Crusades

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This article is about the medieval religious military campaigns. For other uses, see Crusade (disambiguation) and Crusader (disambiguation).

The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages. In 1095 Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem. Many historians and some of those involved at the time, like Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, give equal precedence to other papal-sanctioned military campaigns undertaken for a variety of religious, economic, and political reasons, such as the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, the Reconquista, and the Northern Crusades.[1] Following the First Crusade there was an intermittent 200-year struggle for control of the Holy Land, with six more major crusades and numerous minor ones. In 1291, the conflict ended in failure with the fall of the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land at Acre, after which Roman Catholic Europe mounted no further coherent response in the east.

Some historians see the Crusades as part of a purely defensive war against the expansion of Islam in the near east; some see them as part of long-running conflict at the frontiers of Europe; and others see them as confident, aggressive, papal-led expansion attempts by Western Christendom. Crusading attracted men and women of all classes. The massacres involved were mainly attributed as being caused by disorder, an epidemic of ergotism and economic distress.[2] The Byzantine Empire was unable to recover territory lost during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the Arab–Byzantine Wars and the Byzantine–Seljuq Wars; these conquests culminated in the loss of fertile farmlands[3] and vast grazing areas of Anatolia[4] in 1071, after a sound victory by the occupying armies of Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert. Urban II sought to reunite the Christian church under his leadership by providing Emperor Alexios I with military support.

Several hundred thousand Roman Catholic Christians became crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Vatican.[5][6] The Crusaders came from various feudal kingdoms of Western Europe, whose very customs turned every attempt to form a unified central command to lead the crusaders into failure. With hundreds of aristocrats and noblemen among the crusaders, each vying for personal fame, wealth, and glory, the very idea of a feudal lord giving up personal command over loyal men-at-arms to a single commander, a nobleman and competitor for position at court, was an unthinkable and insulting proposition to even consider. This lack of a central command resulted in frequent quarrels between feudal noblemen, church leaders, and courtiers, leading to intra-faith political factions and shifting alliances as hundreds of capricious feudal lords jostled for political advantage and influence within the Crusade, which at times led to rather bizarre situations, including an instance when the crusaders joined forces with the army of the Islamic Sultanate of Rûm during the Fifth Crusade.

The impact of the crusades was profound, and judgment of the conduct of crusaders has varied widely from laudatory to highly critical. Jonathan Riley-Smith identifies the independent states established, such as the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusader States, as the first experiments in "Europe Overseas". These ventures reopened the Mediterranean to trade and travel, enabling Genoa and Venice to flourish. Crusading armies would engage in commerce with the local populations while on the march, with Orthodox Byzantine emperors often organizing markets for Crusader forces moving through their territory. The crusading movement consolidated the collective identity of the Latin Church under the Pope’s leadership and was the source of heroism, chivalry, and medieval piety. This in turn spawned medieval romance, philosophy, and literature.[7] However, the crusades reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism that ran counter to the Peace and Truce of God that Urban had promoted.

The crusaders often pillaged the countries through which they travelled in the typical medieval manner. Nobles often retained much of the territory gained rather than returning it to the Byzantines as they had sworn to do.[8][9] Encouraged by the Church, the Peoples' Crusade prompted Rhineland massacres and the murder of thousands of Jews. In the late 19th century this episode was used by Jewish historians to support Zionism.[10] The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sack of Constantinople by the Roman Catholics, effectively ending the chance of reuniting the Christian church by reconciling the East–West Schism and leading to the weakening and eventual fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans. Nevertheless, some crusaders were merely poor people trying to escape the hardships of medieval life in an armed pilgrimage leading to Apotheosis at Jerusalem.[11]

Terminology[edit]

Crusade[edit]

The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, medieval miniature

"Crusade" is a modern term, from the French croisade and Spanish cruzada. The French form of the word first appears in the L'Histoire des Croisades written by A. de Clermont and published in 1638. By 1750, the various forms of the word "crusade" had established themselves in English, French, and German.[12] The Oxford English Dictionary records its first use in English as occurring in 1757 by William Shenstone.[13]

The Crusades were never referred to as such by their participants. The original crusaders were known by various terms, including fideles Sancti Petri (the faithful of Saint Peter) or milites Christi (knights of Christ).

Like pilgrims, each crusader swore a vow (a votus) to be fulfilled on successfully reaching Jerusalem, and they were granted a cloth cross (crux) to be sewn into their clothes. This "taking of the cross", the crux, eventually became associated with the entire journey.[14] They saw themselves as undertaking an iter, a journey, or a peregrinatio, an armed pilgrimage. The inspiration for this “messianism of the poor" was the expected mass apotheosis at Jerusalem.[11]

Numbering[edit]

Historians consider that between 1096 and 1291 there were seven major Crusades and numerous minor ones.[8] However, some consider the Fifth Crusade of Frederick II as two distinct crusades. This would make the crusade launched by Louis IX in 1270 the Eighth Crusade. In addition, sometimes even this crusade is considered as two, leading to a Ninth Crusade.

The Crusades[edit]

A pluralist view of the Crusades has developed in the 20th century inclusive of all papal-led efforts, whether in the Middle East or in Europe.[15] This takes into account the view of the Roman Catholic Church and medieval contemporaries such as Saint Bernard of Clairvaux that gave equal precedence to comparable military campaigns against pagans, heretics and many undertaken for political reasons. This wider definition includes the persecution of heretics in Southern France, the political conflict between Christians in Sicily, the Christian re-conquest of Spain and the conquest of heathens in the Baltic.[1] Countering this is the view the crusades were a defensive war in the Middle East against Muslims to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.[16]

Political Crusades[edit]

Popes frequently called crusades for political reasons and crusades were also declared as a means of conflict resolution amongst fellow Roman Catholic Christians. Pope Innocent III declared a crusade against his political opponent Markward of Anweiler in Sicily. Only a few people took part, and the need for the crusade ended in 1202 when Markward died. This is generally considered the first "political crusade".[17] Between 1232 and 1234 there was a crusade against the Stedingers, peasants who refused to pay tithes to the Archbishop of Bremen. The archbishop excommunicated them, and Pope Gregory IX declared a crusade in 1232. The peasants lost the Battle with Altenesch on 27 May 1234 and were destroyed.[18]

Emperor Frederick II was the object of several political crusades called by a number of popes. In 1240 Pope Gregory IX deposed and preached a crusade against Frederick for his opposition in Italy.[19] In 1248 Pope Innocent IV's[20] crusade against him was transferred in 1250 to his son, Conrad IV when he died, but to little effect. Crusades were called against Frederick's illegitimate son Manfred, King of Sicily, from 1255 through 1266,[21] and Conrad's son, Conradin, in 1268 with the urging of Charles of Anjou.[22]

Two crusades appear to have been called against opponents of King Henry III of England – one from 1215 to 1217 and the other from 1263 to 1265 with the first enjoying the same privileges as those given to crusaders on the Fifth Crusade. The second got as far as having papal legates being dispatched to England with the power to declare a crusade against Simon de Montfort, but Montfort's death in 1265 ended this.[23] The Norwich Crusade of 1383, also called the Despenser's crusade, which was a military expedition that aimed to assist the city of Ghent in its struggle against the supporters of Antipope Clement VII, was really an extension of the Hundred Years War rather than a purely religious enterprise.[24]

A key difference between the Crusades and other holy wars was that the authorization to carry out these wars came directly from the pope, who claimed to be working on behalf of Christ.[25]

Saracen[edit]

Main article: Saracen
A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript illumination depicting Byzantine Greeks punishing Cretan Saracens in the 9th century. From the Madrid Skylitzes.

Before the 16th century the words "Muslim" and "Islam" were very rarely used by Europeans.[26] During the crusades the term widely used for Muslim was Saracen. In Greek and Latin this term had a longer evolution from the beginning of the first millennia where it referred to a people who lived in desert areas around the Roman province of Arabia who were distinguished from Arabs.[27][28] The term developed to include Arab tribes and by the 12th century had become an ethnic and religious marker synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin literature.[29][30][31][32] In the romance The King of Tars, Saracens are black-skinned while Christians are lighter-skinned.[33][34] The Old French 11th century heroic poem The Song of Roland takes the association of black skin with Saracens a step further by making it their only exotic feature.[35]

Frank[edit]

The term Frank has been used by many of the Eastern Orthodox and Muslim neighbours of medieval Latin Christendom (and beyond, such as in Asia) as a general synonym for a European from Western and Central Europe, areas that followed the Latin rites of Christianity under the authority of the Pope in Rome. Another term with similar use was "Latins".

Modern historians often refer to Christians following the Latin rites in the eastern Mediterranean as "Franks" or "Latins", regardless of their country of origin, whereas they use the words Rhomaios and Rûmi ('Roman') for Orthodox Christians. On a number of Greek islands, Catholics are still referred to as Φράγκοι (Frangoi) or 'Franks', for instance on Syros, where they are called Φραγκοσυριανός (Frangosyrianos), in Thailand where all people of European ancestry are called farangs (ฝรั่ง). Latin Christians living in the Middle East (particularly in the Levant) are known as Franco-Levantines.

