The Flight into Egypt (Elsheimer)

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The Flight into Egypt
Adam Elsheimer - Die Flucht nach Ägypten (Alte Pinakothek).jpg
Artist Adam Elsheimer
Year c. 1609
Type Oil on copper
Dimensions 31 cm × 41 cm (12 in × 16 in)
Location Alte Pinakothek, Munich

The Flight into Egypt is an oil-on-copper cabinet painting by the German artist Adam Elsheimer dating from about 1609, while he was in Rome. Like many other artists before and after him, Elsheimer has depicted the biblical Flight into Egypt, in which Joseph, Mary, and Jesus seek refuge from possible persecution by Herod. For its innovative fusing of religious and landscape elements, and its detailed juxtaposition of light and darkness, The Flight into Egypt is one of Elsheimer's most well-known and lauded works. It is also likely his last painting, for he died a year later.

Elsheimer's treatment is unique in placing the Holy Family in a nocturnal setting, true to the biblical description. The darkness creates opposing feelings of intimacy and fear of the unknown. The painting channels the mysteries of night, pondered by humans for centuries, into this moment of the Holy Family seeking refuge.

There are four sources of light in the painting: the moon is accurately depicted and reflects off the calm water. There is a fire near the shepherds at left, where the family is headed. At the centre of the composition, Joseph holds a torch that illuminates Mary and the infant, who are riding an ass. The heavily treed landscape behind them is almost black, its outline forming a diagonal across the sky and completely containing the foreground figures. The diagonal is echoed in the night sky by the intricate band of the Milky Way, and detailed configurations of stars are seen, including Ursa Major at far left. Elsheimer is thought to be the first painter to accurately depict constellations.[1] In addition to disclosing Elsheimer's interest in scientific topics, the appearance of the Milky Way has a spiritual connotation—it symbolized the path to heaven beginning in the Middle Ages.[2] Elsheimer's sky, wrote art historian R.H. Wilenski, "is no longer a blackcloth but a symbol for boundless space".[3]


Elsheimer's works, including The Flight into Egypt, influenced important near-contemporaries Claude Lorrain and Peter Paul Rubens.[4] Rembrandt's version of the The Flight into Egypt (1627), with its unique illumination, may have been inspired by Elsheimer's. Rembrandt would have been familiar with Elsheimer's work through high-quality engravings made by his friend Hendrick Goudt.[1] Elsheimer also inspired later artists, such as the German Romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich. The fire's illumination in Friedrich's Evening on the Baltic Sea (1831) recalls The Flight into Egypt.[5]

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  1. ^ a b Madlyn Millner Kahr (1993). Dutch painting in the seventeenth century. 2nd edition. Westview Press; pp. 94–95. ISBN 0-06-430219-9
  2. ^ Parks, J. (2007). "Adam Elsheimer: Rich and Magical Storytelling." American Artist, 71, 36–45.
  3. ^ Quoted in Linda Ben-Zvi, Angela B. Moorjani (2008). Beckett at 100: revolving it all. Oxford University Press US; p. 131. ISBN 0-19-532547-8
  4. ^ Anne Hollander (1989). Moving pictures. Alfred A. Knopf; p. 106. ISBN 0-394-57400-1
  5. ^ Siegel, Linda (1978). Caspar David Friedrich and the age of German Romanticism. Branden Books; p. 7. ISBN 0-8283-1659-7

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