The Famous Five (series)
|Publisher||Hodder & Stoughton|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|No. of books||21|
The Famous Five is the name of a series of children's novels written by English author Enid Blyton. The first book, Five on a Treasure Island, was published in 1942. The novels feature the adventures of a group of young children – Julian, Dick, Anne and Georgina (George) – and their dog Timmy.
The stories always take place in the children's school holidays after they have returned from their respective boarding schools. Each time they meet they get caught up in an adventure, the location of which varies from book to book. Sometimes the scene is set close to George's family home at Kirrin Cottage in Dorset, such as the picturesque Kirrin Island, owned by George and her family in Kirrin Bay. George's own home and various other houses the children visit or stay in are hundreds of years old and often contain secret passages or smugglers' tunnels. In some books the children go camping in the countryside, on a hike or holiday together elsewhere. The settings, however, are almost always rural and enable the children to discover the simple joys of cottages, islands, the English and Welsh countryside and sea shores, as well as the adventures, picnics, lemonade, bicycle trips, home-made food, raspberry pop and lashings of ginger beer.[a]
Blyton intended to write only six or eight books in the series, but owing to their high sales and immense commercial success she went on to write twenty-one full-length Famous Five novels. By the end of 1953 more than six million copies had been sold. Today, more than two million copies of the books are sold each year, making them one of the biggest-selling series for children ever written. Over a hundred million books have been sold. All the novels have been adapted for television, and several have been adapted as films in various countries.
- 1 Characters
- 2 Bibliography
- 3 Film and television adaptations
- 4 Other adaptations
- 5 Parodies
- 6 Floating timeline
- 7 References
- 8 External links
- Julian is the eldest of the five, cousin to George and elder brother to Dick and Anne. He is tall, strong and intelligent as well as caring, responsible and kind. His cleverness and reliability are often noted by Aunt Fanny. He is the leader of the group. He is very protective towards Anne. At the start of the series, Julian is 12 years old.
- Dick has a cheeky sense of humour, but is also dependable and kind in nature. He is the same age as his cousin George, a year younger than his brother Julian and older than his sister Anne – eleven at the start of the series. Though inclined to tease his sister at times, Dick is, like Julian, very caring towards Anne and does his best to keep her cheered up when she gets upset. He had a heroic role in Five on a Treasure Island. He uses his wits and saves the five in many adventures.
- George (Georgina)
- George is a tomboy, demanding that people call her George, and she cuts her hair very short and dresses like a boy. She is headstrong and courageous by nature and, like her father, scientist Quentin Kirrin, has a hot and fiery temper. Blyton eventually revealed that the character was based on herself.
- George has a loyal dog named Timmy (or Tim) who'd do anything for her. She often gets cross when anyone calls her by her real name or makes fun of Timmy. And she loves it when somebody calls her George or mistakes her for a boy. In Five Get into a Fix, the old woman Mrs Jones mistakes her for a boy: even though Julian had said to her that she was a girl, she later forgets this. She sometimes takes this to the point of asking that her name be prefixed with Master instead of Miss. Various references have been made to what meaning should be read into this – for instance "I remember reading in my first Famous Five book about a girl called Master George. What a puzzle and thrill. She claims to never tell lies as that is cowardly."
- Yet others have interpreted that George had gender dysphoria and may have been a transgender child. It would seem likely to be seen this way by transmen who read the books as children. Several transmen have cited George as being their role model. Hugo Rifkind, writing in a Times supplement, mentioned both these possibilities but considered that Blyton's conservatism meant neither was likely to be intended, as well as citing the follow-up.
- Anne is the youngest in the group, and generally takes care of their domestic duties during the Five's various camping holidays. As the youngest, she is more likely than the others to become frightened and does not really enjoy the adventures as much as the others. She is ten years old in the first book of the series. As a small girl, she sometimes lets her tongue run away with her, but ultimately she is as brave and resourceful as the others. She likes doing the domestic things such as planning, organising and preparing meals, keeping where they are staying clean and tidy, be it a cave, house, tent or caravan. In Smuggler's Top it is suggested she is claustrophobic as she is frightened of enclosed spaces, which remind her of bad dreams. But the adventures invariably lead the five into tunnels, down wells, into dungeons and other enclosed spaces demonstrating how brave she really is.