During the Mongol Empire in the 13-14th centuries, the Mongols used the term 'Franks' to designate Europeans.[36] The term Frangistan ("Land of the Franks") was used by Muslims to refer to Roman Catholic Christian Europe and was commonly used over several centuries in Iran and the Ottoman Empire.

The Mediterranean Lingua Franca (or "Frankish language") was a pidgin first spoken by 11th-century European Christians and Muslims in Mediterranean ports which remained in use until the 19th century.

Examples of derived words include:

Historiography[edit]

...  The lives and labours of millions who were buried in the East, would have been more profitably employed in the improvement of their native country

Edward Gibbon in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire [8]

During the Reformation and Counter-Reformation of the 16th century, historians saw the Crusades through the prism of their own religious beliefs. Protestants saw them as a manifestation of the evils of the Papacy, while Catholics viewed the movement as a force for good.[38] During the Enlightenment, historians tended to view both the Crusades and the entire Middle Ages as the efforts of barbarian cultures driven by fanaticism.[39] By the 19th century, with the dawning of Romanticism, this harsh view of the crusades and its time period was mitigated somewhat,[40] with later 19th-century crusade scholarship focusing on increasing specialization of study and more detailed works on subjects.[41]

Enlightenment scholars in the 18th century and modern historians in the West have expressed moral outrage at the conduct of the crusaders. In the 1950s, Sir Steven Runciman wrote that "High ideals were besmirched by cruelty and greed ... the Holy War was nothing more than a long act of intolerance in the name of God".[42]

In the 20th century, three important works covering the entire history of the crusades have been published, those of Rene Grousset, Steven Runciman, and the multi-author work edited by K. M. Stetton.[43] A pluralist view of the crusades has developed in the 20th century inclusive of all papal-led efforts, whether in the Middle East or in Europe.[15] Historian Thomas Madden has made the contrary argument that "[t]he crusade, first and foremost, was a war against Muslims for the defense of the Christian faith.... They began as a result of a Muslim conquest of Christian territories." Madden says the goal of Pope Urban was that "[t]he Christians of the East must be free from the brutal and humiliating conditions of Muslim rule."[16]

Background[edit]

Byzantium & The Near East[edit]

After 636, when Muslim forces defeated the Eastern Roman/Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk, the control of Palestine passed through the Umayyad Dynasty,[44] the Abbasid Dynasty,[45] and the Fatimids.[46] Toleration, trade, and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe ebbed and flowed until 1072 when the Fatimids lost control of Palestine to the rapidly expanding Great Seljuq Empire.[47] For example, the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, only to have his successor allow the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it.[48] The Muslim rulers allowed pilgrimages by Christians to the holy sites. Resident Christians were considered people of the book and so were tolerated as Dhimmi, and inter-marriage was not uncommon.[49] Cultures and creeds coexisted as much as competed, but the frontier conditions were not conducive to Latin Christian pilgrims and merchants.[50] The disruption of pilgrimages by conquering Seljuq Turks prompted support for the Crusades in Western Europe.[51]

The Seljuq dynasty at its greatest extent, in 1092.

The Byzantine Empire was resurgent from the end of the 10th century, with Basil II spending most of his 50-year reign on campaign, conquering a great amount of territory. He left a growing treasury, at the expense of neglecting domestic affairs and also ignoring the cost of incorporating his conquests into the Byzantine Ecumene. None of Basil’s successors had any particular military or political talent, and governing the Empire increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service. Their efforts to spend the Byzantine economy back into prosperity only resulted in burgeoning inflation. To balance the increasingly unstable budget, Basil’s large standing army was dismissed as unnecessary, and native thematic troops were cashiered and replaced by foreign mercenaries. Following the defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuq Turks had taken over almost all of Anatolia, and the Empire descended into frequent civil wars.[52]

The Roman Catholic Church[edit]

In the West an aggressive and reformist Papacy came into conflict with both the Eastern Empire and Western secular monarchs, leading to the East-West Schism in 1054[53] and the Investiture Controversy, which had started around 1075 and was still on-going during the First Crusade. The papacy began to assert its independence from secular rulers, marshaling arguments for the proper use of armed force by Christians. The result was intense Christian piety, interest in religious affairs, and religious propaganda advocating "Just War" in order to retake Palestine from the Muslims. The majority view was that non-Christians could not be forced to accept Christian baptism or should be physically assaulted for having a different faith as opposed to a less common opinion that vengeance was a response to injuries such as the denial of Christian faith, government or the opportunity for justified forcible conversion.[54] Taking part in such a war was seen as a form of penance, which could remit sins.[55] Meanwhile in Europe, the Germans were expanding at the expense of the Slavs,[56] while Sicily was conquered by the Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard in 1072.[57]

Council of Clermont[edit]

Main article: Council of Clermont

In 1074 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII sent a request for military aid to Pope Gregory VII, but although Gregory appears to have considered leading an expedition to aid Michael, nothing reached the planning stage.[58] The Eastern Empire faced difficulties in the Danube river area, as the Pechenegs had allied with the Seljuq Turks and threatened the Empire until 1091, when they were defeated by Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

In 1095 Alexios sent envoys to the west requesting military assistance against the Seljuqs. Alexios needed to reinforce his tagmata, so the embassy probably sought to recruit mercenaries and may have exaggerated the dangers facing the Eastern Empire in order to secure the needed troops.[59] The message was received by Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza. In November Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter, further urging the bishops and abbots whom he addressed directly to bring with them the prominent lords in their provinces. The Council lasted from 19 to 28 November, attended by nearly 300 clerics from throughout France. Urban discussed the Cluniac reforms of the Church and extended the excommunication of Philip I of France. Urban spoke for the first time about the problems in the east on 27 November, promoting the struggle of western Christians against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Eastern Roman Empire. There are six main sources of information on the Council: the anonymous Gesta Francorum ("The Deeds of the Franks" dated c. 1100/1101),[60] which influenced all versions of the speech, except that by Fulcher of Chartres who was present at the council; Robert the Monk, who may have been present; as well as Baldric, archbishop of Dol, and Guibert de Nogent, who were not present at the council. All the accounts were written much later following different literary traditions and differ greatly.[61]

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages d'Outre-mer, c. 1490 (Bibliothèque National)

Robert the Monk, in Historia Iherosolimitana, written in 1106/7, reports that Urban called for orthodoxy, reform, and submission to the Church. Robert records that the pope asked western Christians, poor and rich, to come to the aid of the Byzantine Empire because "Deus vult," ("God wills it"). Robert records that Urban promised remission of sins for those who went to the east, although the 'Liber Lamberti', a source based on the notes of Bishop Lambert of Arras, who attended the Council, indicates that Urban offered the remission of all penance due from sins, later called an indulgence.[62] Robert's account has Urban delivering a classical battle speech: he emphasizes reconquering the Holy Land more than aiding the Greeks; the intervening decades and the events of the First Crusade had certainly shifted the emphasis. According to Robert, Urban listed various gruesome offenses of the Muslims,[63] and more alleged atrocities were expressed in inflammatory images derived from hagiography. Perhaps with the wisdom of hindsight, Robert has Urban advise that none but knights should go, not the old and feeble, nor priests without the permission of their bishops, "for such are more of a hindrance than aid, more of a burden than advantage ... nor ought women to set out at all, without their husbands or brothers or legal guardians". A later version by Baldric, archbishop of Dol, reported the sermon as focusing on the offenses of the Muslims and the reconquest of the Holy Land, and that Urban deplored the violence of the Christian knights of Gaul. He wanted the violence of knights to be ennobled in the service of Christ, defending the churches of the East as if defending a mother. Guibert, abbot of Nogent, also has Urban emphasize the reconquest of the Holy Land more than providing aid to the Greeks or other Christians there. This may, as in the case of Robert and Baldric, be due to the influence of the Gesta Francorum's account of the reconquest of Jerusalem.

