cadets who accumulate too many demerits or breach regulations can be punished by serving confinements or tours. A tour is one hour spent marching in the barracks with a rifle at shoulder arms and is normally performed when a cadet would otherwise be permitted to leave campus. A confinement is one hour spent in a cadet's room when they would normally be permitted to leave campus.

Citadel Class Ring

First class cadets, those in their senior year, receive their class rings at a special ring presentation ceremony, which was previously held in the college's chapel, but which now takes place in the school's field house. The Citadel ring is 10 karat gold with no gem stone and is one of the heaviest all-precious/semi-precious metal college rings in the United States.[citation needed] The design is common to all cadets and the design does not change with each class with the exception of the class year. Active-duty and evening undergraduate students receive a ring which is the same size, but with a different design.[27]:188–20[62]

One of the core values of The Citadel is a strictly enforced Honor Code that mandates that all cadets and students not lie, cheat, steal or tolerate those who do. A cadet run Honor Court investigates all alleged violations and conducts trials, expulsion is the usual penalty when found guilty.

Included in The Citadel Graduate College are active duty Marine Corps and Navy enlisted personnel attending The Citadel under the Seaman To Admiral program (STA-21) and the Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP), which originated at The Citadel in 1973.[63]

The Regimental Band and Pipes[edit]

Established in 1909, the Regimental Band is one of the twenty-one companies that comprise the current Corps and is a prominent feature at every formal parade. Prospective members must pass an audition. None of the band's members are music majors as The Citadel does not offer such a major, yet the band and pipes enjoy an international reputation. Selected by the Director of the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in Scotland to represent the United States at the 2010 Silver Jubilee Tattoo, The Citadel Regimental Band and Pipes performed their own seven minute segment of the Jubilee program in August, 2010 as well as performing as part of the massed pipes and massed bands. This was The Citadel's second appearance at the Tattoo having also appeared there in 1991; they have been invited to return in 2015. In the summer of 2013 the Band and Pipes performed as the United States representative at the week long Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo in Halifax, Canada.[64][65] The Citadel Pipe Band, established by General Mark W. Clark in 1955, is one of the few college bagpipe bands in the country[66] and it performs at the weekly parade at The Citadel as well as at numerous other public events. The Citadel Regimental Band participated in the Presidential Inaugural parade in 1953, and again combined with the pipe band in the 1961 and 1985 Presidential Inaugural parades.

The Summerall Guards performing the Citadel Series.

Summerall Guards[edit]

The Summerall Guards is a silent drill team consisting of 61 cadets chosen each spring from the junior class. Founded in 1932, the team performs a routine called The Citadel Series that has changed very little from its inception and has never been written down. The Guards have performed at numerous high profile events around the U.S. including three presidential inaugurations, the National Cherry Blossom Festival, Mardi Gras in New Orleans and at several NFL games.[67]

The Honors Program[edit]

An Honors Program is available for cadets with exceptional academic standing and includes a core curriculum of honors courses conducted by the most highly rated faculty members, small seminars and classes are conducted in a discussion type forum that encourages intellectual advancement. The program also assists the most highly qualified cadets in applying for scholarships, grants and merit based internships; since 1992 The Citadel has produced 13 Fulbright Scholars and 4 Truman Scholars.[68]

Each year cadets participate in study abroad programs in numerous foreign countries, an internship program in Washington, DC allows cadets an opportunity to work at various government agencies and in the offices of congressmen and senators. Summer internship programs are available in many cities with major U.S. corporations.[69]

Athletics[edit]

Athletic logo - "Spike" the Bulldog

The Citadel competes in NCAA Division I and has been a member of the Southern Conference since 1936; the school mascot is the Bulldog. Men's intercollegiate sports are football, basketball, baseball, wrestling, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle, tennis and golf; women sports are volleyball, soccer, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle and golf. Numerous club sports include lacrosse, rugby, pistol, sailing, crew, ice hockey and triathlon.