- Timmy is George's faithful dog. He is very friendly – clever, affectionate and loyal to the Five and to George in particular; he provides physical protection for the children on multiple occasions. George adores Timmy and thinks that he is the best dog in the world and often becomes angry when people insult him. In the first book of the series, George's parents have forbidden her to keep Timmy, and she is forced to hide him with a fisher boy in the village. After the end of the Five's first adventure, her parents relent and she is allowed to keep him.
- Jo (Josephine), the gypsy girl
- Jo, clever but wild, joins the Five on several adventures. She is approximately the same age as the children and is a tomboy like George. Her parents were in the circus, but her mother left and her father was imprisoned for theft. She admires Dick and thinks the world of him.
- Joanna is the housekeeper at George's house. She is an extremely kind woman who is often present at Kirrin Cottage when Uncle Quentin and Aunt Fanny go off somewhere. All the four cousins are extremely attached to her. She is sometimes referred to as Joan.
- Aunt Fanny
- Fanny is George's mother, and aunt to Dick, Julian and Anne. She is married to Uncle Quentin, and is, through most of Blyton's Famous Five novels, the principal maternal figure in the lives of the children.
- Uncle Quentin
- Quentin is George's father, and a world-famous scientist, who is kidnapped or held hostage in several of the children's adventures. He possesses a quick temper and has little tolerance for the children on school holidays, but is nevertheless a loving and caring husband, father and uncle, and is extremely proud of his daughter. In the first book of the series, it is established that he is brother to the father of Julian, Dick and Anne.
Enid Blyton wrote 21 Famous Five books; in chronological order they are:
- Five on a Treasure Island (1942)
- Five Go Adventuring Again (1943)
- Five Run Away Together (1944)
- Five Go to Smuggler's Top (1945)
- Five Go Off in a Caravan (1946)
- Five on Kirrin Island Again (1947)
- Five Go Off to Camp (1948)
- Five Get into Trouble (1949)
- Five Fall into Adventure (1950)
- Five on a Hike Together (1951)
- Five Have a Wonderful Time (1952)
- Five Go Down to the Sea (1953)
- Five Go to Mystery Moor (1954)
- Five Have Plenty of Fun (1955)
- Five on a Secret Trail (1956)
- Five Go to Billycock Hill (1957)
- Five Get into a Fix (1958)
- Five on Finniston Farm (1960)
- Five Go to Demon's Rocks (1961)
- Five Have a Mystery to Solve (1962)
- Five Are Together Again (1963)
Blyton also wrote a number of short stories featuring the characters. These were finally collected together in 1963 as Five Have a Puzzling Time and Other Stories.
Other book series
There are also books written originally in French by Claude Voilier (the Five have long been extremely popular in translation in the French-speaking parts of Europe) and later translated into English. The Voilier titles are:
- Les Cinq sont les plus forts (1971; English title: The Famous Five and the Mystery of the Emeralds, English number: 2)
- Les Cinq au bal des espions (1971; English title: The Famous Five in Fancy Dress, English number: 7)
- Le Marquis appelle les Cinq (1972; English title: The Famous Five and the Stately Homes Gang, English number: 1)
- Les Cinq au Cap des tempêtes (1972; English title: The Famous Five and the Missing Cheetah, English number: 3)
- Les Cinq à la Télévision (1973; English title: The Famous Five Go on Television, English number: 4)
- Les Cinq et les pirates du ciel (1973; English title: The Famous Five and the Hijackers, English number: 13)
- Les Cinq contre le masque noir (1974; English title: The Famous Five Versus the Black Mask, English number: 6)
- Les Cinq et le galion d'or (1974; English title: The Famous Five and the Golden Galleon, English number: 5)
- Les Cinq font de la brocante (1975; English title: The Famous Five and the Inca God, English number: 9)
- Les Cinq se mettent en quatre (1975; English title: The Famous Five and the Pink Pearls, English number: 18)
- Les Cinq dans la cité secrète (1976; English title: The Famous Five and the Secret of the Caves, English number: 12)
- La fortune sourit aux Cinq (1976; English title: The Famous Five and the Cavalier's Treasure, English number: 10)
- Les Cinq et le rayon Z (1977; English title: The Famous Five and the Z-Rays, English number: 17)