A general call was sent out to the knights and nobles of France. Urban apparently knew in advance of the day that Raymond IV of Toulouse was prepared to take up arms. Urban himself spent a few months preaching the Crusade in France, while papal legates spread the word in the south of Italy, during which time the focus presumably turned from helping Alexios to taking Jerusalem. Urban's letter to the faithful "waiting in Flanders" laments that Turks, in addition to ravaging the "churches of God in the eastern regions," have seized "the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection—and blasphemy to say it—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery." Yet he does not explicitly call for the reconquest of Jerusulem. Rather he explicitly calls for the military "liberation" of the Eastern Churches and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to lead the Crusade, to set out on the day of the Assumption of Mary, 15 August.[64] Pope Urban's speech ranks as one of the most influential speeches ever, launching holy wars that occupied the minds and forces of western Europe for 200 years before their ultimate failure.[65]

Role of women, children, and class[edit]

Women were intricately connected with the Crusades, aiding the recruitment of crusading men, taking on responsibility in their absence, and providing financial and moral support.[66][67] Historians argue that the most significant role played by women in the West was maintaining the status quo.[68] Landholders left for the Holy Land, leaving control of their estates with regents, often wives or mothers.[69] The Church recognized that risk to families and estates might discourage crusaders, so special papal protection formed part of the crusading privilege.[70] A few women took up the cross themselves to go on the crusade.[71] For example, Eleanor of Aquitaine joined her husband, Louis VII,[71] and some non-aristocratic women were involved in tasks considered feminine like washerwoman.[72] More controversial was women taking an active part, which threatened their femininity, with accounts of women fighting coming mostly from Muslim historians with the aim of portraying Christian women as barbaric and ungodly due to their acts of killing.[73] Christian accounts portray women fighting only in rare situations for the preservation of their camps and lives.[73]

Less historically certain was a Children's Crusade movement in France and Germany in 1212 that attracted large numbers of peasant teenagers and young people, with some under the age of 15. They were convinced that they could succeed where older and more sinful crusaders had failed: the miraculous power of their faith would triumph where the force of arms had not. Many parish priests and parents encouraged such religious fervor and urged them on. The pope and bishops opposed the attempt but failed to stop it entirely. A band of several thousand youth and young men, led by a German named Nicholas, set out for Italy. About a third survived the march over the Alps and got as far as Genoa; another group went to Marseilles. The luckier ones eventually managed to return home, but many others were sold as lifetime slaves on the auction blocks of Marseilles slave dealers.[74]

Three crusading efforts among the peasants occurred in the middle 1250s and again in the early 1300s. The first, the Shepherds' Crusade of 1251, was preached in northern France. After meeting with Blanche of Castile, however, it became disorganized and had to be disbanded by the government.[21] The second, in 1309, occurred in England, northeastern France, and Germany, and had as many as 30,000 peasants arriving at Avignon before being disbanded.[75] The last one, in 1320, had similar origins as the first shepherds' crusade but quickly turned into a series of attacks on clergy and Jews, and was forcibly dispersed.[76]

Outremer[edit]

Main article: Outremer
The Latin states of the Outremer following the First Crusade

The First Crusade established the first four crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa (1098 until 1149), the Principality of Antioch (1098 until 1268), Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099 until 1291) and the County of Tripoli (1104, although Tripoli itself was not conquered until 1109, to 1289). The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had its origins before the Crusades, but was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Innocent III, and later became fully westernized by the (French) Lusignan dynasty. These states were recognised by Jonathan Riley-Smith as the first experiments in "Europe Overseas". The general name given to them is Outremer (French: outre-mer) for "overseas" and was often used as a synonym for the Levant of Renaissance.

Richard I of England conquered Cyprus during the Third Crusade; he eventually sold it to the displaced King of Jerusalem Guy of Lusignan in 1192. Guy went on to found a dynasty that lasted until 1489 when control passed to the Republic of Venice.[77] Cyprus became a prosperous medieval kingdom, a commercial and trading hub of Western Christendom in the Middle East.[77]

The Latin Empire and the Partition of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade. (c. 1204)

After the fourth crusade the treaty called Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae for "partition of the lands of the empire of Romània[78] established the Latin Empire and arranged the partition of the Byzantine territory among the participants of the Crusade, with the Republic of Venice being the greatest beneficiary. In October October 1204 a 24-man committee consisting of 12 Venetians and 12 representatives of the other crusader leaders agreed to give the Latin Emperor direct control of one fourth of the Byzantine territory, Venice three eighths , including three eighths of the city of Constantinople, and divide the remaining three eighths among the other crusader leaders. Thus began the period of the history of Greece known as Frankokratia or Latinokratia ("Frankish/Latin rule"), where Catholic West European nobles, mostly from France and Italy, established states on former Byzantine territory and ruled over the mostly Orthodox native Byzantine Greeks. The Partitio Romànie is a valuable document for the administrative divisions (episkepseis) and estates of the various Byzantine magnate families ca. 1203, as well as the areas still controlled by the Byzantine central government at the time.

Finance[edit]

Crusades were expensive and as the wars increased, the costs also escalated. Pope Urban II called upon the rich to help those who were "less well-off" and lords on the First Crusade such as Duke Robert of Normandy and Count Raymond of St. Gilles, who had subsidized knights in their own contingents. The total cost of the crusades of 1284-1254 to King Louis IX of France was at about 1,537,570 livres, which was six times his annual income. This may be an underestimate because there are records that show he spent 1,000,000 livres in Palestine after his campaign in Egypt was over. Furthermore, rulers had demanded subsidies from their subjects.[79] Eventually, alms and legacies from the outburst of enthusiasm in the conquest of Palestine were another source of finance. The popes had ordered chests to be placed in churches for their collection and from the middle of the twelfth century, they granted indulgences, to those who contributed to the movement this way, while also encouraging the faithful to make bequests to the Holy Land in their own wills.[80]

Crusading decline[edit]

One factor in the eventual decline and fall was the disunity and conflict that were endemic between the various Latin Christian interests of the Eastern Mediterranean. Pope Martin IV hopelessly compromised the Papacy supporting Charles of Anjou; and the botched secular "crusades" against Sicily and Aragon greatly tarnished its spiritual power. The collapse of its moral authority and the rise of nationalism rang the death knell for crusading, and would ultimately lead to the Avignon Papacy and the Western Schism.

In 1256 the Venetians were evicted from Tyre, prompting the War of Saint Sabas over territory in Acre claimed by both Genoa and Venice.[81] Venice conquered the disputed property, destroying Saint Sabas' fortifications, but was unable to expel the Genoese. During a blockade of 14 months Genoa allied with Philip of Monfort, John of Arsuf and the Knights Hospitaller while Venice was supported by the Count of Jaffa and the Knights Templar,[82] By 1261, the Genoese were expelled, but Pope Urban IV, concerned about the impact of the war on the defences against the Mongols, organised a peace council.[83] The conflict resumed in 1264 when the Genoese received aid from Michael VIII Palaiologos, Emperor of Nicaea and Venice failed in an attempt to conquer Tyre. Both sides employed Muslim soldiers, mostly Turcopoles, against their Christian foes and the Genoese had made an alliance with Baybars.[84] The warfare between Genoa and Venice had a significant negative impact on the Kingdom's ability to withstand external threats to its existence. Except for the religious buildings, most of the fortified buildings in Acre had been destroyed at one point and it looked like it had been ravaged by a Muslim army. According to Rothelin, the continuator of William of Tyre's History, 20,000 men had lost their lives in the conflict at a time when the crusader states were chronically short on soldiery. The war ended in 1270 and in 1288 Genoa finally received its quarter in Acre back.[85]

In 1268 Saint Louis’s brother Charles executed Conradin — a great-grandson of Isabella I of Jerusalem, principal pretender to the throne of Jerusalem — when seizing Sicily from the Holy Roman Empire. Charles went on to purchase the rights to Jerusalem from Maria of Antioch — the only remaining grandchild of Queen Isabella— creating a rival claim to that of Hugh III of Cyprus, who was a great grandson of Queen Isabella.[86] Charles spent his life striving to assemble a Mediterranean empire. He and Louis regarded themselves as God's instruments to uphold the Papacy.

Statue in Hyeres of Charles I d'Anjou comte de Provence

In 1266 Charles had seized, with Sicily, parts of the eastern Adriatic it had previously controlled as well as Corfu, Butrinto, Avlona and Suboto. The Treaty of Viterbo was agreed with the exiled Baldwin II of Constantinople and William II Villehardouin that the heirs of both Latin princes were to marry children of Charles, and Charles was to have the reversion of the Empire and principality should the couples have no heirs. He also turned his brother's crusade to his own advantage, persuading Louis to direct the Eighth Crusade against his rebel vassals in Tunis. Louis’s death, illness among the crusaders and a storm that devastated his fleet forced Charles to postpone his designs against Constantinople. Michael VIII Palaeologus was alarmed by Charles’s planned crusade to restore the Latin Empire that had fallen in 1261 and Charles' expansion in the Mediterranean. Palaeologus delayed Charles by beginning negotiations with Pope Gregory X for a union between the Greek and the Latin churches. At the Council of Lyon, a Union of Churches was declared; Charles and Philip of Courtenay were compelled to extend a truce with Byzantium. The union would later prove to be unacceptable to the Greeks. Palaeogus also provided Genoa and with funds to encourage the revolts in Charles’s northern Italian territories.

