Dust Bowl

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For other uses, see Dust Bowl (disambiguation).
A farmer and his two sons during a dust storm in Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936, Photo: Arthur Rothstein

The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, and 1939–40, but some regions of the High Plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years.[1] Extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains during the previous decade had displaced the native, deep-rooted grasses that normally trapped soil and moisture even during periods of drought and high winds. Rapid mechanization of farm implements, especially small gasoline tractors and widespread use of the combine harvester, significantly impacted decisions to convert arid grassland (much of which received no more than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation per year) to cultivated cropland.[citation needed]

During the drought of the 1930s, the unanchored soil turned to dust that the prevailing winds blew away in clouds that sometimes blackened the sky. These choking billows of dust – named "black blizzards" or "black rollers" – reached such East Coast cities as New York City and Washington, D.C. and often reduced visibility to 1 metre (3.3 ft) or less. Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma to witness the "Black Sunday" black blizzards of April 14, 1935; Edward Stanley, Kansas City news editor of the Associated Press coined the term "Dust Bowl" while rewriting Geiger's news story.[2][3]

The drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres (400,000 km2) that centered on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.[4]

The Dust Bowl forced tens of thousands of families to abandon their farms. Many of these families, who were often known as "Okies" because so many of them came from Oklahoma, migrated to California and other states to find that the Great Depression had rendered economic conditions there little better than those they had left. Author John Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men about such people.

Causes

During early European and American exploration of the Great Plains, the region in which the Dust Bowl occurred was thought unsuitable for European-style agriculture; the region was known as the Great American Desert. The lack of surface water and timber made the region less attractive than other areas for pioneer settlement and agriculture.

Settlement was encouraged by the Homestead Act of 1862. With the end of the Civil War in 1865 and the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, waves of new immigrants arrived in the Great Plains, and cultivation increased significantly.[5][6] An unusually wet period in the Great Plains mistakenly led settlers and the federal government to believe that "rain follows the plow" (a popular phrase among real estate promoters) and that the climate of the region had changed permanently.[7] While initial agricultural endeavors were primarily cattle ranching, the impact on cattle herds from harsh winters beginning in 1886, a short drought in 1890, and general overgrazing, led to an expansion of land under cultivation.

Recognizing the challenge of cultivating marginal arid land, the United States government expanded on the 160 acres offered under the Homestead Act—granting 640 acres to homesteaders in western Nebraska under the Kinkaid Act (1904) and 320 elsewhere in the Great Plains under the Enlarged Homestead Act (1909). Waves of European settlers arrived in the plains at the beginning of the 20th century. A return of unusually wet weather seemingly confirmed a previously held opinion that the "formerly" semiarid area could support large-scale agriculture, which was readily enabled by technological improvements such as mechanized plowing and mechanized harvesting.

The combined impact of the Russian Revolution and World War I increased agricultural prices, which further encouraged farmers to dramatically increase cultivation. For example, in the Llano Estacado of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas, the area of farmland doubled between 1900 and 1920, then tripled again between 1925 and 1930.[8]

The favored agricultural methods of farmers during this period created the conditions for large scale erosion under certain environmental conditions.[1] The widespread conversion of the land by deep plowing and other soil preparation methods to enable agriculture eliminated the native grasses which held the soil in place and helped retain moisture during dry periods. Furthermore, cotton farmers left fields bare over winter months, when winds in the High Plains are highest, and burned the stubble as a means to control weeds prior to planting, thus depriving the soil of organic nutrients and surface vegetation.

When severe drought struck the Great Plains region in the 1930s, it exposed the increased risk for erosion that was created by the farming practices in use at the time. The drought dried the topsoil and over time it became friable, reduced to a powdery consistency in some places. Without the indigenous grasses in place, the high winds that occur on the plains were able to create the massive dust storms that marked the Dust Bowl period.[9]

Geographic characteristics

A dust storm approaches Stratford, Texas, in 1935.