- Les Cinq vendent la peau de l'ours (1977; English title: The Famous Five and the Blue Bear Mystery, English number: 8)
- Les Cinq aux rendez-vous du diable (1978; English title: The Famous Five in Deadly Danger, English number: 15)
- Du neuf pour les Cinq (1978; English title: The Famous Five and the Strange Legacy, English number: 11)
- Les Cinq et le trésor de Roquépine (1979; English title: The Famous Five and the Knights' Treasure, English Number: 16)
- Les Cinq et le diamant bleu (1979; reprinted in 1980 as Les Cinq et le rubis d'Akbar; (The Five and the Rubies Of Akbar))
- Les Cinq jouent serré (1980; English title: The Famous Five and the Strange Scientist, English number: 14)
- Les Cinq en croisière (1980; never translated into English)
- Les Cinq contre les fantômes (1981; never translated into English)
- Les Cinq en Amazonie (1983; never translated into English)
- Les Cinq et le trésor du pirate (1984; never translated into English)
- Les Cinq contre le loup-garou (1985; never translated into English)
Starting in 2004, an additional 21 new Famous Five novels written by Sarah Bosse have been published in Germany, but as yet, they have not been translated into English. The 10th Bosse book, published in February 2007, is numbered 50 in the German sequence, and is a two-in-one volume, although the second novel in the volume is a sequel to the first.
The German "Geisterbände"
Two books only came out in Germany. The titles are:
- Fünf Freunde auf der verbotenen Insel ("Five Friends on the Forbidden Island") (1977)
- Fünf Freunde und der blaue Diamant ("Five Friends and the Blue Diamond") (1979)
Although Enid Blyton is named as author on the cover, the books were most likely written by German author Brigitte Blobel, who is credited as the translator. The books were recalled after the first edition owing to copyright issues, and are now rare and high-priced collector's items.
Film and television adaptations
Two of the Famous Five stories by Enid Blyton have been filmed by Danish director Katrine Hedman. The cast consisted of Danish actors and were originally released in Danish. Ove Sprogøe stars as Uncle Quentin. The movies are: De 5 og spionerne (Five and the Spies) (1969) and De 5 i fedtefadet (Famous Five Get in Trouble) (1970).
All four of the films have been released on DVD in their respective countries.
In 2012 the movie Fünf Freunde was released in Germany, with Marcus Harris in a small role. Now also Fünf Freunde 2 and 3.
The Famous Five television series was produced by Southern Television and Portman Productions for ITV in the UK, in 26 episodes of thirty minutes (including time for advertisements). It starred Michele Gallagher as Georgina, Marcus Harris as Julian, Jennifer Thanisch as Anne, Gary Russell as Dick, Toddy Woodgate as Timmy, Michael Hinz as Uncle Quentin and Sue Best as Aunt Fanny. It also starred Ronald Fraser, John Carson, Patrick Troughton, James Villiers, Cyril Luckham and Brian Glover. The screenplays were written by Gloria Tors, Gail Renard, Richard Carpenter and Richard Sparks. The episodes were directed by Peter Duffell, Don Leaver, James Gatward and Mike Connor. The series was produced by Don Leaver and James Gatward. Most of the outdoor filming was done in the New Forest and parts of Dorset and Devon.
Of the original 21 novels, three were not adapted for this series; Five on a Treasure Island and Five Have a Mystery to Solve because the Children's Film Foundation still own the film and TV rights to the books, while Five Have Plenty of Fun did not fit in the production schedule. Due to the success of the series, Southern Television were keen to make another season of episodes, but the Enid Blyton estate forbade them to create original stories.
The 1978 series was originally released on video by Portman Productions with reasonable regularity between 1983 and 1999, many of which are still easy to find second-hand, although the sound and picture quality is not always what it could be. A four-disc DVD collection, containing 23 of the 26 episodes produced for the 1978 series (and two episodes from the 1996 series) was released in region 4 (Australia and New Zealand) in 2005. The box and disc art identify it as a release of 1996 series. (The distributor had licensed the 1996 series, but due to an administrative glitch was supplied with master tapes and artwork for the 1978 series.) The error was corrected in a later release.