The accession of a French pope, Martin IV, in 1281 brought the full power of the Papacy into line behind Charles' plans. He campaigned unsuccessfully in Albania and Achaea before preparing to launch the body of his Crusade (400 ships carrying 27,000 mounted knights) against Constantinople. However, Palaeogus allied with Peter III of Aragon to encourage an uprising known as the Sicilian Vespers in which the crusader fleet was abandoned and burnt. The Sicilians appealed to King Peter, who was proclaimed king with the Angevin house exiled forever from Sicily. Pope Martin excommunicated Peter and called a crusade against Aragon before, in 1287, Charles died, allowing Henry II of Cyprus to reclaim the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The mainland Crusading states of the middle eastern Outremer were extinguished with the fall of Tripoli in 1289,[87] and Acre in 1291. The remaining Latin Christians largely left for various destinations in the Frankokratia, were killed or enslaved.[88] Minor crusading efforts lingered into the 14th century. Peter I of Cyprus captured and sacked Alexandria in 1365 in what became known as the Alexandrian Crusade though his motivation was as much commercial as it was religious.[89] Louis II, Duke of Bourbon led a French-Genoese campaign in 1390 against Muslim pirates in North Africa and based in Mahdia called the Mahdian Crusade. After a ten week siege, the crusaders lifted their siege with the signing of a ten-year truce.[90]

Military Orders[edit]

Central to the debate on crusading ethics are the military orders, particularly the Hospitallers and the Templars. To a modern sensibility it is strange that the church could reconcile monasticism with soldiering. Both the Hospitallers and the Templars became international organisations with depots located across the countries of Western Europe as well as in the East. In contrast the Teutonic knights successfully moved their attentions to the Baltic and the Spanish military orders of Santiago, Calatrava and Alcantara concentrated on the Iberian Peninsula. The Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem were founded in 1099 in the aftermath of the first crusade. The order included military, medical and pastoral brothers. Following the fall of Acre they escaped to Cyprus and successively conquered and ruled both Rhodes (1309-1522) and Malta (1530-1801). The Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon were founded in 1118 to protect pilgrims en route to Jerusalem. However, they quickly became immensely rich and powerful through banking and real estate with property throughout Christendom. In 1322 the King of France suppressed the order on spurious charges of sodomy, magic and heresy but more probably for financial and political reasons.[91]

Legacy[edit]

Ethnic[edit]

A people and culture descended from remaining European inhabitants of the crusader states — especially French Levantines in Lebanon, Israel and Turkey — and of traders from the maritime republics of the MediterraneanVenice, Genoa and Ragusa, continued to live in Constantinople/Istanbul, Smyrna/Izmir and other parts of Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean coast throughout the middle Byzantine and Ottoman eras. These people are known as Levantines or Franco-Levantines (pr:"Frankolevantini")—French: Levantins, Italian: Levantini, Greek: Φραγκολεβαντίνοι, Turkish: Levantenler or Tatlısu Frenkleri—and are Roman Catholic. They are now mainly concentrated in Istanbul — in the districts of Galata, Beyoğlu and Nişantaşı, İzmir — in the districts of Karşıyaka, Bornova and Buca, and Mersin, where they had been influential for creating and reviving a tradition of opera.[92] Since the United Kingdom occupied parts of Ottoman Syria in the aftermath of the First World War the term "Levantine" has been used pejoratively for inhabitants of mixed Arab and European descent and for Europeans — usually French, Italian or Greek — who adopted local dress and customs.

Politics and culture[edit]

20th-century depiction of a victorious Saladin

The crusades influenced the attitude of the western Church and people towards warfare. The frequent calling of crusades habituated the clergy to the use of violence. The crusades also sparked debate about the legitimacy of taking lands and possessions from pagans on purely religious grounds that would arise again in the 15th and 16th centuries with the Age of Discovery.[93] The needs of crusading warfare also stimulated secular governmental developments, although these were not necessarily positive. The resources collected for crusading could have been used by the developing states for local and regional needs instead of in far away lands.[94]

With its power and prestige raised by the crusades, the papal curia had greater control over the entire western Church and extended the system of papal taxation throughout the whole ecclesiastical structure of the west. The indulgence system grew significantly in late medieval Europe, later to spark the Protestant Reformation in the early 1500s.[95]

Military experience influenced European castle design — Caernarfon Castle directly reflects the style of fortresses Edward I had observed while fighting in the Crusades.[96]

Persecution of Jews in the First Crusade ignited a long tradition of organized violence against Jews in European culture.[97] The Albigensian Crusade was initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar heresy in Languedoc. The violence led to France's acquisition of lands with closer cultural and linguistic ties to Catalonia. The Albigensian Crusade also had a role in the creation and institutionalization of both the Dominican Order and the Medieval Inquisition.[98]

Criticism[edit]

Crusading remained supported in Europe after the fall of Acre in 1291 despite criticism by contemporaries such as Roger Bacon who felt the Crusades were ineffective as "those who survive, together with their children, are more and more embittered against the Christian faith."[99][100] The historian Norman Davies summarised the case against the crusades as that they ran counter to the Peace and Truce of God that Urban had promoted; instead they reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism. The formation of military religious orders scandalised the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Greeks. Crusaders pillaged the countries they transited through on their journey east and retained land gained rather than restoring territory previously held by Byzantium to the Byzantines as they had sworn to do.[8][101][102] The Peoples' Crusade instigated the Rhineland massacres and the massacre of thousands of Jews. In the late 19th century this episode was used by Jewish historians to support Zionism.[10] The Fourth Crusade resulted in the sacking of Constantinople, effectively ending the chance of reuniting the Christian church by reconciling the East–West Schism and leading to the weakening and eventual fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans.

Historians of the Enlightenment criticized the misdirection of the crusading movement. In particular they pointed to the Fourth Crusade which instead of attacking Islam attacked another Christian power—the (Eastern) Roman Empire. David Nicolle says the Fourth Crusade has always been controversial in terms of the "betrayal" of Byzantium.[103]

Eight hundred years after the Fourth Crusade, Pope John Paul II twice expressed sorrow for the events surrounding it. In 2001, he wrote to Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, saying, "It is tragic that the assailants, who set out to secure free access for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their brothers in the faith. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep regret."[104] In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was visiting the Vatican, John Paul II asked, "How can we not share, at a distance of eight centuries, the pain and disgust."[105] This has been regarded as an apology to the Greek Orthodox Church for the terrible slaughter perpetrated by the warriors of the Fourth Crusade.[106]

In April 2004, in a speech on the 800th anniversary of the city's capture, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I formally accepted the apology. "The spirit of reconciliation is stronger than hatred," he said during a liturgy attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France. "We receive with gratitude and respect your cordial gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade. It is a fact that a crime was committed here in the city 800 years ago." Bartholomew said his acceptance came in the spirit of Pascha. "The spirit of reconciliation of the resurrection... incites us toward reconciliation of our churches."[107]

Trade[edit]

The need to raise, transport and supply large armies led to a flourishing of trade throughout Europe between Europe and the Outremer. Genoa and Venice flourished through profitable trading colonies in the crusader states, both in the Holy Land and later in captured Byzantine territory.[108]

Age of Crusade[edit]

Reconquista (718–1492)[edit]

Main article: Reconquista
The Reconquista, 790–1300

Although the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslims began in the 8th century and reached its turning point with the recapture of Toledo in 1085[109] and the subsequent Council of Clermont in 1095[110] when Urban II tied the ongoing wars in Iberia to his preaching of the First Crusade and the crusading effort, it wasn't until the papal encyclical in 1123 by Pope Calixtus II that these wars attained the status of crusades.[111] After this, the papacy declared Iberian crusades in 1147, 1193, 1197, 1210, 1212, 1221 and 1229. Crusading privileges were also given to those people who were helping the military orders – both the traditional Templars and Hospitallers as well as the specifically Iberian orders that were founded and eventually merged into two main orders – that of the Order of Calatrava and the Order of Santiago. From 1212 to 1265, the Christian kingdoms of Iberia drove Muslim rule into the far south of the Iberian Peninsula, confined to the small Emirate of Granada. In 1492, this remnant was conquered and Muslims and Jews were expelled from the peninsula.[112]

People's Crusade (1096)[edit]

Main article: People's Crusade

Urban inspired the preaching of Peter the Hermit who eventually led perhaps as many as 20,000 people, mostly peasants, towards the Holy Land just after Easter 1096.[113] When they reached the Byzantine Empire, Alexios urged them to wait for the western nobles, but the "army" insisted on proceeding and was ambushed outside Nicaea by the Turks, with only about 3,000 people escaping the ambush.[114] This crusade is considered a part of the First Crusade.

