The Elms (Newport, Rhode Island)
The Elms, viewed from the rear
|Location||367 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.|
|Architectural style||Classical Revival|
|Governing body||Preservation Society of Newport County|
|NRHP Reference #||71000021|
|Added to NRHP||September 10, 1971|
|Designated NHL||June 19, 1996|
The Elms is a large mansion, or "summer cottage", located at 367 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Rhode Island, in the United States. The Elms was designed by architect Horace Trumbauer for the coal baron Edward Julius Berwind, and was completed in 1901. Its design was copied from the Château d'Asnières in Asnières-sur-Seine, France. The gardens and landscaping were created by C. H. Miller and E. W. Bowditch, working closely with Trumbauer. The Elms has been designated a National Historic Landmark and today is open to the public.
The estate was constructed from 1899 to 1901 and cost approximately 1.5 million dollars to build. Like most Newport estates of the Gilded Age, The Elms is constructed with a steel frame with brick partitions and a limestone facade.
On the first floor the estate has a grand ballroom, a salon, a dining room, a breakfast room, a library, a conservatory, and a grand hallway with a marble floor. The second floor contains bedrooms for the family and guests as well as a private sitting room. The third floor contains bedrooms for the indoor servants.
In keeping with the French architecture of the house, the grounds of The Elms, among the best in Newport, were designed in French eighteenth-century taste and include a sunken garden. On the edge of the property a large carriage house and stables were built, over which lived the stable keepers and gardeners. When the Berwind family began using automobiles, the carriage house and stables were converted into a large garage. The head coachman, in order to keep his job, became the family driver, but he could never learn to back up, so a large turntable had to be installed in the garage.
That structure was later replaced by a purpose built, two story 125-foot (38 m) × 70-foot (21 m) building of limestone. Constructed beginning in 1910, it was the largest private garage in America, and featured a central indoor track, and two integral gas tanks.
The Berwind family started spending their summers in Newport in the 1890s. By 1898, it was clear that their original property (a small traditional beach cottage) was too small for the grand parties the Berwinds were having, and so they had the place torn down. Berwind hired Horace Trumbauer to build a much larger house, better fitting his status. Like many of the grandest summer residents of Newport, Edward Berwind was "new money" (his parents were middle-class German immigrants); by 1900 his friends included Theodore Roosevelt and Kaiser Wilhem II of Germany as well as many high-ranking government leaders from Europe and America. At this time Berwind was hailed as "one of the 58 men who rule America", making him one of Newport's most important summer residents.
Berwind was interested in technology, and The Elms was one of the first homes in America to be wired for electricity with no form of backup system. The house also included one of the first electrical ice makers. It was one of the most sophisticated houses of the time. When The Elms opened in 1901 the Berwinds held a huge party.
During the next 20 years, Berwind's wife, Sarah, would spend the summers there, the season being from the 4th of July to the end of August; Berwind would come out only on weekends, for his coal-mining interests kept him in New York during the week. Though the Berwinds had no children, their nephews and nieces would come out to visit on a regular basis.
On January 5, 1922, Mrs. Berwind died, and Edward asked his youngest sister Julia A. Berwind to move in and become the hostess of The Elms. In 1936, when he died, he willed the house to Julia, who, not being interested in technology, continued to run the house in the same way for the next twenty five years: washers and dryers were never installed at the Elms. Julia was well known in Newport. She would invite children from the nearby Fifth Ward (a working-class immigrant neighborhood) to the estate for milk and cookies. She had a love for cars and would drive around Newport every day in one of her luxury cars. This was somewhat shocking to the rest of Newport society where it was considered "unladylike" for women to drive themselves. It was rumored that her social secretary would perform the "white glove test" to make sure there was no dust on the steering wheel before Julia got into the driver's seat.
In 1961 when Julia Berwind died, The Elms was one of the very last Newport cottages to be run in the fashion of the Gilded Age: forty servants were on staff, and Miss Berwind's social season remained at six weeks. Childless, Julia Berwind willed the estate to a nephew, who did not want it and fruitlessly tried to pass The Elms to someone else in the family. Finally the family auctioned off the contents of the estate and sold the property to a developer who wanted to tear it down. In 1962, just weeks before its date with the wrecking ball, The Elms was purchased by the Preservation Society of Newport County for $116,000. The price included the property along with adjacent guest houses. Since then, the house has been open to the public for tours. On June 19, 1996, it was designated a National Historic Landmark.
In addition to a self-guided audio tour, visitors to The Elms can choose to take the Servant Life Tour (extra cost) brings guests to the basement to view the coal-fired furnaces and the tunnel from which the coal is brought into the basement from a nearby street. The tour shows the lengths to which Mr. Berwind went to keep the servants out of view from guests on all floors of the mansion. Visitors on the Servant Life Tour tour view the laundry room, steamer trunk storage area, the giant circuit breaker box, ice-makers, galley, and wine cellar below the main floor, and climb the service staircase to the servants' quarters on the third floor. The tour then proceeds out on the level tiled roof and a small aluminum platform, where visitors enjoy the view of the rear lawn, weeping beech tree—the American Elms having succumbed to Dutch elm disease—and gardens, and the breathtaking vista of Newport harbor in the distance.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23.
- "Elms, The". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
- "Housing Problem". Time. July 6, 1962. Retrieved 2009-09-08. "The Elms, built in 1901, was inspired by the Château Allière (sic) near Paris, sits like a palace in a park of landscaped terraces, ornamental walks, stately trees, lawns, fountains, plus two teahouses, three bronze statues, and a profusion of ornate limestone flower pots, cornucopias and wrestling cupids."
-  'Guide du château d'Asnières', Site of the city of Asnières-sur-Seine.
- The Château d'Asnières was designed by Jacques Hardouin-Mansart, the grandson of Jules Hardouin-Mansart and nephew of Robert de Cotte; it was built in 1750-53.
- Smith, G. E. Kidder (2000). Source Book of American Architecture: 500 Notable Buildings from the 10th Century to the Present. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 316. ISBN 1-56898-254-2.
- "Among the Garages". Automotive Industries 22: 778.
- Roof Tour
- Hopf, John T. (1995). The Complete Book of Newport Mansions (10th ed.). Newport, R.I.: Newport Gateway Visitor's Center. OCLC 40890036.
- Preservation Society of Newport County (2001). The Elms, 1901-2001. Newport, R.I.: Preservation Society of Newport County. OCLC 52967831.
- Media related to The Elms (Newport, Rhode Island) at Wikimedia Commons
- Official website
- The Elms; Virtual Tour
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. RI-344, "The Elms, Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI", 29 photos, 1 color transparency, 18 data pages, 3 photo caption pages