A seven-DVD set containing the entire series and extensive bonus material was released in October 2010 in Germany by Koch Media; although with an option choose either the original English or German dubbed versions, the English version had non-removable German subtitles across the bottom the screen on every episode. The same company released the DVD set in the UK (without the fixed subtitles) on 25 June 2012.
A four DVD set containing all 26 episodes, without additional content, was released for region 4 (Australia and New Zealand) in late 2011, as Enid Blyton's The Famous Five: The Complete Collection. (Finnish punk band Widows (of Helsinki) made three different cover versions of the theme song, first one in early 1979, as did Irish indie outfit Fleur, in 1996.)
A later series, The Famous Five, initiated by Victor Glynn of Portman Zenith was aired first in 1995, a co-production between a number of companies including Tyne Tees Television, HTV, Zenith North and the German channel ZDF. Unlike the previous TV series, this was a period piece, set in Wales, and it dramatised all the original books. Of the juvenile actors the best-known is probably Jemima Rooper, who played George. Julian was portrayed by Marco Williamson, Dick by Paul Child and Anne was portrayed by Laura Petela. In this series, because of the slang meaning of the word fanny, Aunt Fanny was known as Aunt Frances played by Mary Waterhouse. (In some but not all recent reprints of the book, the character has been re-christened Aunt Franny.)
The 1995 series was released in its entirety on VHS video. A three-disc DVD collection, containing 13 of the 26 episodes of the 1995 series, was released in Australia and New Zealand in 2005, and is marked "Revised Edition" to avoid confusion with the previous release of the 1979 series with 1995 artwork. Other episodes have reportedly been released on DVD in Europe, but only the adaptation of Five on a Treasure Island was released on DVD in the UK.
Famous 5: On the Case
A new Famous Five animated TV series began airing in 2008. Famous 5: On the Case is set in modern times and features the children of the original Famous Five: Max (the son of Julian and Brandine), Dylan (son of Dick and Michelle), Jo (daughter of George and Ravi – a tomboy who, like her mother, prefers a shorter name to her given name Jyoti) and Allie (daughter of Anne and John). It has not been stated whether their dog is the offspring of Timmy. The new series was first announced in 2005, and is a co-production of Chorion (which currently owns all Famous Five rights) and Marathon, in association with France 3 and The Disney Channel. Disney confirmed their involvement in December 2006. Stories were developed by Douglas Tuber and Tim Maile, who have previously written for Lizzie McGuire. Chorion claims on its website that "these new programmes will remain faithful to the themes of mystery and adventure central to Enid Blyton's classic series of books." Blyton's biographer Barbara Stoney, however, claims it is nothing like the original stories. In total, there will be 130 episodes, each 22 minutes long.
Hodder Headline produced in the late 1990s audio dramas in English, which were published on Tape and CD. All 21 episodes of the original books were dramatised.
The 21 original stories by Enid Blyton have been released in the 70s as Fünf Freunde audio dramas in Germany as well. The speakers were the German dubbing artists for Gallagher, Thanisch, Russell and Harris, the leads of the first television series.
For the sequels (not written by Blyton and decidedly more "modern" action-oriented stories) the speakers were replaced by younger ones, because it was felt that they sounded too mature. In addition to the original Blyton books, another 80+ stories have subsequently been released and published as radio plays and books in Germany. They are based on the original characters, but written by various German writers.
A 1997 musical was made to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Enid Blyton's birth with the title The Famous Five and later released on DVD as The Famous Five – Smuggler's Gold – The Musical.
Principal actors: Elizabeth Marsland, Lyndon Ogbourne, Matthew Johnson, Vicky Taylor, Jon Lee, Director: Roz Storey and also in the five
A brand new musical adaptation was premièred at the Tabard Theatre on 8 December 2009 and played until 10 January 2010.