First Crusade (1095–1099) and immediate aftermath[edit]

Route of the First Crusade through Asia

The official crusader armies set off from France and Italy at different times in August and September 1096, with Hugh of Vermandois departing first, and the bulk of the army dividing into four parts travelling separately to Constantinople.[115][116] In all, the western forces may have totaled as many as 100,000 persons, counting both combatants and non-combatants.[117] The armies journeyed eastward by land toward Constantinople, where they received a wary welcome from the Byzantine Emperor.[118] Pledging to restore lost territories to the empire,[119] the main army, mostly French and Norman knights under baronial leadership, marched south through Anatolia.[120][121] The leaders of the First Crusade included Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert Curthose, Hugh of Vermandois, Baldwin of Bouillon, Tancred de Hauteville, Raymond of Toulouse, Bohemond of Taranto, and Robert II, Count of Flanders, and Stephen, Count of Blois. The King of France and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, were both in conflict with the Papacy and did not take part.[122] When the French crusaders crossed into Germany in spring 1096, units of crusaders massacred hundreds or thousands of Jews in the cities of Speyer, Worms, Mainz and Cologne, despite the efforts by Catholic bishops to protect the Jews. Major leaders included Emicho and Peter the Hermit.[123] Chazan says "the range of anti-Jewish activity was broad, extending from limited, spontaneous violence to full-scale military attacks on the Jewish communities of Mainz and Cologne."[124] This was the first major outbreak of anti-Jewish violence in Christian Europe and was cited by Zionists in the 19th century as indicating the need for a state of Israel.[125]

The crusader armies initially fought the Turks at the lengthy Siege of Antioch that began in October 1097 and lasted until June 1098. Once inside the city the crusaders massacred the Muslim inhabitants and pillaged the city.[126] However, a large Muslim relief army under Kerbogha immediately besieged the victorious crusaders within Antioch. Bohemond of Taranto led a successful rally of the crusader army and defeated Kerbogha's army on 28 June.[127] Bohemond and his men retained control of Antioch,[128] in spite of his pledge to the Byzantine emperor.[129] Most of the surviving crusader army marched south, moving from town to town along the coast, finally reaching the walls of Jerusalem on 7 June 1099 with only a fraction of their original forces.[128]

Jews and Muslims fought together to defend Jerusalem against the invading Franks. On 15 July 1099 the crusaders entered the city. They proceeded to massacre the remaining Jewish and Muslim civilians and pillaged or destroyed mosques and the city itself.[130] As a result of the First Crusade, four main crusader states were created: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem.[131]

...  Wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was more merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one's way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared to what happened at the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are normally chanted ... in the temple and the porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. Indeed it was a just and splendid judgement of God that this place should be filled with the blood of unbelievers since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies

Raymond D'Aguilers in Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem [132]

On a popular level, the preaching of the First Crusade unleashed a wave of impassioned, personally felt pious Christian fury that was expressed in the massacres of Jews that accompanied and preceded the movement of the crusaders through Europe,[133] as well as the violent treatment of the "schismatic" Orthodox Christians of the east.[134]

Following this crusade was a second, less successful wave of crusaders, known as the Crusade of 1101, in which Turks led by Kilij Arslan defeated the crusaders in three separate battles in a response to the First Crusade.[135] Sigurd I of Norway was the first European king to visit the crusading states, as well as the first European king to take part in a crusading campaign, although his expedition was as much pilgrimage as crusade. His fleet helped at the Siege of Sidon. Also in 1107, Bohemond I of Antioch attacked the Byzantines at Avlona and Dyrrachium, in what is occasionally called Bohemond's Crusade, which ended in September 1108 with a defeat for Bohemond and his retiring to Italy.

Further efforts in the 1120s included a crusade preached by Pope Calixtus II around 1120, which became the Venetian Crusade of 1122–1124;[136] a pilgrimage of Count Fulk V of Anjou in 1120; an effort by Conrad III of Germany in 1124, of which few details are known; and the Damascus Crusade of 1129 by Fulk V, which resulted in the recognition of the Knights Templar by Pope Honorius II in January 1129. Some historians have seen Pope Innocent II's grant in 1135 of the same crusading indulgences to those who opposed papal enemies as the first of the politically motivated crusades against papal opponents, but other historians do not agree.[137]

The crusader states were initially secure, but Imad ad-Din Zengi, who was appointed governor of Mosul in 1127, captured Aleppo in 1128 and Edessa in 1144.[138] These defeats led Pope Eugenius III to call for another crusade on 1 March 1145.[136]

Second Crusade (1147–1149)[edit]

Main article: Second Crusade

The new crusade was called for by various preachers, most notably by Bernard of Clairvaux.[139] French and South German armies, under the Kings Louis VII and Conrad III respectively, marched to Jerusalem in 1147 but failed to win any major victories, launching a failed pre-emptive siege of Damascus.[140] On the other side of the Mediterranean, however, the Second Crusade met with great success as a group of Northern European crusaders stopped in Portugal, allied with the Portuguese King, Afonso I of Portugal, and retook Lisbon from the Muslims in 1147.[141] A detachment from this group of crusaders helped Count Raymond Berenguer IV of Barcelona conquer the city of Tortosa the following year.[142][page needed] In the Holy Land by 1150, both the kings of France and Germany had returned to their countries without any result. Bernard of Clairvaux, who in his preachings had encouraged the Second Crusade, was upset with the amount of misdirected violence and slaughter of the Jewish population of the Rhineland.[140] A followup to this crusade was the pilgrimage of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, in 1172 that is sometimes labeled a crusade.[143]

Wendish (1147–1162)[edit]

Main article: Wendish Crusade

Contemporaneous with the Second Crusade, Saxons and Danes fought against Polabian Slavs in the Wendish Crusade or First Northern Crusade. The Wends defeated the Danes and the Saxons did not contribute much to the crusade.[144] The Wends did acknowledge the overlordship of the Saxon ruler, Henry the Lion. Further crusading actions continued although no papal bulls were issued calling new crusades.[145] Efforts to conquer the Wends began again in 1160 under Henry the Lion,[146] continuing until 1162, when the Wends were defeated at the Battle of Demmin.[147]

Third Crusade (1187–1192)[edit]

Main article: Third Crusade
Detail of a miniature of Philip II of France arriving in the Holy Land

The Muslims had long fought among themselves, but they were finally united by Saladin, who created a single powerful state.[148] Following his victory at the Battle of Hattin he easily overwhelmed the disunited crusaders in 1187 and retook Jerusalem on 29 September 1187. Terms were arranged and the city surrendered, with Saladin entering the city on 2 October 1187.[149]

Saladin's victories shocked Europe. On hearing news of the Siege of Jerusalem (1187), Pope Urban III died of a heart attack on 19 October 1187.[150] On 29 October Pope Gregory VIII issued a papal bull, Audita tremendi, proposing the Third Crusade. To reverse the loss of Jerusalem, Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (r. 1152–1190) of Germany, King Philip II of France (r. 1180–1223), and King Richard I (r. 1189–1199) of England all organized forces. Frederick died en route, and few of his men reached the Holy Land. The other two armies arrived but were beset by political quarrels. Philip returned to France, leaving most of his forces behind. Richard captured the island of Cyprus from the Byzantines in 1191. He then recaptured the city of Acre after a long siege. The crusader army headed south along the Mediterranean coast, defeated the Muslims near Arsuf, recaptured the port city of Jaffa, and was in sight of Jerusalem, but supply problems forced them to end the crusade without taking Jerusalem.[143] Richard left the following year after negotiating a treaty with Saladin. The terms allowed trade for merchants and unarmed Christian pilgrims to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem, while it remained under Muslim control.[151]

Northern crusades (1193–1290)[edit]

Pope Celestine III called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. Bishop Berthold of Hanover arrived with a large contingent of crusaders in 1198, but he was killed in battle and his forces were defeated. To avenge Berthold, Pope Innocent III issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians, who were mostly still pagan.[152] Albrecht von Buxthoeven, consecrated as bishop in 1199, arrived the following year with a large force and established Riga as the seat of his bishopric in 1201. In 1202 he formed the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to aid in the conversion of the pagans to Christianity and, more importantly, to protect German trade and secure German control over commerce.[153] The Livonians were conquered and converted between 1202 and 1209.[153]

Pope Honorius III called a crusade against the Prussians in 1217.[154] Konrad of Masovia gave Chelmno to the Teutonic Knights in 1226 to serve as a base for the Prussian crusade.[155] In 1236 the Livonian Sword Brothers were defeated by the Lithuanians at Saule, and in 1237 Pope Gregory IX merged the remaining Sword Brothers into the Teutonic Knights.[156] By 1249, the Teutonic Knights had completed their conquest of the Prussians, which they ruled as a fief of the German emperor. The Knights then moved on to conquer and convert the pagan Lithuanians, a process that lasted into the 1380s.[157]

The Teutonic Order attempted but failed to conquer Orthodox Russia (particularly the Republics of Pskov and Novgorod), an enterprise endorsed by Pope Gregory IX, as part of the Northern Crusades. In 1240 the Novgorod army defeated the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva,[158] and in 1242 they defeated the Livonian knights in the Battle of the Ice.[157]

German Crusade (1195–1198)[edit]