The Dust Bowl area lies principally west of the 100th meridian on the High Plains, characterized by plains which vary from rolling in the north to flat in the Llano Estacado. Elevation ranges from 2,500 feet (760 m) in the east to 6,000 feet (1,800 m) at the base of the Rocky Mountains. The area is semiarid, receiving less than 20 inches (510 mm) of rain annually; this rainfall supports the shortgrass prairie biome originally present in the area. The region is also prone to extended drought, alternating with unusual wetness of equivalent duration.[10] During wet years, the rich soil provides bountiful agricultural output, but crops fail during dry years. The region is also subject to high winds.[11]

Drought and dust storms

A dust storm; Spearman, Texas, April 14, 1935

The unusually wet period, which encouraged increased settlement and cultivation in the Great Plains, ended in 1930. This was the year in which an extended and severe drought began which caused crops to fail, leaving the plowed fields exposed to wind erosion. The fine soil of the Great Plains was easily eroded and carried east by strong continental winds.

On November 11, 1933, a very strong dust storm stripped topsoil from desiccated South Dakota farmlands in just one of a series of bad dust storms that year. Then, beginning on May 9, 1934, a strong, two-day dust storm removed massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the worst such storms of the Dust Bowl.[12] The dust clouds blew all the way to Chicago, where they deposited 12 million pounds of dust.[13] Two days later, the same storm reached cities in the east, such as Buffalo, Boston, Cleveland, New York City, and Washington, D.C.[14] That winter (1934–1935), red snow fell on New England.

On April 14, 1935, known as "Black Sunday", 20 of the worst "black blizzards" occurred across the entire sweep of the Great Plains, from Canada south to Texas. The dust storms caused extensive damage and turned the day to night; witnesses reported they could not see five feet in front of them at certain points. Denver based Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma that day. His story about Black Sunday marked the first appearance of the term Dust Bowl; it was coined by Edward Stanley, Kansas City news editor of the Associated Press, while rewriting Geiger's news story.[2][3]

Human displacement

This catastrophe intensified the economic impact of the Great Depression in the region.

U.S.

Buried machinery in a barn lot; Dallas, South Dakota, May 1936

In 1935, many families were forced to leave their farms and travel to other areas seeking work because of the drought (which at that time had lasted four years).[15] Dust Bowl conditions fomented an exodus of the displaced from Texas, Oklahoma, and the surrounding Great Plains to adjacent regions. More than 500,000 Americans were left homeless. Over 350 houses had to be torn down after one storm alone.[16] The severe drought and dust storms had left many homeless, others had their mortgages foreclosed by banks, and others felt they were left no choice but to abandon their farms in search of work.[17] Many Americans migrated west looking for work. Parents were forced to pack up "jalopies" with their families and a few personal belongings, and head west in search of work.[18] Some residents of the Plains, especially in Kansas and Oklahoma, fell ill and died of dust pneumonia or malnutrition.[13]

The Dust Bowl exodus was the largest migration in American history within a short period of time. Between 1930 and 1940, approximately 3.5 million people had moved out of the Plains states; of those, it is unknown how many moved to California.[19] In just over a year, over 86,000 people migrated to California. This number is more than the number of migrants to that area during the 1849 Gold Rush.[20] With their land barren and homes seized in foreclosure, many farm families were forced to leave. Migrants left farms in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico, but were often generally referred to as "Okies", "Arkies", or "Texies".[16] Terms such as "Okies" and "Arkies" came to be known in the 1930s as the standard terms for those who had lost everything and were struggling the most during the Great Depression.[21]

However, migrants did not always travel long distances; many would simply travel to the next town or county. No matter the distance, the Dust Bowl caused the proportion between migrants and residents to be nearly equal in the Great Plains states because of the high number of families that left their farms.[19]

Characteristics of migrants

A migratory family from Texas living in a trailer in an open field

When James N. Gregory examined the Census Bureau statistics, as well as other surveys, he discovered some surprising percentages. For example, in 1939, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics surveyed the occupations of about 116,000 families who had arrived in California in the 1930s. It showed that only 43 percent of southwesterners were doing farm work immediately before they migrated. Nearly one-third of all migrants were professional or white-collar workers.[22] The poor economy brought more than just farmers as refugees to California; many teachers, lawyers, and small business owners moved west with their families during this time. After the Great Depression ended, some moved back to their original states, but many remained where they had started their new lives. In fact, around one-eighth of California's population is of Okie heritage.[23]