The Citadel Bulldogs baseball team has won 20 Southern Conference regular season and tournament championships, most recently in 2010; 36 players have been selected in the MLB draft[70] The 1990 team won the Atlantic Regional, earning the school its first trip to the College World Series (CWS) and finishing the season ranked sixth in the final Collegiate Baseball poll with a record of 46–14; they also became the first military school to play in the CWS. Numerous alumni have played in the major leagues in recent years, Head Coach Fred Jordan '79 is the school's winningest with more than 750 victories as of the 2014 season.

The football team has won two Southern Conference Championships and appeared in the Division I-AA playoffs (now FCS) three times; the 1960 team defeated Tennessee Tech 27-0 in the Tangerine Bowl.[71] The 1992 squad went 11-2 and finished the regular season ranked #1 in the I-AA poll.[72] As of 2010 the football program had a graduation success rate of 90% compared to the Division I average of 65% [73] Several alumni have played in the NFL including current wide receiver Andre Roberts of the Washington Redskins and cornerback Cortez Allen of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Fullback Nehemiah Broughton '05 also recently played with the Washington Redskins, Arizona Cardinals and New York Giants; fullback Travis Jervey '95 was an All-Pro and member of the 1996 Super Bowl Champion Green Bay Packers, kicker Greg Davis '87 had a 12-year career with several teams including Arizona and the Atlanta Falcons. ESPN color commentator Paul Maguire '60 was a tight end and punter for three AFL champions with the Buffalo Bills and former St. Louis/Phoenix Cardinals running back Lyvonia "Stump" Mitchell '81 has been a head coach at two Division I colleges and served as an NFL assistant for Seattle, Washington and Arizona.

The wrestling team has sent 66 members to the NCAA Tournament and produced 4 All-Americans, with 3 in the past 2 seasons; Rob Hjerling was named the 2014 Southern Conference Coach of the Year.

Completed in 2005, the Inouye Marksmanship Center is utilized by cadets, law enforcement and the South Carolina National Guard. The rifle team has won four national championships;[74] Cadet Stephen Bowden was the 2013 National Individual Pistol Champion[75]

In 2010 The Citadel had a graduation success rate for athletes of 87%; this compares to the national Division I average of 70%.

Campus[edit]

Checkerboard Quadrangle of Padgett Thomas Barracks

The Citadel sits on a 300-acre (120 ha) tract of land on the Ashley River just to the northwest of downtown Charleston. There are 27 buildings grouped around a 10-acre (4.0 ha) grass parade ground. The buildings around the parade ground include ten classroom buildings, an administration building, five barracks, mess hall, a student activities building, chapel, library, a yacht club, a marksmanship center, a field house, faculty housing area and various support facilities including a laundry, cadet store, tailor shop and power plant. The campus is bounded on the west by the Ashley River, to the north by the Wagener Terrace neighborhood, to the east by Hampton Park and the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood, and to the South by the Westside Neighborhood. Just off the main campus are the football stadium, baseball stadium, and alumni center. Additionally, there is a large beach house facility located near the north end of the Isle of Palms.[76]

The Daniel Library
Originally named "The Memorial Library and Museum" and opened in 1960, it was renamed in 1972, "The Daniel Library" in honor of Charles E. Daniel, '18 and Robert Hugh Daniel, '29, both lifelong benefactors of the college. Major renovations were completed in the fall of 2010. It houses over 200,000 volumes of material as well as electronic access to thousands of journals. The third floor of the building houses the campus archives and museum.[77][78] The Prioleau Room on the first floor houses special collections and is considered by many as one of the best places on campus to study with its dark wood paneling and fireplace. The Daniel Library website has information for locating items in the catalog,[79] the Lowcountry Digital Library,[80] and The Citadel's own Digital Collections.[81]

Campus Landmarks
HOWIE BELL TOWER AND CARILLON
Standing next to Summerall Chapel and built in 1954 this structure honors one of the schools most revered alumni, US Army Major Thomas D. Howie, Class of 1929 who served as Commander of 3d Battalion, 116th Infantry Regiment, 29th Infantry Division in the Normandy Campaign during World War II and was immortalized as "The Major of St Lo". Killed in action during the liberation of St. Lo, France, he was so respected that his flag draped body was carried on the hood of a jeep at the head of the column of troops so he could be accorded the honor of being the first American to enter the city, a photo of his body placed in the rubble of the St. Croix Cathedral came to symbolize the courage and sacrifice of US forces in the European Theater. Containing 59 bronze bells cast at the Royal Bergen Foundry in the Netherlands, the tower carillon is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere.[82]