Main article: German Crusade

Emperor Henry VI began preparations to launch a German Crusade in 1195. His health did not allow him to lead the forces in person, so leadership devolved to Conrad of Wittelsbach, the Archbishop of Mainz. The forces landed at Acre in September 1197 and captured the cities of Sidon and Beirut. Henry died soon thereafter, and most of the crusaders returned to Germany in 1198.[17]

Fourth Crusade (1202–1204)[edit]

The Fourth Crusade never reached the Holy Land. Instead, it became a vehicle for the political ambitions of Doge Enrico Dandolo and the German King Philip of Swabia who was married to Irene of Byzantium. Dandolo saw an opportunity to expand Venice's possessions in the near east, while Philip saw the crusade as a chance to restore his exiled nephew, Alexios IV Angelos, to the throne of Byzantium.[159] Pope Innocent III initiated recruitment for the crusade in 1200 with preaching taking place in France, England, and Germany, although the bulk of the efforts were in France.[160]

The crusaders contracted with the Venetians for a fleet and provisions to transport them to the Holy Land, but they lacked the funds to pay when too few knights arrived in Venice. They agreed to divert the crusade to Constantinople and share what could be looted as payment. As collateral the crusaders seized the Christian city of Zara on 24 November 1202. Innocent was appalled and excommunicated the crusaders.[161] The crusaders met with limited resistance in their initial siege of Constantinople, sailing down the Dardanelles and breaching the sea walls. However, Alexios was strangled after a palace coup, robbing them of their success, and they had to repeat the siege in April 1204. This time the city was sacked, churches pillaged, and large numbers of the citizens butchered. The crusaders took their rewards, dividing the Empire into Latin fiefs and Venetian colonies. In the Venetian period, there was particular attention to improving defences of La Cava and Nicosia.[162]

In April 1205, the crusaders were largely annihilated by Bulgars and remaining Greeks at Adrianople, where Kaloyan of Bulgaria captured and imprisoned the new Latin emperor Baldwin of Flanders.[163][164][165] While deploring the means, the papacy initially supported this apparent forced reunion between the Eastern and Western churches.[166] The Fourth Crusade effectively left two Roman Empires in the East: a Latin "Empire of the Straits", existing until 1261, and a Byzantine rump ruled from Nicea, which later regained control in the absence of the Venetian fleet. Venice was the sole beneficiary in the long run.[167]

Albigensian Crusade (1208–1241)[edit]

Main article: Albigensian Crusade
Pope Innocent III excommunicating the Albigensians (left), Massacre against the Albigensians by the crusaders (right)

The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1208 to eliminate the heretical Cathars of Occitania (modern-day southern France). It was a decades-long struggle that had as much to do with the desire of northern France to extend its control southwards as it did with battling heresy. In the end, the Cathars were driven underground, and the independence of southern France was eliminated.[168]

Pope Honorius III called a crusade against supposed Cathar heretics in Bosnia. There were rumors that there was an anti-pope of the Cathars named Nicetas, although whether such a figure ever existed is unclear. Hungarian forces responded to the papal calls in two efforts in 1234 and 1241, with the second one ending because of the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241. The Bosnian church was Catholic in theology, but continued to be in schism with the Roman Catholic Church well past the end of the Middle Ages.[169]

Fifth Crusade (1217–1221)[edit]

Main article: Fifth Crusade
Dirham struck by Christians between 1216 and 1241 with Arabic inscriptions.

Pope Innocent III declared a new crusade to commence in 1217, along with his summoning of the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215. The majority of the crusaders came from Germany, Flanders, and Frisia, along with a large army from Hungary led by King Andrew II and other forces led by Duke Leopold VI. The forces of Andrew and Leopold arrived in Acre in October 1217 but little was accomplished and Andrew returned to Hungary in January 1218. After the arrival of more crusaders, Leopold and the king of Jerusalem, John of Brienne, laid siege to Damietta, Egypt,[170] which they captured finally in November 1219. Further efforts by the papal legate, Pelagius, to invade further into Egypt led to no gains.[171] Blocked by forces of the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil, the crusaders were forced to surrender. Al-Kamil forced the return of Damietta and agreed to an eight-year truce and the crusaders left Egypt.[172]

Sixth Crusade (1228–1229)[edit]

Main article: Sixth Crusade
Emperor Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right), from a manuscript of the Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani

Emperor Frederick II had repeatedly vowed a crusade but failed to live up to his words,[173] for which he was excommunicated by Gregory IX in 1228. He nonetheless set sail from Brindisi in June 1228 and landed at Saint-Jean d'Acre in September 1228, after a stopover in Cyprus.[174] There were no battles as Frederick made a peace treaty with Al-Kamil, the ruler of Egypt. This treaty allowed Christians to rule over most of Jerusalem and a strip of territory from Acre to Jerusalem, while the Muslims were given control of their sacred areas in Jerusalem. In return, Frederick pledged to protect Al-Kamil against all his enemies, even if they were Christian.[175]

A followup to this crusade was the effort by King Theobald I of Navarre in 1239 and 1240 that had originally been called in 1234 by Pope Gregory IX to assemble in July 1239 at the end of a truce. Besides Theobald, Peter of Dreux and Hugh, Duke of Burgundy and other French nobles took part. They arrived in Acre in September 1239 and after a defeat in November, Theobald arranged a treaty with the Muslims that returned territory to the crusading states, but caused much disaffection within the crusaders. Theobald returned to Europe in September 1240. Also in 1240, Richard of Cornwall, younger brother of King Henry III of England, took the cross and arrived in Acre in October. He then secured the ratification of Theobald's treaty and left the Holy Land in May 1241 for Europe.[19]

Seventh Crusade (1248–1254)[edit]

Main article: Seventh Crusade

In the summer of 1244 a Khwarezmian force summoned by the son of al-Kamil, al-Salih Ayyub, stormed and took Jerusalem. The Franks allied with Ayyub's uncle Ismail and the emir of Homs and their combined forces were drawn into battle at La Forbie in Gaza. The crusader army and its allies were completely defeated within forty-eight hours by the Khwarezmian tribesmen.[176] In showing utter agony, a Templar knight lamented :

Rage and sorrow are seated in my heart...so firmly that I scarce dare to stay alive. It seems that God wishes to support the Turks to our loss...ah, lord God...alas, the realm of the East has lost so much that it will never be able to rise up again. They will make a Mosque of Holy Mary's convent, and since the theft pleases her Son, who should weep at this, we are forced to comply as well...Anyone who wishes to fight the Turks is mad, for Jesus Christ does not fight them any more. They have conquered, they will conquer. For every day they drive us down, knowing that God, who was awake, sleeps now, and Muhammad waxes powerful.[177]

King Louis IX of France organized a crusade after taking the cross in December 1244, preaching and recruiting from 1245 through 1248.[178] Louis' forces set sail from France in May 1249 and landed near Damietta in Egypt on 5 June 1249. Waiting until the end of the Nile flood, the army marched into the interior in November and by February were near El Manusra. They were defeated near there, however, and King Louis was captured while retreating towards Damietta.[179] Louis was ransomed for 800,000 bezants and a ten-year truce was agreed. Louis then went to Syria, where he remained until 1254 working to solidify the kingdom of Jerusalem and constructing fortifications.[180]

Eighth and Ninth Crusade (1270–1272)[edit]

Main articles: Eighth Crusade and Ninth Crusade
Christian states in the Levant

Ignoring his advisers, in 1270 Louis IX again attacked the Arabs in Tunis in North Africa. He picked the hottest season of the year for campaigning and his army was devastated by disease. The king himself died, ending the last major attempt to take the Holy Land.[181] The Mamluks, led by Baibars, eventually drove the Franks from the Holy Land. From 1265 through 1271, Baibars drove the Franks to a few small coastal outposts.[182] His armies slaughtered or enslaved every Christian in the city of Antioch.[183] The future Edward I of England undertook to crusade with Louis IX, but he was delayed and did not arrive in North Africa until November 1270. After the death of Louis, Edward went to Sicily and then on to Acre in May 1271. His forces were too small to make much difference, though, and he was upset at the conclusion of a truce between Baibars and the king of Jerusalem, Hugh. Although Edward learned of his father's death and his succession to the throne in December 1272, he did not return to England until 1274, although he accomplished little in the Holy Land.[184]

Aragonese Crusade (1284-1285)[edit]

Main article: Aragonese Crusade

The Crusade of Aragón was declared by Pope Martin IV against King Peter III of Aragon in 1284 and 1285. Peter was supporting the anti-Angevin forces in Sicily following the Sicilian Vespers, and the papacy supported Charles of Anjou. Pope Boniface VIII proclaimed a crusade against Frederick III of Sicily, the younger brother of Peter, in 1298, but was unable to prevent Frederick's crowning and recognition as King of Sicily.[185]

Crusades of the 14th and 15th centuries[edit]

Further information: Crusade of Nicopolis
Execution of Christian prisoners after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

