The Eagle Has Landed
|The Eagle Has Landed|
|Genre||War, Thriller Novel|
|Publication date||8 September 1975|
|Media type||Print (Hardback and Paperback)|
|Pages||352 pp (hardcover edition)
356 pp (paperback edition)
|ISBN||ISBN 0-00-221208-0 (hardcover edition)
ISBN 0-671-01934-1 (paperback edition)
|LC Classification||PZ4.H6367 Eag PR6058.I343|
The Eagle Has Landed is a book by Jack Higgins set during World War II. It first published in 1975. It was made into a film of the same name in 1976 starring Michael Caine, Donald Sutherland, Jenny Agutter and Robert Duvall. The plot has similarities with that of Went the Day Well?, a film made during World War II.
As of mid-2010, it had sold over 50 million copies.
The book makes use of the false document technique, and opens with Higgins describing his discovery of the concealed grave of thirteen German paratroopers in an English graveyard. What follows was inspired by the real life rescue of Hitler's ally Benito Mussolini by Otto Skorzeny. A similar idea is considered by Hitler, with the strong support of Himmler. Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr (German military intelligence), is ordered to make a feasibility study of the seemingly impossible task of capturing British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and bringing him to the Reich.
Canaris realizes that although Hitler will soon forget the matter, Himmler will not. Fearing Himmler may try to discredit him, Canaris orders one of his officers, Oberst Radl, to undertake the study, despite feeling that it is all just a waste of time and effort.
An Unteroffizier on Radl's staff finds that one of their spies, code named Starling, has provided a tantalizing piece of intelligence. "At any other time, in any other place, this information would be useless", Radl said. "And then synchronicity rears its disturbing head." Winston Churchill is scheduled to spend a relaxing weekend at a country house near the village of Studley Constable, Norfolk. There Joanna Grey, an Afrikaner woman and longtime Abwehr agent, lives. She detests England because she was abused and raped by British soldiers, and her husband, daughter, and parents were killed during the Anglo-Boer War. As a result of her reports, Radl devises a detailed plan to intercept Churchill and return with him to Germany. Although Radl is certain the plan has real possibilities, Admiral Canaris orders him to abandon it.
Himmler, however, has already learned of the scheme and summons Radl. He orders him to proceed, but without notifying Canaris. In response, Radl arranges for Liam Devlin, a member of the Irish Republican Army, to be smuggled to Norfolk by way of Northern Ireland. Posing as a wounded veteran of the British Army, he contacts Mrs. Grey, who arranges a position for him as game warden to the estate of Studley Grange. While awaiting further developments, Devlin becomes romantically involved with Molly Prior, a girl from the village.
Meanwhile, Radl selects of a team of commandos to carry out the operation, led by a disgraced Fallschirmjäger commander, Lieutenant Colonel Kurt Steiner. While returning from the Eastern Front, Steiner had intervened when SS soldiers were rounding up Jews at a railway station in Poland. To the outrage of the SS and Polizei, he took one of their men hostage and helped a teenage Jewess to escape on a passing freight train. For this he was court-martialled, along with his men, who backed his actions. Too highly decorated to face a firing squad, Steiner and his men were allowed to transfer to a penal unit in the Channel Islands. There they are forced to make high-risk attacks with manned torpedoes against Allied ships in the English Channel.
Radl travels to Alderney and recruits Steiner and his surviving men. Steiner's father, General Steiner, is being tortured by the Gestapo for his alleged ties to the German Resistance. This serves as an additional incentive for the Colonel to accept the mission. Radl relocates Steiner and his men to an airfield on the north western coast of Holland, where they familiarise themselves with the British weapons and equipment they will be using. The team will be air dropped into Norfolk via a captured C-47 Dakota with Allied markings. The commandos outfit themselves as Free Polish troops, as few of them speak English; the plan is to infiltrate Studley Constable, capture Churchill, rendezvous with an E-boat at the nearby coast and make their escape.
At first, the plan seems to go off without a hitch. Then, however, one of Steiner's NCOs rescues a young girl who fell into a mill race. He is killed by the water wheel and his German uniform (worn, by Himmler's order, under the Polish uniforms, as protection against being executed as spies) is seen by several of the villagers. Determined to continue the mission, Steiner arranges for the locals to be rounded up, but the sister of Father Vereker, the local priest, escapes and alerts a nearby unit of US Army Rangers. Colonel Robert Shafto, an inexperienced but glory-seeking officer, rallies his forces to retake the hostages. Without notifying headquarters, he orders a foolhardy assault in which many Americans are killed. After the Colonel is shot in the head by Mrs. Grey, Major Kane organizes a second, successful attack.