SERAPH MONUMENT
Located next to Mark Clark Hall at the northeast corner of Summerall Field, this uniquely shaped monument contains artifacts from the British submarine HMS Seraph which carried then Major General Mark Clark to a secret landing in Algeria prior to the Allied landings in the North African Campaign of World War II in order to negotiate a surrender of the Vichy French forces; the vessel was also involved in "Operation Mincemeat", perhaps the most famous clandestine operation of the conflict which succeeded in convincing the Germans that the allies intended to invade Sardinia not Sicily. The memorial honors Anglo-American friendship and cooperation during World War II and is the only shore location in the United States authorized to fly the Royal Navy Ensign.[83][84][85]

GENERAL MARK CLARK GRAVESITE
Lying between Mark Clark Hall and Summerall Chapel is the burial plot of US Army General Mark Wayne Clark who served as Citadel President from 1954 to 1965 and President Emeritus until his death in 1984. One of the most famous and senior U.S. military commanders of World War II Clark served as General Dwight Eisenhower's deputy during the "Operation Torch" landings in North Africa then commanded the 5th Army in the Italian campaign liberating Rome in June, 1944. He later served as Commanding General of the 15th Army Group and in 1952 was appointed by President Truman as Supreme Commander of UN forces in Korea.[86]

THE CITADEL RING STATUE
Located at the southeast corner of the parade ground near Lesesne Gate, the main entrance to campus, is a giant replica of The Citadel ring, recognized as the most important and treasured symbol of a graduate. It was a gift to The Citadel Alumni Association from Palmetto Balfour, the current supplier of the official Citadel class rings.[87]

MONUMENTS TO THE ARMED FORCES
On the parade ground are monuments dedicated to each of the military services and honoring the contributions of Citadel alumni to the military. They include a Marine landing craft (LVT-H-6); an Army Sherman Tank (M4A3) and an Army Missile (Corporal); an Air Force fighter jet (F4-C Phantom II); an AH-1 "Cobra" helicopter gunship and an anchor from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Coral Sea. A United States Coast Guard Bell serves as a monument to Citadel graduates who have lost their lives upon the sea.[83]

The Citadel Graduate College[edit]

The Citadel's evening graduate program serves the Lowcountry by offering regionally and professionally accredited bachelor's, master's and specialist degrees scheduled around the student's profession, family and lifestyle. CGC offers 19 graduate programs with concentrations in education, psychology, computer science and business.[note 1] The Masters of Business Administration program is one of three nationally accredited MBA program in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina--others include The College of Charleston and Charleston Southern University. CGC also offers undergraduate evening programs in business and engineering.

Core values[edit]

In its vision statement the Citadel Board of Visitors identifies the following as the school's "core values:"[88]

  • Honor: First and foremost honor includes adherence to the Honor Code of The Citadel. A cadet "will not lie, cheat or steal, nor tolerate those who do". The commitment to honor extends beyond the gates of The Citadel and is a life-long obligation to moral and ethical behavior. In addition, honor includes integrity; "doing the right thing when no one is watching". Finally, honorable behavior includes exercising the moral courage to "do the right thing when everyone is watching". The Honor Code is the foundation of our academic enterprise.
  • Duty: First and foremost duty means to accept and accomplish the responsibilities assigned to me. At The Citadel, my primary duty is to perform academically and then to perform as a member of the Corps of Cadets and the campus community. I accept the consequences associated with my performance and actions. Once I have held myself accountable for my actions, then I will hold others accountable for their actions. Finally, duty means that others can depend on me to complete my assignments and to assist them with their assignments. Duty is also a call to serve others before self.
  • Respect: First and foremost respect means to treat other people with dignity and worth – the way you want others to treat you. Respect for others eliminates any form of prejudice, discrimination, or harassment (including but not limited to rank, position, age, race, color, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, national origin, religion, physical attributes, etc.). In addition, respect for others means to respect the positions of those in authority which include faculty, staff, administrators, active duty personnel and the leadership of the Corps of Cadets. Finally, respect includes a healthy respect for one's self.

