The Five Ks
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The Five Ks (Punjabi: ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ Pañj Kakār) are five Articles of Faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times as commanded by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh who so ordered it at the Vaisakhi Amrit Sanskar in 1699. The Five Ks are: Kesh (uncut long hair), a Kangha (small wooden comb), a Kara (steel or iron bracelet), a Kacchera (piece of undergarment) and a Kirpan (short dagger). The Five Ks are not just symbols, but articles of faith that collectively form the external identity and the Khalsa devotee's commitment to the Sikh rehni "Sikh way of life".
A Sikh who has taken Amrit, dons all five Ks is known as Khalsa ("pure") or Amritdhari ("Amrit Sanskar participant"), while a Sikh who has not taken Amrit but follows all rules and keeps all five Ks is called a sahajdhari ("slow adopter").
The Khalsa was initiated on Vaisakhi Day, 1699; during a period of solemn conflict between the Sikhs and the Mughals. According to sources who witnessed the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur in 1675, Aurengzeb dared the followers of the guru to come and claim the body. Immediately after the execution, however, a severe dust storm gripped the whole of Delhi. The guards and onlookers all ran helter-skelter for shelter. The dust storm has been thought of as a sign from God that He was upset with the Mughal rulers. In the midst of the thick storm, when visibility was severely low, one Sikh took Guru Tegh Bahadur's head and took off for the Punjab; another Sikh found Guru Tegh Bahadur's body, placed it in a cart, covered the cart with cloth, and went off to his house in Delhi. There he placed the Guru's body in his house and set fire to his whole house, so as not to be caught cremating the Guru. His house is today's site of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib.
Based on the events surrounding Tegh Bahadur's execution and Gobind Singh's subsequent determination, the 5 Ks were incorporated as a mandate for baptized Sikhs. This act created an external uniform for the spirit of the Khalsa that was easily identifiable in the public.
The Kesh, or unshorn long hair, is part of the human body. It was created by Waheguru as the mainstay of the 'Jivan Jaach', the Rehni that was prescribed by Guru Gobind Singh Sahib by which a Sikh is clearly and quickly identified. A Sikh never cuts or trims any hair to indicate the perfection of God's creation. The uncut long hair and the beard, in the case of men, form the main kakār for Sikhs.
A dastar is a turban worn to protect the Kesh and guard the Dasam Duaar (the Tenth Gate), a spiritual opening at the top of the head. The turban is a spiritual crown, which is a constant reminder to the Sikh that he or she is sitting on the throne of consciousness and is committed to living according to Sikh principles. Guru Gobind Singh told his Sikhs:
"Khaalsa mero roop hai kaas. Khaalsa mai ho karo nivaas." "The Khalsa is my image. Within the Khalsa I reside." Wearing a turban declares sovereignty, dedication, self-respect, courage and piety.
ਕੰਘਾ ਦੋਨਉਂ ਵਕਤ ਕਰ, ਪਾਗ ਚੁਨਹਿ ਕਰ ਬਾਂਧਈ ॥
Comb the hair twice a day, covering it with turban that is to be tied from fresh.
— Tankhanama Bhai Nand Lal Singh
A Kangha is a small wooden comb that Sikhs use twice a day. It is supposed to be kept with the hair and at all times. Combs help to clean and remove tangles from the hair, and are a symbol of cleanliness. Combing their hair reminds Sikhs that their lives should be tidy and organized. The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh to keep a small comb called a Kangha at all times.
The comb keeps the hair tidy, a symbol of not just accepting what God has given, but also an injunction to maintain it with grace. The Guru said hair should be allowed to grow naturally. For men, this includes not shaving. At the time of Guru Gobind Singh, some holy men let their hair become tangled and dirty. The Guru said that this was not right 'Hair should be allowed to grow but it should be kept clean and combed at least twice a day.'
The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh Ji at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bangle called a Kara at all times. The Kara is a constant reminder that whatever a person does with their hands has to be in keeping with the advice given by the Guru. The Kara is an iron/steel circle to symbolize life as never ending. A symbol of permanent bonding to the community-being a link in the chain of Khalsa Sikhs (the word for link is 'kari').
ਸੀਲ ਜਤ ਕੀ ਕਛ ਪਹਿਰਿ ਪਕਿੜਓ ਹਿਥਆਰਾ ॥
The sign of true chastity is the Kaccha, you must wear this and hold weapons in hand.
— Bhai Gurdas, Var. 41, pauri 15
Originally, the Kaccha was made part of the five Ks as a symbol of a Sikh soldier's willingness to be ready at a moment's notice for battle or for defense. It was to get around quickly in a fight. The confirmed Sikh (one who has taken the Amrit) wears a kaccha every day. Some go to the extent of wearing a kaccha while bathing, to be ready at a moment's notice, changing into a new one one leg at a time so as to have no moment where they are unprepared. Further, this garment allowed the Sikh soldier to operate in combat freely and without any hindrance or restriction, because it was easy to fabricate, maintain, wash and carry compared to other traditional under-garments of that era, like the dhoti. The Kachera symbolises self-respect, and always reminds the wearer of mental control over lust, one of the Five Evils in Sikh philosophy.
Kaccha follow a generally practical and roomy design. It features an embedded string that circles the waist which can be tightened/loosened as desired, and then knotted securely. The Kaccha can be classed between underwear and an outer garment, as in appearance it does not reveal private anatomy, and looks and wears like shorts. As with all of the Five Ks, there is equality between men and women, and so women are also expected to wear it. Considering the hot climate in India, the Kachera is often worn by men as an outer garment, keeping the wearer cool and being practical in manual work such as farming, however it is generally not considered respectful for women to wear the Kaccha as an outer garment (on its own) as it is considered too revealing.
ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਹੀਨ ਕਬਹੂ ਨਹਿ ਹੋਈ, ਰਿਹਤਵੰਤ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਸੋਈ ॥
Those who never depart his/her arms, they are the Khalsa with excellent rehats.
— Rehatnama Bhai Desa Singh
The Kirpan is a short dagger which symbolizes a Sikh's duty to come to the defence of those in peril. All baptised Sikhs should wear a short form of Kirpan (approximately. 6" to 9" long) on their body at all times as a defensive side-arm, just as a police officer is expected to wear a public-defensive weapon when on duty. Its use is only allowed in the act of self-defense and the protection of others. It stands for bravery and protecting the weak and innocent.
Originally, the kirpan was kept sharp and was actually used to defend others, such as those who were being oppressed by harsh rulers, women who were raped in the streets, or a person who was being robbed or beaten. The true Sikh cannot turn a blind eye to such evils by thinking that they are someone else's concern. It is the duty of the true Sikh to help those who suffer unjustly, by whatever means available, whether that means alerting the police, summoning help, or literally defending those who cannot defend themselves, even if that means putting oneself in harm's way.
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