Steiner, his second-in-command Ritter von Neumann, and Devlin manage to escape with the aid of a local girl, Molly Prior, who had become romantically involved with the Irishman. Determined to finish the mission, Steiner allows Devlin and Neumann to escape without him and decides to make one last attempt at Churchill. He succeeds in reaching Churchill, but hesitates, is shot and supposedly killed. (However, Steiner reappears alive in The Eagle Has Flown, a sequel.) In Germany, Radl has had a heart attack, implied to be fatal, although at about the same time, Himmler, upon discovering that the mission has failed, orders Radl's arrest for high treason.
As in many novels of Higgins, this story is surrounded by a 'frame story' with a prologue and epilogue. The author, whilst doing historical research in Norfolk, supposedly meets various surviving characters. Some paperback editions have more historical backstory than others, including a meeting with an older Liam Devlin in a Belfast hotel. The final revelation comes from an aged and terminally ill Father Vereker: "Churchill" had been an impersonator and even if the mission had succeeded, it would not have mattered.
- After the success of The Eagle Has Landed, Higgins wrote a quasi-sequel called The Eagle Has Flown, which was published in 1991.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2012)|
- Liam Devlin seems to be a compilation of several IRA veterans who collaborated with the Abwehr, especially Frank Ryan (an IRA man who was captured during the Spanish Civil War and "released" to Germany under house arrest). Liam Devlin is featured in several later Jack Higgins books, older and acting as a mentor to Sean Dillon and Martin Brosnan. In Higgins' novel Confessional, Devlin allies with MI6 in order to prevent a rogue KGB assassin from murdering Pope John Paul II.
- The S.S. British Free Corps unit is described in the book. In the novel, a British S.S. Officer named Harvey Preston is attached to Steiner's unit to add credibility. A rabid Nazi[dubious ] and convicted con-man prior to his enlistment, Preston is viewed with disgust by Steiner, Devlin, and their fellow commandos. After Steiner, Neumannn, and Devlin escape, Preston is lynched inside the village's Roman Catholic Church by a mentally ill resident of Studley Constable.
- Lt. Colonel Kurt Steiner is not a Nazi stereotype. His character was based mainly on Fallschirmjaeger officers Frederich August Freiherr von der Heydte and Major Walter Koch. Koch himself was rumoured to have been murdered by the Gestapo. Steiner is a veteran of the Invasion of Norway, Albert Canal, the Battle of Crete, Leningrad, Stalingrad and the Ukraine.
- Leutnant Ritter von Neumann survived the war then joined the French Foreign Legion but was killed fighting as a sergeant in a French Foreign Legion parachute regiment at Dien Bien Phu in 1954
- Hauptstabfeldwebel Otto Brandt killed in action in Studley Constable November 1943
- Feldwebel Hans Altmann killed in action in Studley Constable November 1943
- Gefreiter Werner Briegel killed in action in Studley Constable November 1943
- Joanna Grey is a German Fifth Columnist living in Studley Constable. Killed by American Ranger Jerzy Krukowski November 1943
- Molly Prior
- Paul Koenig Commander of the German E-boat killed in action three days after D-day making a torpedo run on British transports using Mulberry Harbour when his E-boat was blown out of the water by the guns of an American destroyer.
- John Amery, founding father of the The Legion of St. George, was sentenced to death for high treason by Mr Justice Humphreys in No .1 Court at the Old Bailey in November 1945, and Harvey Preston's comrades of the British Free Corps fared no better. In spite of intensive recruiting, the SS never succeeded in raising it beyond a strength of two platoons. Those who survived the war received sentences varying from life down to a year or two. An interesting photo still exists showing twenty men and a sergeant serving with the SS Panzer grenadier division Nordland. When this unit was sent to Berlin to take part in the last terrible battle for the city, the British contingent was ordered to Templin on 15 April 1945, and their names disappear from the Division's records. Preston was, perhaps, in some ways luckier than he knew.
- Pamela Vereker married Harry Kane in 1945 but died of leukaemia in 1948.
- Brana Lezemnikof the little Jewish girl Steiner saved, had jumped from the train seven miles out of the city and had been found in a ditch with a broken ankle by members of a partisan unit. She survived the war and was last heard of in 1947 on leaving Warsaw for Marseilles with a group of other Jews, their intention being to take passage on one of the boats attempting to run the British blockade into Palestine.
- 1975, US, Bantam Books ISBN 0-553-02500-7, Publication date ? ? ?, Paperback Edition