U.S. government response

During President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first 100 days in office in 1933, governmental programs designed to conserve soil and restore the ecological balance of the nation were implemented. Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes established the Soil Erosion Service in August 1933 under Hugh Hammond Bennett. In 1935, it was transferred and reorganized under the Department of Agriculture and renamed the Soil Conservation Service. More recently, it has been renamed the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).[24] As part of New Deal programs, Congress passed the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act in 1936, requiring landowners to share the allocated government subsidies with the laborers who worked on their farms. Under the law, "benefit payments were continued as measures for production control and income support, but they were now financed by direct Congressional appropriations and justified as soil conservation measures. The Act shifted the parity goal from price equality of agricultural commodities and the articles that farmers buy to income equality of farm and non-farm population." [25] Thus, the parity goal was to re-create the ratio between the purchasing power of the net income per person on farms from agriculture and that of the income of persons not on farms that prevailed during 1909–1914.

Additionally, the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation (FSRC) was created after more than six million pigs were slaughtered to stabilize prices. The pigs were sent to slaughterhouses and the meat packed and distributed to the poor and hungry. FDR in an Address on the AAA commented, "Let me make one other point clear for the benefit of the millions in cities who have to buy meats. Last year the Nation suffered a drought of unparalleled intensity. If there had been no Government program, if the old order had obtained in 1933 and 1934, that drought on the cattle ranges of America and in the corn belt would have resulted in the marketing of thin cattle, immature hogs and the death of these animals on the range and on the farm, and if the old order had been in effect those years, we would have had a vastly greater shortage than we face today. Our program – we can prove it – saved the lives of millions of head of livestock. They are still on the range, and other millions of heads are today canned and ready for this country to eat."

The FSRC diverted agricultural commodities to relief organizations. Apples, beans, canned beef, flour and pork products were distributed through local relief channels. Cotton goods were later included, to clothe the needy.[26]

In 1935, the federal government formed a Drought Relief Service (DRS) to coordinate relief activities. The DRS bought cattle in counties which were designated emergency areas, for $14 to $20 a head. Animals unfit for human consumption – more than 50 percent at the beginning of the program – were killed. The remaining cattle were given to the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation (FSRC) to be used in food distribution to families nationwide. Although it was difficult for farmers to give up their herds, the cattle slaughter program helped many of them avoid bankruptcy. "The government cattle buying program was a blessing to many farmers, as they could not afford to keep their cattle, and the government paid a better price than they could obtain in local markets."[27]

President Roosevelt ordered the Civilian Conservation Corps to plant a huge belt of more than 200 million trees from Canada to Abilene, Texas to break the wind, hold water in the soil, and hold the soil itself in place. The administration also began to educate farmers on soil conservation and antierosion techniques, including crop rotation, strip farming, contour plowing, terracing, and other improved farming practices.[28][29] In 1937, the federal government began an aggressive campaign to encourage Dust Bowlers to adopt planting and plowing methods that conserved the soil. The government paid the reluctant farmers a dollar an acre to practice one of the new methods. By 1938, the massive conservation effort had reduced the amount of blowing soil by 65%.[dubious ] Nevertheless, the land failed to yield a decent living. In the fall of 1939, after nearly a decade of dirt and dust, the drought ended, as regular rainfall finally returned to the region.

At the end of the drought, the programs which were implemented during these tough times helped to sustain a positive relationship between America's farmers and the federal government.[30]

A 1935 report by the President's Drought Committee, covering the government's assistance to agriculture during 1934 through mid-1935, discusses conditions, measures of relief, organization, finances, operations, and results of the government's assistance.[31] Numerous exhibits are included in this report.

Long-term economic impact

In many regions, over 75% of the topsoil was blown away by the end of the 1930s, but there was wide variation in the degree to which the land was degraded. Aside from the short-term economic consequences caused by erosion, there were severe long-term economic consequences of the Dust Bowl.

By 1940, counties that had experienced the most significant levels of erosion saw a greater decline in agricultural land values. The per-acre value of farmland declined by 28% in high-erosion counties and 17% in medium-erosion counties, relative to land value changes in low-erosion counties.[32] Even over the long-term, the full agricultural value of the land often failed to recover. In highly eroded areas, less than 25% of the original agricultural losses were recovered. The economy adjusted predominantly through large relative population declines in more-eroded counties, both during the 1930s and through the 1950s.

