Billy Ward and his Dominoes

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For other people named Billy Ward, see Billy Ward (disambiguation).
"The Dominoes" redirects here. For the band formed by Eric Clapton, see Derek and the Dominos.
Billy Ward and his Dominoes
Also known as The Dominoes
Genres Doo-wop
Years active 1950–1960s
Labels Federal, Jubilee, Decca
Past members Billy Ward (deceased)
Clyde McPhatter (deceased)
Charlie White
Joe Lamont
Bill Brown
James Van Loan
David McNeil
Jackie Wilson (deceased)
Eugene Mumford
Milton Merle
Cliff Givens

Billy Ward and his Dominoes were an African-American R&B vocal group. One of the most successful R&B groups of the early 1950s, the Dominoes helped launch the singing careers of two notable members, Clyde McPhatter and Jackie Wilson.[1]

Career[edit]

Billy Ward (born Robert L. Williams, 19 September 1921, Savannah, Georgia, died 16 February 2002, Inglewood, California[2]) grew up in Philadelphia, the second of three sons of Charles Williams and Cora Bates Williams, and was a child musical prodigy, winning an award for a piano composition at the age of 14.[3] Following military service with the U.S. Army he studied music in Chicago, and at the Juilliard School of Music in New York. While working as a vocal coach and part-time arranger on Broadway, he met talent agent Rose Marks, who became his business and songwriting partner.

The pair set out to form a vocal group from the ranks of his students, hoping to cash in on the new trend of vocal quintets in R&B. The group was at first called the Ques, composed of Clyde McPhatter (lead tenor), whom Ward recruited after McPhatter won "Amateur Night" at the Apollo Theater, Charlie White (tenor), Joe Lamont (baritone), and Bill Brown (bass). Ward acted as their pianist and arranger.[3] After the group made successful appearances on talent shows in the Apollo Theater and on the Arthur Godfrey show in 1950, Rene Hall recommended them to Ralph Bass of Federal Records, a subsidiary of King, where they were signed to a recording contract and renamed themselves The Dominoes. Their first single release, "Do Something For Me", with McPhatter’s lead vocal, reached the R&B charts in early 1951, climbing to #6.[3]

After a less successful follow-up, the group released "Sixty Minute Man", on which Brown sang lead,[3] and boasted of being able to satisfy his girls with fifteen minutes each of "kissin'" "teasin'" and "squeezin'", before "blowin'" his "top".[1] It reached #1 on the R&B chart in May 1951 and stayed there for 14 weeks, and crossed over to the pop charts, reaching #17.[3] It was an important record in several respects—it crossed the boundaries between gospel singing and blues, its lyrics pushed the limits of what was deemed acceptable, and it appealed to many white as well as black listeners. In later years, it became a contender for the title of "the first rock and roll record".

The group toured widely, building up a reputation as one of the top R&B acts of the era, edging out the Five Keys and the Clovers (two of the top R&B groups of the early 1950s) and commanding an audience which crossed racial divides. However, Ward's strict disciplinarian approach, and failure to recompense the singers, caused internal problems. "Billy Ward was not an easy man to work for. He played piano and organ, could arrange, and he was a fine director and coach. He knew what he wanted, and you had to give it to him. And he was a strict disciplinarian. You better believe it! You paid a fine if you stepped out of line," according to Jackie Wilson.[4] Ward most likely got the idea of levying fines against group members from his tenure in the military. Article 15 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice gives a unit commander authority to mete a certain amount of punishment to troops under his or her command without going through a court-martial, which includes fines (partial forfeiture of pay).

The name "The Dominoes" was owned by Ward and Marks, who had the power to hire and fire, and to pay the singers a salary. Clyde McPhatter was being paid barely enough to live on, even though much of the Dominoes' success was due to McPhatter's soaring vocal abilities. "I'd go home and hear my records on the radio - half the time I couldn't afford a Coca-Cola," according to McPhatter. Allegedly, Ward paid his singers $100 a week, minus deductions for taxes, food and hotel bills.[5] McPhatter often found himself billed as "Clyde Ward" to fool fans into thinking he was Billy Ward's brother. Others assumed Ward was doing the lead singing.

White and Brown both left in 1951 to form the Checkers, and were replaced by James Van Loan (1922–1976) and David McNeil (1932–2005, previously of the Larks). In March 1952, the Dominoes were chosen to be the only vocal group at Alan Freed's "Moondog Coronation Ball". The hits continued, with "Have Mercy Baby" topping the R&B charts for 10 weeks in 1952. Later records were credited to "Billy Ward and His Dominoes".[6]

In early 1953, McPhatter decided to leave, and soon formed his own group, the Drifters. His replacement in the Dominoes was Jackie Wilson, who had been coached by McPhatter while also singing with the group on tour. Lamont and McNeil also left and were replaced by Milton Merle and Cliff Givens (Givens had been in the Golden Gate Quartet, and joined the Ink Spots in 1944 upon the death of original bass Orville "Hoppy" Jones). With Wilson singing lead, singles such as "You Can't Keep A Good Man Down" continued to be successful, although the Dominoes didn't enjoy quite the same success as they had with McPhatter as lead tenor.