Two sets of gamebooks in a Choose Your Own Adventure style have been published. These books involve reading small sections of print and being given two or more options to follow, with a different page number for each option. The first series of these, written by Stephen Thraves, featured stories loosely based on the original books. They were issued in plastic wallets with accessories such as maps, dice and codebooks. The gamebooks were titled as follows:
- The Wreckers' Tower Game, based on Five Go Down to the Sea
- The Haunted Railway Game, based on Five Go Off to Camp
- The Whispering Island Game, based on Five Have a Mystery to Solve
- The Sinister Lake Game, based on Five On a Hike Together
- The Wailing Lighthouse Game, based on Five Go to Demon's Rocks
- The Secret Airfield Game, based on Five Go to Billycock Hill
- The Shuddering Mountain Game, based on Five Get into a Fix
- The Missing Scientist Game, based on Five Have a Wonderful Time
The second series, written by Mary Danby, was entitled "The Famous Five and You". These consisted of abridged versions of the original text, with additional text for the alternative story routes. The books in this series were based on the first six original Famous Five books:
- The Famous Five and You Search for Treasure!
- The Famous Five and You Find Adventure!
- The Famous Five and You Run Away!
- The Famous Five and You Search for Smugglers!
- The Famous Five and You Take Off!
- The Famous Five and You Underground!
In 1990 an interactive fiction computer game based on the first of the books, Five on a Treasure Island, was released. It was programmed by Colin Jordan and first released for the SAM Coupé by Enigma Variations.
He originally started coding the game on the ZX Spectrum using his own "worldscape" technique. When the SAM Coupé was launched, he switched to it as the target platform while still hosting the code on the ZX Spectrum. He later ported it to the Amstrad CPC and completed the ZX Spectrum version. The game was also ported to the Commodore 64, Amiga and Atari ST by others.
Later Ravensburger published the interactive CD games Famous Five The Silver Tower, Famous Five Treasure Island, Famous Five – Kidnapped, Famous Five – Dangerous Discovery and Five on a Secret Mission for the PC or Mac.
Six comic albums drawn by Bernard Dufossé and scripted by Serge Rosenzweig and Rafael Carlo Marcello were released in France between 1982 and 1986, under the title Le Club des Cinq. Most of comic books in the series are based on Famous Five books created by Claude Voilier. Books were released by Hachette Livre. The first three of these volumes have also been released in English, under the name Famous Five. The titles included "Famous Five and the Golden Galleon" (which featured a sunken ship that was laden with gold with the Five fending off villains seeking to make off with the gold, "Famous Five and the Treasure of the Templars", where it transpires that Kirrin Castle is actually a Templar Castle that houses their hidden treasure which the Five ultimately secure with the help of members of the order, and "Famous Five and the Inca God" which was set in an antiquities museum and dealt with the theft of an Incan fetish.
Beginning in September 1985 a series of monthly Comic Magazine titles Enid Blyton's Adventure Magazine were published. Each issue published a full length illustrative comic book story adapted from Famous 5 Novels. The series came to end in the 1990s.
The Five inspired the Comic Strip parody Five Go Mad in Dorset and its sequel Five Go Mad on Mescalin, in which the characters express sympathies with Nazi Germany and opposition to the Welfare State, homosexuals, immigrants and Jews, in an extremely broad parody not so much of Blyton but of wider perceived 1950s prejudices. The parodies were deliberately set towards the end of the original Famous Five "era" (1942–1963) so as to make the point that the books were already becoming outmoded while they were still being written. Both parodies made use of Famous Five set pieces, such as the surrender of the criminals at the end when Julian states "We're the Famous Five!", the arrival of the police just in the nick of time, and the appeal for "some of your home-made ices" at a village shop. Unlike the books, the four children in the Comic Strip parody are all siblings, and none is the child of Aunt Fanny and Uncle Quentin.
The series was revived in 2012 with Five Go to Rehab, with the original cast reprising their roles, now well into middle-age. Reuniting for Dick's birthday after decades apart, the four and Toby lament how their lives took unexpected paths whilst Dick drags them on another bicycle adventure which he had meticulously planned for fourteen years. In a reversal, George had married a series of wealthy men whom she cuckolded with, among others, one of her stepsons (her continuing penchant for bestiality with the latest Timmy is also implied); whereas Anne has become a strongly opinionated vegan spinster and is suspected by Dick of being a "dyke" – an accusation made against George by Toby in the original Five Go Mad in Dorset. George and Julian have been committed to an alcoholics' sanatorium, the latter owes a large debt to African gangsters, and Anne recently served a prison sentence for setting her nanny aflame. Robbie Coltrane reprised both of his roles. Five Go to Rehab utilises a form of a floating timeline; although the original films' events are said to have taken place thirty years in the past and "five years after the war", the reunion film appears to be set approximately contemporaneous to its filming.