The economic effects persisted, in part, because of farmers' failure to switch to more appropriate crops for highly eroded areas. Because the amount of topsoil had been reduced, it would have been more productive to shift from crops and wheat to animals and hay. During the Depression and through at least the 1950s, there was limited relative adjustment of farmland away from activities that became less productive in more-eroded counties.

Some of the failure to shift to more productive agricultural products may be related to ignorance about the benefits of changing land use. A second explanation is a lack of availability of credit, caused by the high rate of failure of banks in the plains states. Because banks failed in the Dust Bowl region with a higher rate of frequency than in the rest of the country, it was harder for farmers to gain access to the credit they needed to buy capital to shift crop production.[33] Another reason is that profit margins to shift from a previously farmed crop to either animals or hay increased only slightly. Therefore, even if they knew about the benefits of changing land usage, the incentive to switch immediately was relatively small.

Influence on the arts

Florence Owens Thompson seen in the photo Destitute Pea Pickers in California. Mother of Seven Children. by Dorothea Lange

The crisis was documented by photographers, musicians, and authors. Many were hired by various U.S. federal agencies during the Great Depression. The Farm Security Administration hired numerous photographers to document the crisis. This helped the careers of many artists, including Dorothea Lange.[34] She captured iconic images of the storms and migrant families, the most famous of which was a photograph entitled Destitute Pea Pickers in California. Mother of Seven Children.,[34] which depicted a gaunt-looking woman, Florence Owens Thompson, holding three of her children. This picture captured the horrors of the Dust Bowl and caused more people to be aware of the crisis of the country.

The work of independent artists, such as American novelist John Steinbeck's novels Of Mice and Men (1937) and The Grapes of Wrath (1939), and the music of folk singer Woody Guthrie, was also influenced by the crises of the Dust Bowl and the Depression.

Migrants leaving the Plains states took their music with them. Oklahoma migrants, in particular, were descended from rural Southerners and transplanted country music to California. Today, the "Bakersfield Sound" describes this blend, which developed after the migrants brought country music to the city. Their new music inspired a proliferation of country dance halls as far south as Los Angeles.

See also

International:

General:

References

  1. ^ a b "Drought: A Paleo Perspective – 20th Century Drought". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved April 5, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "The Black Sunday Dust Storm of 14 April 1935". National Weather Service: Norman, Oklahoma. August 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Mencken, H. L. (1979). Raven I. McDavid, Jr., ed. The American Language (One-Volume Abridged Edition ed.). New York: Alfred A Knopf. p. 206. ISBN 0-394-40075-5. 
  4. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. [page needed]
  5. ^ "The Great Plains: from dust to dust". Planning Magazine. December 1987. Archived from the original on October 6, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007. 
  6. ^ Regions at Risk: a comparison of threatened environments. United Nations University Press. 1995. Retrieved December 6, 2007. 
  7. ^ Drought in the Dust Bowl Years. USA: National Drought Mitigation Center. 2006. Retrieved December 6, 2007. 
  8. ^ Regions at Risk: a comparison of threatened environments. United Nations University Press. 1995. Retrieved December 6, 2008. 
  9. ^ Cronin, Francis D; Beers, Howard W (January 1937). "Areas of Intense Drought Distress, 1930–1936" (PDF). Research Bulletin. Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research (FRASER). pp. 1–23. Retrieved September 12, 2013. 
  10. ^ "A History of Drought in Colorado: lessons learned and what lies ahead" (PDF). Colorado Water Resources Research Institute. February 2000. Retrieved December 6, 2007. 
  11. ^ "A Report of the Great Plains Area Drought Committee". Hopkins Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. August 27, 1936. Retrieved December 6, 2007. 
  12. ^ Murphy, Philip G. (July 15, 1935). "The Drought of 1934" (PDF). A Report of The Federal Government's Assistance to Agriculture. Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research (FRASER). Retrieved August 25, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Surviving the Dust Bowl". 1998. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
  14. ^ Stock, Catherine McNicol (1992). Main Street in Crisis: The Great Depression and the Old Middle Class on the Northern Plains, p. 24. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4689-9.
  15. ^ "A Cultural History of the United States – The 1930s". San Diego, California: Lucent Books, Inc., 1999, p. 39.
  16. ^ a b "First Measured Century: Interview:James Gregory". PBS. Retrieved March 11, 2007. 
  17. ^ Babb, Sanora, Dorothy Babb, and Douglas Wixson. "On the Dirty Plate Trail". Edited by Douglas Wixson. Autin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 2007, p. 20.
  18. ^ "A Cultural History of the United States – The 1930s". San Diego, California: Lucent Books, Inc., 1999, p.19.
  19. ^ a b Worster, Donald (1979). Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s. Oxford University Press. p. 49. 
  20. ^ Worster, Donald. "Dust Bowl – The Southern Plains in the 1930s". 25. New York City, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 50,
  21. ^ Worster, Donald. "Dust Bowl – The Southern Plains in the 1930s". 25. New York City, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 45,
  22. ^ Gregory, N. James. 1991. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press.
  23. ^ Babb, Sanora, Dorothy Babb, and Douglas Wixson. "On the Dirty Plate Trail". Edited by Douglas Wixson. Autin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 2007, p. 13,
  24. ^ Steiner, Frederick (2008). The Living Landscape, Second Edition: An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning, p. 188. Island Press. ISBN 1-59726-396-6.
  25. ^ Rau, Allan. Agricultural Policy and Trade Liberalization in the United States, 1934–1956; a Study of Conflicting Policies. Genève: E. Droz, 1957. p.81.
  26. ^ "The American Experience / Surviving the Dust Bowl / Timeline". 
  27. ^ Monthly Catalog, United States Public Documents, By United States Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office, Published by G.P.O., 1938
  28. ^ Federal Writers' Project. Texas. Writers' Program (Tex.): Writers' Program Texas. p. 16. 
  29. ^ Buchanan, James Shannon. Chronicles of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Historical Society. p. 224. 
  30. ^ "A Cultural History of the United States – The 1930s". San Diego, California: Lucent Books, Inc., 1999, p.45.
  31. ^ United States. Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Murphy, Philip G., (1935), Drought of 1934: The Federal Government's Assistance to Agriculture". Accessed August 10, 2012.
  32. ^ Hornbeck, Richard (December 2009). "The Enduring Impact of the American Dust Bowl: Short and Long-run Adjustments to Environmental Catastrophe" (PDF). USA: National Bureau of Economic Research. p. 3. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  33. ^ Landon-Lane, John; Hugh Rockoff and Richard Steckel (December 2009). "Droughts, Floods, and Financial Distress in the United States" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. p. 6. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  34. ^ a b "Destitute Pea Pickers in California: Mother of Seven Children, Age Thirty-two, Nipomo, California. Migrant Mother". World Digital Library. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 

Bibliography

  • Allison Lassieur, (2009) The Dust Bowl: An Interactive History Adventure Capstone Press, ISBN 1-4296-3455-3
  • Ronald A. Reis (2008) The Dust Bowl Chelsea House ISBN 978-0-7910-9737-3
  • Donald Worster, 2004 (1979)Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s (25. anniversary ed) Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517489-5
  • Woody Guthrie, (1963) The (Nearly) Complete Collection of Woody Guthrie Folk Songs, Ludlow Music, New York.
  • Alan Lomax, Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, (1967) Hard-Hitting Songs for Hard-Hit People, Oak Publications, New York.
  • Timothy Egan (2006) The Worst Hard Time, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, hardcover. ISBN 0-618-34697-X.
  • Gregory, James Noble. American exodus: The dust bowl migration and Okie culture in California (Oxford University Press, 1989)
  • Katelan Janke, (1935) Survival in the Storm: The Dust Bowl Diary of Grace Edwards, Dalhart, Texas, Scholastic (September 2002). ISBN 0-439-21599-4.
  • Karen Hesse (paperback January 1999) Out of the Dust, Scholastic Signature. New York First Edition, 1997, hardcover . ISBN 0-590-37125-8.
  • Sanora Babb (2004) Whose Names Are Unknown, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0-8061-3579-3.
  • Sylvester, Kenneth M., and Eric S. A. Rupley, “Revising the Dust Bowl: High above the Kansas Grassland”, Environmental History, 17 (July 2012), 603–33.
  • Worster, Donald. Dust bowl: the southern plains in the 1930s (Oxford University Press, 1982)

External links