In 1954, Ward moved the group to the Jubilee label and then to Decca, where they enjoyed a #27 pop hit with "St. Therese of the Roses",[3] featuring Wilson on tenor, giving the Dominoes a brief moment in the spotlight again. However, the group was unable to follow that success in the charts, and there were a succession of personnel changes. They increasingly moved away from their R&B roots with appearances in Las Vegas and elsewhere. In late 1957, Wilson left for a solo career and was replaced by Gene Mumford of the Larks.[3] The group then got a new contract with Liberty Records, and had a #13 pop hit with "Stardust". Stardust was one of the earliest multitrack recordings in the rock & roll era. The session was on March 7, 1957. The tapes have been mixed into true stereo. This is one of the very first songs (1957) by a rock & roll/RnB artist in real stereo. The track also reached #13 in the UK Singles Chart in October 1957.[2] It was to be their only million seller.[7] This proved to be their last major success, although various line-ups of the group continued recording and performing into the 1960s.

They were inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2006.

Discography[edit]

Chart singles[edit]

Year Single Chart Positions
US Pop[8] US
R&B
[6]
UK[9]
1951 "Do Something For Me" - 6 -
"Sixty-Minute Man" 17 1 -
"I Am With You" - 8 -
1952 "That's What You're Doing To Me" - 7 -
"Have Mercy Baby" - 1 -
"I'd Be Satisfied" - 8 -
1953 "The Bells" /
"Pedal Pushin' Papa"
-
-
3
4
-
-
"These Foolish Things Remind Me Of You" - 5 -
"You Can't Keep A Good Man Down" - 8 -
"Rags To Riches" - 2 -
1956 "St. Therese Of The Roses" 13 - -
1957 "Star Dust" 12 5 13
"Deep Purple" 20 - 30
1958 "Jennie Lee" 55 - -

Federal Records discography[edit]

1950
Federal 12001 - "Do Something For Me"/"Chicken Blues"
1951
Federal 12010 - "Harbor Lights"/"No, Says My Heart"
Federal 12016 - "The Deacon Moves In" (with Little Esther)/"Other Lips, Other Arms" (Little Esther)
Federal 12022 - "Sixty Minute Man"/"I Can't Escape From You"
Federal 12036 - "Heart To Heart" (with Little Esther)/"Looking For A Man To Satisfy My Soul" (Little Esther)
Federal 12039 - "I Am With You"/"Weeping Willow Blues"
1952
Federal 12059 - "That's What You're Doing To Me"/"When The Swallows Come Back To Capistrano"
Federal 12068 - "Have Mercy Baby"/"Deep Sea Blues"
Federal 12072 - "Love, Love, Love"/"That's What You're Doing To Me"
Federal 12105 - "I'd Be Satisfied"/"No Room"
Federal 12106 - "Yours Forever"/"I'm Lonely"
Federal 12114 - "The Bells"/"Pedal Pushin' Papa"
1953
Federal 12129 - "These Foolish Things Remind Me Of You"/"Don't Leave Me This Way"
Federal 12139 - "You Can't Keep A Good Man Down"/"Where Now Little Heart"
1954
Federal 12162 - "My Baby's 3-D"/"Until The Real Thing Comes Along"
Federal 12178 - "Tootsie Roll"/"Move To The Outskirts Of Town"
Federal 12184 - "Handwritting On The Wall"/"One Moment With You"
Federal 12193 - "Above Jacob's Ladder"/"Little Black Train"
1955
Federal 12209 - "Can't Do Sixty No More"/"If I Never Get To Heaven"
Federal 12218 - "Cave Man"/"Love Me Now Or Let Me Go"
1956
Federal 12263 - "Bobby Sox Baby"/"How Long, How Long Blues"
1957
Federal 12301 - "St. Louis Blues"/"One Moment With You"
Federal 12308 - "Have Mercy Baby"/"Love, Love, Love"

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 3 - The Tribal Drum: The rise of rhythm and blues. [Part 1]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. 
  2. ^ a b Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 591. ISBN 1-904994-10-5. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Warner, Jay (2006). American Singing Groups: A History from 1940s to Today, pp. 312-15. Hal Leonard Corporation.
  4. ^ Arnold Shaw, Honkers And Shouters. The Golden Years Of Rhythm And Blues. New York: Crowell-Collier Press, 1978, p. 443.
  5. ^ Shaw, Honkers And Shouters, 1978, p. 283.
  6. ^ a b Whitburn, Joel (1996). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942-1995. Record Research. p. 120. 
  7. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 96. ISBN 0-214-20512-6. 
  8. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955-2002 (1st ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 752. ISBN 0-89820-155-1. 
  9. ^ Betts, Graham (2004). Complete UK Hit Singles 1952-2004 (1st ed.). London: Collins. p. 832. ISBN 0-00-717931-6. 

External links[edit]