The Family of the Vourdalak
|Author||Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy|
|Original title||La Famille du Vourdalak|
|1884 (Russian), 1950 (French)|
|Media type||Print (Paperback & Hardback)|
The Family of the Vourdalak is a gothic novella by Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, written in 1839 in French and originally entitled La Famille du Vourdalak. Fragment inedit des Memoires d’un inconnu. Tolstoy wrote it on a trip to France from Frankfurt, where he was attached to the Russian Embassy.
It was translated into Russian by Boleslav Markevich, as Семья вурдалака (Semya′ vurdala′ka, published for the first time in The Russian Messenger in January, 1884. The original French text appeared in print in 1950, in Revue des Etudes Slavs, vol.26. The Reunion After Three Hundred Years (Les Rendez-vous Dans Trois Cent Ani) which was written at about the same time and which might be regarded as a sequel (for protagonist Marquis d’Urfe and Countess Grammon appear in it) first appeared in a compilation Le Poete Alexis Tolstoi by A.Lirondelle (Paris, 1912).
The name vourdalak is of artificial coinage, invented by Pushkin in the early 19th century, and taken up in Russian literary language following Pushkin. Pushkin based it on the existing term Волколак "vampire-werewolf" in Slavic folklore (loaned into Greek as Vrykolakas)
Marquis d’Ufre, a young French diplomat, finds himself in a small Serbian village, in the house of an old peasant named Gorcha. The host is absent: he left the house ten days ago along with some other men to hunt for a Turk outlaw Alibek. Upon leaving he told his sons, Georgy and Pyotr, that they should wait for him for ten days sharp and, should he come a minute later, kill him by driving a stake through his heart for then he’d be not a man but a vourdalak (vampire).
The day Marquis comes to the village is the tenth day of Gorcha’s absence. The family awaits the hour with growing anxiety and there he is, appearing on the road at 8 o’clock in the evening, exactly on the time he left ten days ago. His sons are uncertain as to how this strange precision should be interpreted. Georgy suspects his father became a vourdalak, Pyotr insists otherwise. Then Georgy's son dies inexplicably. The French diplomat has to leave to house and continue his travel.
Half a year later on his way back from his mission, d’Ufre returns to the village only to find it forsaken. Coming to the familiar house he stays for the night, being allured by Zdenka, Gorcha's daughter he fell for during his first visit, who appears to dwell in the empty house. The moment comes when the Frenchman realises he's fallen under the charms of a vampire. He makes an attempt to leave, comes under a massive attack of vourdalaks, all of the Gorcha family among them, and makes a miraculous escape, having to thank his own good luck and the agility of his horse.
The novella became the basis for «I Wurdulak», one of the three parts of Mario Bava's 1963 film I Tre volti della paura (also known as Black Sabbath), featuring Boris Karloff. In 1972 the Italian/Spanish film La notte dei diavoli (Night of the Devils) was also based on Tolstoy's story.
Another film reference occurs in Guy Wilson's 2012 film, Werewolf: The Beast Among Us; when an undead victim of a werewolf attack arises and is shot by the grandson of the Great Hunter who exclaims, "I hate goddamn Vourdalaks."
- Vampires: Stories of the Supernatural, Hawthorn Books, 1973. ISBN 080158292X
- Joshi, S. T. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Vampire: The Living Dead in Myth, Legend, and Popular Culture. Greenwood Press. p. 326. ISBN 0313378339. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- Tolstoy, Aleksey (1964). Collected Works, Vol 3. Commentary by I. G. Yampolsky (in Russian). Moscow: State Publishing House. p. 565.
- M. Fasmer, Etymological Dictionary Russian Language.
- Толстой, Алексей Константинович. "Семья вурдалака". az.lib.ru. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- "Алексей Константинович Толстой". fantlab.ru. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- Семья вудалака. The Russian text.