Leadership training[edit]

ROTC[edit]

All cadets are required to undergo four years of ROTC training in one of the four branches of the armed services, but they are not required to enter military service after graduation.

United States Coast Guard Direct Commission Selected School[edit]

The Citadel is a designated Direct Commission Selected School (DCSS). Cadets who fulfill the requirements under this program are eligible for direct commissions as Officers in the United States Coast Guard.[89]

United States Coast Guard Auxiliary University Program[edit]

In addition to their required ROTC course, cadets interested in pursuing a career with the United States Coast Guard can join The Citadel's Coast Guard Auxiliary Unit Program (AUP). Originally established as The Citadel Coast Guard Society in 2007 and officially designated as Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 12-8a Citadel Detachment in 2008, The Citadel's Auxiliary Unit Program is one of the first Coast Guard Auxiliary University Programs in the nation. The purpose of the unit is to orient and educate cadets on service options within the United States Coast Guard, to include Direct Commissions, Officer Candidate School (OCS), active duty and reserve enlistments, and continued service with the auxiliary.[90][91][92]

Krause Center[edit]

Established with a gift from L. William Krause '64, the Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics offers symposiums, classes and training seminars to help instill the principles of leadership, ethics, morals and service. A minor in leadership studies is also sponsored through this program. Training is conducted each year for freshmen and sophomores on honor and ethics. Leadership classes are also given to cadets in the senior chain of command. The institute also sponsors programs that offer cadets an opportunity to perform community service and instill a sense of commitment to one's fellow man.[93]

Summer camp[edit]

Knobs on the quad

"The Citadel Summer Camp", a summer camp for boys and girls ages 10 to 15, was held at The Citadel every summer from 1957 until 2006. Founded by General Mark Wayne Clark, its purpose was to develop and strengthen the physical, mental, ethical, spiritual, patriotic and social characteristics of campers.[94] The Citadel Summer Camp ceased operation in 2006 because of financial issues, space limitations and pressure from several pending lawsuits concerning the sexual molestation of camp students by a staff member.[95][96]

Cadet Officer Leadership School[edit]

Selected members of Air Force JROTC units from the Southeastern United States cadets are eligible to spend a week at The Citadel for officer training for their home JROTC units. A routine day attending Cadet Officer Leadership School (COLS) begins with waking up to Reveille for morning PT, the remainder of the day is uniform wear and inspection, two classes and constant regulation drill. On the day of graduation from the school, cadets participate in a "pass in review" ceremony where awards and decorations are given to certain cadets who have gone above the normal standards. A PT ribbon and a Leadership School ribbon are given to all cadets who graduate from COLS back at their home unit.

Alumni[edit]

The Citadel has produced a wealth of distinguished alumni in many different career fields; well known alumni include longtime U.S. Senator Ernest "Fritz" Hollings, best selling novelist Pat Conroy, football commentator Paul Maguire, Space Shuttle astronaut Colonel Randy Bresnik, Washington Redskins wide receiver Andre Roberts and the longest serving Commander of the U.S. Navy Blue Angels Captain Greg McWherter.[97] Notable alumni include 6 governors, 3 U.S. senators, 12 congressmen, the presidents of 46 colleges and universities, the Director of the U.S. Olympic Committee and many professional athletes.[98]

Approximately 40% of graduates are commissioned as military officers in the active or reserve components with another 10% going directly to graduate programs; alumni currently serve in all five military services. Over the years, 277 Citadel alumni have reached the top ranks in the military by becoming flag officers (Generals, Admirals or Commodore), ten have served as a state Adjutant General.[99] Seven alumni have served as pilots with the two U.S. military flight demonstration units, the Thunderbirds and Blue Angels; graduates have served as commanders of both squadrons.[100][101] Alumni also serve in the military services of foreign countries including 5 four star generals from Thailand and the head of Jordan's Security Forces.[98]