Various crusades were launched in the 14th and 15th centuries to counter the expanding Ottoman Empire starting in 1396 with Sigismund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary. Many French nobles joined Sigismund's forces, including John the Fearless, son of the Duke of Burgundy, who was appointed military leader of the crusade. Although Sigismund advised the crusaders to adopt a defensive posture once they reached the Danube, the crusaders instead besieged the city of Nicopolis. The Ottomans met the crusaders in the Battle of Nicopolis on 25 September 1396, defeating the Christian forces and capturing 3,000 prisoners.[186]

Further information: Hussite Wars
The battle between the Hussite warriors and the Crusaders, Jena Codex, 15th century

The Hussite Crusade(s), also known as the "Hussite Wars," or the "Bohemian Wars," involved the military actions against the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to around 1431. Crusades were declared five times in that period – in 1420, 1421, 1422, 1427 and in 1431. The net effect of these expeditions was to force the Hussite forces, which disagreed on many doctrinal points, to unite to drive out the invaders. The wars were brought to a conclusion in 1436 with the ratification of the Compactata of Iglau by the Church.[187] In April 1487, Pope Innocent VIII called a crusade against the Waldensian heretics of Savoy, the Piedmont, and the Dauphiné in southern France and northern Italy. The only efforts actually undertaken were against heretics in the Dauphiné, and resulted in little change.[188]

Further information: Crusade of Varna

The Polish-Hungarian king, Władysław Warneńczyk invaded the recently conquered Ottoman territory and reached Belgrade in January 1444. Negotiations over a truce eventually led to an agreement, that was repudiated by Sultan Murad II within days of its ratification. Further efforts by the crusaders ended in the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444 which, although resulting in a draw between the two forces, led to the crusaders withdrawing. This withdrawal led to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, as it was the last Western attempt to help the Byzantine Empire.

Further information: Siege of Belgrade (1456)

In 1456 John Hunyadi and Giovanni da Capistrano organized a crusade to lift the Ottomon siege of Belgrade.[189]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Riley-Smith, Johnathan (1995). The Oxford Illustrated history of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford Press. p. 66. 
  3. ^ Teall, J.L. (1959). The Grain Supply of the Byzantine Empire, 330-1025. Volume 13. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. pp. 85–94. 
  4. ^ Inge Lyse Hansen; Chris Wickham (2000). The Long Eighth Century. BRILL. pp. 244–. ISBN 90-04-11723-7. 
  5. ^ Nelson Byzantine Perspective of the First Crusade p. 40
  6. ^ Asbridge Crusades p. 1
  7. ^ Davies 1997, p. 359
  8. ^ a b c d Davies 1997, p. 358
  9. ^ Hillenbrand 1999, pp. 64–66
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  12. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 258
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  17. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion pp. 155–156
  18. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 172
  19. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion pp. 173–174
  20. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 176
  21. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion p. 179
  22. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 180
  23. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 167
  24. ^ Tyerman England and the Crusades p. 336
  25. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. What were the Crusades? (Fourth Edition ed.). Ignatius Press. p. 27. 
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  29. ^ "Saracen." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 27 April 2012.
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  31. ^ Retso 2003, p. 96
  32. ^ Heng 2004, p. 334
  33. ^ Heng 2004, pp. 231, 422
  34. ^ "The King of Tars". The Crusades Project at the University of Rochester. 28 April 2012.
  35. ^ Kahf 1999, p. 31
  36. ^ Igor de Rachewiltz - Turks in China under the Mongols, in: China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries, pp.281
  37. ^ Rashid al-din Fazl Allâh, quoted in Karl Jahn (ed.) Histoire Universelle de Rasid al-Din Fadl Allah Abul=Khair: I. Histoire des Francs (Texte Persan avec traduction et annotations), Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1951. (Source: M. Ashtiany)
  38. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 257
  39. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 259
  40. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 261
  41. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 266
  42. ^ Runciman History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Acre p. 480
  43. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 269
  44. ^ Wickham Inheritance of Rome p. 280
  45. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 4
  46. ^ Hindley Crusades p. 14
  47. ^ Hindley Crusades p. 15
  48. ^ Pringle "Architecture in Latin East" Oxford History of the Crusades p. 157
  49. ^ Findley 2005, p. 73
  50. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 15–16
  51. ^ TolanVeinsteinHenry 2013, p. 37
  52. ^ Asbridge, First Crusade p. 97
  53. ^ Mayer Crusades pp. 2–3
  54. ^ Riley-Smith, Johnathan (2009). What were the Crusades (Fourth Edition ed.). Ignatius Press. pp. 10–11. 
  55. ^ Riley-Smith Crusades pp. 8–10
  56. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades p. 31
  57. ^ Mayer Crusades pp. 17–18
  58. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 306–308
  59. ^ Mayer Crusades pp. 6–7
  60. ^ "Medieval Sourcebook: Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, according to Fulcherof Chartres". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  61. ^ Georg Strack, The sermon of Urban II in Clermont 1095 and the Tradition of Papal Oratory, in: Medieval Sermon Studies 56 (2012), S. 30-45.<http://www.mag.geschichte.uni-muenchen.de/downloads/strack_urban.pdf>.
  62. ^ "Decrees of Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, 1095". Falcon.arts.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  63. ^ "Medieval Sourcebook: Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, according to Fulcherof Chartres". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-12. 
  64. ^ Quotes from Urban's letter in Riley-Smith, Louise; Riley-Smith, Johnathan, eds. (1981). The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095–1274. Documents of Medieval History 4. London: E. Arnold. p. 38. ISBN 0-7131-6348-8. 
  65. ^ Munro "Speech of Pope Urban II" American Historical Review
  66. ^ Hodgson Women, Crusading and the Holy Land pp. 39–44
  67. ^ C.T. Maier, "The roles of women in the crusade movement: a survey" Journal of medieval history (2004). 30#1 pp 61–82
  68. ^ Susan B. Edgington and Sarah Lambert, eds., Gendering the Crusades (2002)
  69. ^ Riley-Smith First Crusaders p. 99
  70. ^ Hodgson Women, Crusading and the Holy Land pp. 110–112
  71. ^ a b Owen Eleanor of Aquitaine p. 22
  72. ^ Edington and Lambert Gendering the Crusades p. 98
  73. ^ a b Nicholson "Women on the Third Crusade" Journal of Medieval History p. 337
  74. ^ Zacour "Children's Crusade" Later Crusades pp. 330–337
  75. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 187–188
  76. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 190
  77. ^ a b Edbury P.W., The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191 - 1374, Cambridge University Press (1991)
  78. ^ On the meaning of Romània, an ambiguous term, see R.L. Wolff, "Romània: The Latin Empire of Constantinople". In: Speculum, 23 (1948), pp. 1-34.
  79. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2009). What were the Crusades? (Fourth Edition ed.). Ignatius Press. pp. 43–44. 
  80. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2009). What were the Crusades? (Fourth Edition ed.). Ignatius Press. p. 44. 
  81. ^ Marshall 1994, pp. 39
  82. ^ Marshall 1994, pp. 10
  83. ^ refname=”Riley37”> Riley-Smith 1973, p. 37
  84. ^ Marshall 1994, pp. 59
  85. ^ Marshall 1994, pp. 41
  86. ^ Setton, Kenneth M. (ed.) (1985). A History of the Crusades: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East, p. 201. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-09144-9
  87. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 122
  88. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 820–822
  89. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 195–196
  90. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 199
  91. ^ Davies 1997, pp. 359
  92. ^ Mersin'in bahanesi yok, Radikal, 26 May 2007
  93. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades pp. 146–147
  94. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades p. 149
  95. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades pp. 147–149
  96. ^ "Caernarfon Castle". Uktv.co.uk. 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  97. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades pp. 161–163
  98. ^ Strayer Albigensian Crusades p. 143
  99. ^ Rose "Order of the Knights Templar p. 72
  100. ^ Quoted in Rose Order of the Knights Templar p. 72
  101. ^ Kolbaba Byzantine Lists p. 49
  102. ^ Vasilʹev History of the Byzantine Empire p. 408
  103. ^ Nicolle Fourth Crusade p. 5
  104. ^ In the Footsteps of St. Paul: Papal Visit to Greece, Syria & Malta – Words. EWTN.
  105. ^ "Pope sorrow over Constantinople". BBC News. June 29, 2004.
  106. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. xiii.
  107. ^ In Communion » News – issue 33
  108. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades pp. 152–154
  109. ^ Bull "Origins" Oxford History of the Crusades pp. 18–19
  110. ^ Barber Two Cities pp. 341–345
  111. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 205–209
  112. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 211–212
  113. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 20–21
  114. ^ Hindley Crusades p. 23
  115. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 27–30
  116. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 20–21
  117. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 30–31
  118. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 106–110
  119. ^ Ashbridge Crusades pp. 50–52
  120. ^ Ashbridge Crusades p. 46
  121. ^ Riley-Smith Crusades pp. 32–36
  122. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 25–26
  123. ^ Robert Chazan, In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews (1996) online
  124. ^ Robert Chazan (1996). European Jewry and the First Crusade. U. of California Press. p. 60. 
  125. ^ Corliss K. Slack (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Crusades. Scarecrow Press. pp. 108–9. 
  126. ^ Nicholle First Crusade p. 56
  127. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 143–146
  128. ^ a b Tyerman God's War pp. 146–153
  129. ^ Mayer Crusades pp. 60–61
  130. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 156–158
  131. ^ Riley-Smith Crusades pp. 50–51
  132. ^ Sinclair 1995, pp. 55–56
  133. ^ Riley-Smith Crusades pp. 23–24
  134. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 192–194
  135. ^ Housley Contesting the Crusades p. 42
  136. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion pp. 144–145
  137. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 146–147
  138. ^ Riley-Smith Crusades pp. 104–105
  139. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 71–74
  140. ^ a b Hindley Crusades pp. 77–85
  141. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 75–77
  142. ^ Villegas-Aristizábal "Anglo-Norman involvement" Crusades
  143. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion p. 151
  144. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 48
  145. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 213–214
  146. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 55
  147. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 56
  148. ^ Holt "Saladin and His Admirers" Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies pp. 235–239
  149. ^ Ashbridge Crusades pp. 343–357
  150. ^ Ashbridge Crusades p. 367
  151. ^ Ashbridge Crusades pp. 512–513
  152. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 82
  153. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion p. 84
  154. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 92
  155. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 96
  156. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 103
  157. ^ a b Lock Routledge Companion pp. 221–222
  158. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 104
  159. ^ Davies 1997, pp. 359–360
  160. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 502–508
  161. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 158–159
  162. ^ Riley-Smith, Johnathan (1995). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford Press. p. 181. 
  163. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 159–161
  164. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 554–561
  165. ^ Dennis P. Hupchick, The Balkans:From Constantinople to Communism, (Macmillan, 2002), 71.
  166. ^ Ashbridge Crusades pp. 531–532
  167. ^ Davies 1997, p. 360
  168. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 163–165
  169. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 172–173
  170. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 168–169
  171. ^ Riley-Smith Crusades pp. 179–180
  172. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 561–562
  173. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 169
  174. ^ Ashbridge Crusades pp. 566–568
  175. ^ Ashbridge Crusades p. 569
  176. ^ Ashbridge Crusades pp. 574–576
  177. ^ Howarth,p.223
  178. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 770–775
  179. ^ Hindley Crusades pp. 194–195
  180. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 178
  181. ^ Strayer "Crusades of Louis IX" Later Crusades p. 487
  182. ^ Tyerman God's War pp. 816–817
  183. ^ Michaud, The History of the Crusades, Vol. 3, p. 18 ; available in full at Google Books. Note that in a footnote Michaud claims reliance on "the chronicle of Ibn Ferat" (Michaud, Vol.3, p.22) for much of the information he has concerning the Mussulmans.
  184. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 164
  185. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 186
  186. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 200
  187. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 201–202
  188. ^ Lock Routledge Companion p. 204
  189. ^ Lock Routledge Companion pp. 202–203