In 1964, John Lennon in his work In His Own Write, had the short story The Famous Five through Woenow Abbey. Amidst a plethora of deliberate misspellings, he lists no fewer than ten members of the Five, not counting a dog named Cragesmure. A man warns them off Woenow Abbey and they subdue and question him. The story, like many other stories in this nonsense volume, stops there.
Viz comic have parodied the series' style of writing and type of stories on a number of occasions, most notably in its Jack Black strip. In one such strip, Jack Black actually murders a group of young detectives clearly based on The Famous Five so they won't compete with him for a reward.
In the late eighties, Australian comedy team The D-Generation parodied The Famous Five on their breakfast radio show as a five-part serial entitled The Famous Five Get Their Teeth Kicked In. The parody was based on the first book Five on a Treasure Island.
A 2000 episode of ITV'S Grizzly Tales for Gruesome Kids, 'The Chipper Chums go Scrumping', featured a parody of the Five in a cautionary tale about five friends who are caught cider scrumping and turned into cider.
A 2005 story in The Guardian also parodies the Famous Five. It argues that Anne, Dick, George and Julian are caricatures rather than characters, portraying Anne as having no life outside of domestic labour. It highlights what the writer, Lucy Mangan, considers to be the power struggle between Dick, George and Julian while Anne is sidelined.
In the book The Big Goal by Rob Childs, Andrew mentions that a girls team won against 'some rubbish lot called The Famous Five'.
British comedian John Finnemore did a radio sketch in which Julian and George run into each other as adults and reminisce. It is revealed that Julian has gone on to a career as a smuggler and regularly has to deal with copycat groups of children trying to thwart his plans. George is a happily married mother, Dick has gone to live in a commune in America, and Anne has just been released from prison having murdered a man with a ginger beer bottle.
The seemingly perpetual youth of the Famous Five who experience a world of seemingly endless holidays while not ageing significantly, known more generally as a floating timeline, has been highlighted by a number of contemporary children's fiction authors as an influence upon their own work. J. K. Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter series of books has been quoted as saying of the eponymous character: "in book four the hormones are going to kick in – I don't want him stuck in a state of permanent pre-pubescence like poor Julian in the Famous Five!"
- The supposed quote "lashings of ginger beer" does not appear in any of the books.
- https://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/english-association/primary/ea-plus/bookmarks-1/5FamousFive.pdf, p.1
- "Gosh! Look what Disney's done to Enid Blyton's Famous Five". Daily Mail. 20 March 2008.
- Ward, David (23 August 2004). "Enid Blyton – the grown-ups' favourite". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- Hanson, Michele (25 March 2008). "Everybody gangs up on teachers. But, at long last, the nation's favourite scapegoats are fighting back". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- Parris, Matthew (7 January 2009). "Of course Tintin's gay. Ask Snowy". The Times. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- "geisterbände". Blyton-shop.de. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Gary Russell's ('Dick') memories about being Dick". Fuenffreundefanpage.at. 23 January 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Enid Blyton's Famous Five". Johnslookout.150m.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Famous Five get modern makeover". Stuff.co.nz. Reuters. 22 March 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- Sanderson, David (4 December 2006). "Famous Five to get a Disney makeover". The Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Gosh! Look what Disney's done to Enid Blyton's Famous Five". Daily Mail. 20 March 2008.
- "The Famous Five: The Musical – Smuggler's Gold DVD: Amazon.co.uk: Famous Five: Film & TV". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "The Famous Five and You". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Euro Comics in English: The Famous Five by Rosenzweig and Dufosse". Eurocomics.info. 28 June 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Milmo, Cahill "Back for more jolly japes: the return of the Famous Five" The Independent, 5 December 2006
- Mangan, Lucy The Famous Five – in their own words The Guardian, 22 December 2005
- Carey, Joanna, "Who hasn't met Harry?", The Guardian, 16 February 1999