Citadel alumni were killed in action during the Mexican–American War (6), Civil War (67), World War I (15), World War II (280), Korean War (32), Vietnam War (68), Lebanon (1), Grenada (1), the Gulf War (1), and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (18).[102]

Fictional depictions[edit]

In film[edit]

  • In the film For the Boys (1991), Bette Midler's son graduates as Regimental Commander of the Corps of Cadets.[103] His commencement speech is filmed in front of 2nd Battalion Barracks.
  • Major Ben Marco, Denzel Washington's character in the movie The Manchurian Candidate (2004), was a graduate of The Citadel.
  • Several scenes of the movie Dear John (2010) were filmed at The Citadel.[104]

In literature[edit]

  • A thinly veiled depiction of The Citadel provides the background for Calder Willingham's novel End as a Man (1947) and the film adaptation, The Strange One (1957).
  • Pat Conroy's 1980 novel The Lords of Discipline was based on Conroy's experience as a cadet at The Citadel during the 1960s and on his research of other military schools. This book is a fictitious account of the first African American cadet at The Citadel and the class struggle that ensued to both keep and reject the cadet. The novel outraged many of his fellow graduates of The Citadel, who felt that the book was a thinly veiled portrayal of campus life that was highly unflattering. The rift was not healed until 2000, when Conroy was awarded an honorary degree and asked to deliver the commencement address the following year. That year Conroy spearheaded fundraising to renovate the banquet hall in The Citadel Alumni Association building. The Lords of Discipline was made into a movie of the same name starring David Keith and Robert Prosky in 1983. My Losing Season (2002, ISBN 0-553-38190-3) is a factual account of Conroy's senior season as a guard on the 1966–67 Citadel basketball team and includes many recollections of his time as both a cadet and athlete at the school.
  • The Citadel (ISBN 0-9701065-0-5), a novel written by Tom Schroder in 2000.
  • Sword Drill (2002, ISBN 1-58898-819-8), a novel by David Epps (Citadel Class of 1980), presents a fictional version of the Citadel's now disbanded Junior Sword Drill program.[105]

In music[edit]

  • Portions of Dave Matthews Band's music video, "American Baby" (from their 2005 studio album, Stand Up), were filmed at The Citadel.[106]

In television[edit]

  • The Citadel was used as the location for shooting a 1974 episode of the TV show Columbo called "By Dawn's Early Light", guest starring Patrick McGoohan.
  • In Army Wives season 7 episode 8, after listening to an address by LTG Michael Holden (Brian McNamara), Cadet Jordan Young (Kaley Ronayne) enlists his assistance in helping her explain to her mother, Air Force Colonel Katherine "Kat" Young (Brooke Shields), Jordan's decision to forgo a commission in the Air Force and pursue her passion to fly attack helicopters as an Army officer. Filming took place in Daniel Library, Bond Hall, and Summerall Field and included about seventy cadet extras.
  • In Army Wives season 7 episode 9, Cadet Jordan Young (Kaley Ronayne) attends a memorial garden dedication in dress uniform with her mother. Cadet Young informs LTG Holden (Brian McNamara) that she has officially declared for the Army, and her mother adds it was with her blessing.
  • In Army Wives season 7 season finale, Cadet Jordan Young (Kaley Ronayne) appears in dress uniform wearing her new Army Contract Badge.
  • In House of Cards (U.S. TV series) season 1 chapter 8, Congressman and House Majority Whip Frank Underwood (Kevin Spacey) visits "The Sentinel", his alma mater, to be honored with a memorial library. The Sentinel is made to strongly resemble The Citadel. It is even depicted to have been established in 1841, one year before The Citadel was established. The filming of The Sentinel was done at Johns Hopkins University.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 2007 The Citadel changed its graduate program's name from the College of Graduate and Professional Studies (CGPS) to The Citadel Graduate College (CGC).

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