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  • Bernard of Clairvaux (2000). In Praise of the New Knighthood. Cistercian Publications. ISBN 978-0879071202. 
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  • Dickson, Gary (2008). The Children's Crusade: Medieval History, Modern Mythistory. Palgrave Macmillan. 
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  • Esposito, John L. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. 
  • Findley, Carter Vaughan (2005). The Turks in World History. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516770-8. 
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  • Heng, Geraldine (2004). Empire of Magic: Medieval Romance and the Politics of Cultural Fantasy. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12526-7. 
  • Hillenbrand, Carole (1999). The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 
  • Hindley, Geoffrey. The Crusades: Islam and Christianity in the Struggle for World Supremacy. New York: Carrol & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1344-5. 
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  • Holt, P. M. (1983). "Saladin and His Admirers: A Biographical Reassessment". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 46 (2): 235–239. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00078824. JSTOR 615389. 
  • Jackson, Peter (2007). The Seventh Crusade, 1244–1254. 
  • Kahf, Mohja (1999). Western Representations of the Muslim Women: From Termagant to Odalisque. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-74337-3. 
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  • Lewis, Richard D. (2005). Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf. Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-49-9. 
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  • Madden, Thomas F. (2005). The New Concise History of the Crusades. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-3822-1. 
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Further reading

Introductions
  • Andrea, Alfred J. (2003). Encyclopedia of the Crusades. ISBN 0-313-31659-7. OCLC 52030565. 
  • Asbridge, Thomas (2005). The First Crusade: A New History: The Roots of Conflict between Christianity and Islam. ISBN 0-195-18905-1. OCLC 60964496. 
  • France, John (1999). Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, 1000–1300. ISBN 0-801-48607-6. OCLC 40179990. 
  • Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades, Islamic Perspectives. (2000)
  • Holt, P.M. The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. (1986)
  • Phillips, Jonathan. Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades (2010)
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. The Atlas of the Crusades (1991)
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Crusades, Christianity, and Islam (2011)
Specialized studies
  • Boas, Adrian J. Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape, and Art in the Holy City under Frankish Rule (2001)
  • Bull, Marcus, and Norman Housley, eds. The Experience of Crusading Volume 1, Western Approaches. (2003)
  • Edbury, Peter, and Jonathan Phillips, eds. The Experience of Crusading Volume 2, Defining the Crusader Kingdom. (2003)
  • Florean, Dana. "East Meets West: Cultural Confrontation and Exchange after the First Crusade." Language & Intercultural Communication, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, pp. 144–151
  • Folda, Jaroslav. Crusader Art in the Holy Land, From the Third Crusade to the Fall of Acre (2005)
  • France, John. Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade (1996)
  • Harris, Jonathan, Byzantium and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed. (2014) ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
  • Hillenbrand, Car. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives (1999)
  • Housley, Norman. The Later Crusades, 1274–1580: From Lyons to Alcazar (1992)
  • James, Douglas. "Christians and the First Crusade." History Review (Dec 2005), Issue 53
  • Kagay, Donald J., and L. J. Andrew Villalon, eds. Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies around the Mediterranean. (2003)
  • Maalouf, Amin. Crusades Through Arab Eyes (1989)
  • Madden, Thomas F. et al., eds. Crusades Medieval Worlds in Conflict (2010)
  • Peters, Edward. Christian Society and the Crusades, 1198–1229 (1971)
  • Powell, James M. Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213–1221, (1986)
  • Queller, Donald E., and Thomas F. Madden. The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople (2nd ed. 1999)
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan.The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. (1986)
  • Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades: Volume 2, The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East (1952) vol 2 online free; A History of the Crusades: Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades (1954); the classic 20th century history
  • Setton, Kenneth ed., A History of the Crusades. (1969–1989), the standard scholarly history in six volumes, published by the University of Wisconsin Press
Includes: The first hundred years (2nd ed. 1969); The later Crusades, 1189–1311 (1969); The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (1975); The art and architecture of the crusader states (1977); The impact of the Crusades on the Near East (1985); The impact of the Crusades on Europe (1989)
  • Smail, R. C. "Crusaders' Castles of the Twelfth Century" Cambridge Historical Journal Vol. 10, No. 2. (1951), pp. 133–149.
  • Stark, Rodney. God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades (2010)
  • Tyerman, Christopher. England and the Crusades, 1095–1588. (1988)
Historiography
  • Constable, Giles. "The Historiography of the Crusades" in Angeliki E. Laiou, ed. The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World (2001) Extract online.
  • Housley, Norman (2006). Contesting the Crusades. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1189-5. 
  • Illston, James Michael. 'An Entirely Masculine Activity'? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009) full text online
  • Madden, Thomas F. ed. The Crusades: The Essential Readings (2002)
  • Maier, C.T. "The roles of women in the crusade movement: a survey" Journal of medieval history 2004.
  • Powell, James M. "The Crusades in Recent Research," The Catholic Historical Review (2009) 95#2 pp 313-19 in Project MUSE
  • Rubenstein, Jay. "In Search of a New Crusade: A Review Essay," Historically Speaking (2011) 12#2 pp 25-27 in Project MUSE
Primary sources
  • Barber, Malcolm, Bate, Keith (2010). Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th–13th Centuries (Crusade Texts in Translation Volume 18, Ashgate Publishing Ltd)
  • Bird, Jessalynn, et al. eds. Crusade and Christendom: Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291 (2013) excerpts
  • Housley, Norman, ed. Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274–1580 (1996)
  • Krey, August C. The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eye-Witnesses and Participants (1958)
  • Shaw, M. R. B. ed.Chronicles of the Crusades (1963)
  • Villehardouin, Geoffrey, and Jean de Joinville. Chronicles of the Crusades ed. by Sir Frank Marzials (2007)

External links[edit]