The Fourteen Infallibles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Fourteen Infallibles (Arabic: معصومونMa‘sūmūn) are Twelver Shī‘ah Islam religious figures from between the 6th and 9th century whom Twelvers believe are infallible, i.e. "divinely bestowed [with] freedom from error and sin". This quality of infallibility is known as Ismah.[1] The Fourteen Infallibles are Muhammad, his daughter Fatima Zahra and the Twelve Imams.

Background[edit]

According to Twelver theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. They state that since Allah has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order in accordance with Islam. The state of infallibility is based on the interpretation of the verse of purification:

And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey God and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you with a thorough purifying.

Quran 33:33

[2] Thus they are the fourteen most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from and immune to all impurities.[3] It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but it is due to the fact that they have an absolute submission to God that they do not sin.[1]

They have also complete knowledge about God's will, given to them by the First Infallible, the Prophet Muhammad. They are in possession of all the knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets. Thus they act without fault in religious matters.[4]

Though Shi'ism initially began as a movement of political opposition to the Caliphs, eventually the belief developed that the Imams possessed superhuman qualities of sinlessness and infallibility.[5] This ascription is encountered as early as the first half of the 8th century, first century of Islamic calendar, during the prophethood of Muhammad. The doctrine came to exclude the commission on their part of any sin or inadvertence, either before or after their assumption of office. As for Fatimah, her infallibility derives from her being a link between prophethood and imamah, the two institutions characterized by infallibility, as well as by her association with the imams and their attributes in numerous Hadiths. There is minimal agreement among Shia authorities that all fourteen are superior to the rest of creation, including even the major prophets.[6]

Family tree[edit]

 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fātimah
 
‘Alī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Alī Zaynul ‘Ābidīn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad al-Bāqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ja‘far as-Sādiq
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mūsā al-Kādhim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Alī ar-Ridhā
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
‘Alī al-Hadi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan al-‘Askarī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad al-Mahdī
 
 

List of Infallibles[edit]

Number Name
Kunya
Arabic Title[7]
Turkish title [8]
Designation Birth–Death CE
Birth–Death AH[9]
Birthplace (present day country) Place of death and burial
1 Muhammad ibn Abdullah
محمد بن عبدالله
Abu al-qasim
أبو القاسم
Rasul Allah
(the Messenger of God)
---
The Seal of All Prophets 570–632[10]
50(before Hijra)–13
Mecca, Saudi Arabia Died on death bed due to natural causes in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Before his death, Muhammad predicted that Fatima would be the first to die of his family and he also predicted how Ali, Hassan, and Hussein would die, all of which were realized.
2 Ali ibn Abu Talib
علي بن أبي طالب
Abu al-Hassan
أبو الحسن
Amir al-Mu'minin
(Commander of the Faithful)[11]
Birinci Ali[12]
The first Imam and the rightful successor of the Prophet of all Shia; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.[11] 600–661[11]
18(before Hijra)–40[13]
Mecca, Saudi Arabia[11] Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword.[11][14] Buried at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq.
3 Fatimah
فاطمة

al-Zahara
(the shining one)
---
The leader of all women in this world and in Paradise.(Arabic: سيدة نساء العالمينSayyidatu n-Nisā'i l-‘alamīn)[15] 605 or 615–632 or 633[16][17][18]
17 or 7 (before Hijra)–10 or 11
Mecca, Saudi Arabia Most Shias believe that she was injured when defending Ali against the first Khalifa that this incident lead to her death in her very young age.[19] She was buried in Jannat al-Baqi in the city of Medina, though the exact location of her grave is unknown.
4 Hassan ibn Ali
ألحسن بن علي
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Mujtaba
İkinci Ali[12]
The Second Imam[20] 624–680[21]
3–50[22]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[21] Poisoned by his wife Ja'da in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the orders of the Caliph Muawiya.[23] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
5 Husayn ibn Ali
ألحسین بن علي
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبدالله
Sayed al-Shuhada
Üçüncü Ali[12]
The Third Imam[24][25] 626–680[24]
4–61[26]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[24] Martyr at the Battle of Karbala.[24] Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
6 Ali ibn al-Hussein
علي بن الحسین
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abedin

[27]


Dördüncü Ali[12]
The Fourth Imam[28] 658–9[27] – 712[28]
38[27]–95[28]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[27] According to most Shia scholars, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph al-Walid I in Medina, Saudi Arabia.[28] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
7 Muhammad ibn Ali
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Baqir al-Ulum

(splitting open knowledge) [29]


Beşinci Ali[12]
The Fifth Imam[29][30] 677–732[29]
57–114[29]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[29] According to some Shia scholars, he was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.[28] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
8 Ja'far ibn Muhammad
جعفر بن محمد
Abu Abdillah
أبو عبدالله
al-Sadiq[31]


(the Trustworthy)


Altıncı Ali[12]
The Sixth Imam[31][32] 702–765[31]
83–148 [31]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[31] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Al-Mansur.[31] Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.
9 Musa ibn Ja'far
موسی بن جعفر
Abu al-Hassan I
أبو الحسن الاول [33]
al-Kazim[34]
Yedinci Ali[12]
The Seventh Imam[35] 744–799[34]
128–183[34]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[34] Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Buried in the Kāżimayn shrine in Baghdad.[34]
10 Ali ibn Musa
علي بن موسی
Abu al-Hassan II
أبو الحسن الثانی[33]
al-Rida, Reza[36]
Sekizinci Ali[12]
The Eighth Imam[36] 765–817[36]
148–203[36]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[36] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Mashad, Iran on the order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun. Buried in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashad.[36]
11 Muhammad ibn Ali
محمد بن علي
Abu Ja'far
أبو جعفر
al-Taqi, al-Jawad[37]
Dokuzuncu Ali[12]
The Ninth Imam[36] 810–835[37]
195–220[37]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[37] Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Kāżimayn shrine in Baghdad.[37]
12 Ali ibn Muhammad
علي بن محمد
Abu al-Hassan III
أبو الحسن الثالث[38]
al-Hadi, al-Naqi[38]
Onuncu Ali[12]
The Tenth Imam[38] 827–868[38]
212–254[38]
Surayya, a village near Medina, Saudi Arabia[38] According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Samarra, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz.[39] Buried in the Al Askari Mosque in Samarra.
13 Hassan ibn Ali
ألحسن بن علي
Abu Muhammad
أبو محمد
al-Askari[40]
Onbirinci Ali[12]
The Eleventh Imam[41] 846–874[40]
232–260[40]
Medina, Saudi Arabia[40] According to Shia, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq. Buried in Al Askari Mosque in Samarra.[42]
14 Muhammad ibn al-Hassan
محمد بن الحسن
Abu al-Qasim
أبو القاسم
al-Mahdi, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah [43]
Onikinci Ali[12]
The Twelfth and Final Imam.[44] He is also the Mahdi who will descend with the Messiah, Jesus Christ, to defeat ad-Dajjal. 868–alive[45]
255–alive[45]
Samarra, Iraq[45] According to Shia doctrine, he has been living in the Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills it and they are awaiting his return.[45]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dabashi (2006), p.463
  2. ^ Momen (1985), p.155
  3. ^ Corbin (1993), pp. 48–49
  4. ^ Corbin (1993), p.48
  5. ^ Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, pg. 46. New York: Facts on File, 1984. ISBN 0871966298
  6. ^ Algar, Hamid. "Chahardah M'asum". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  7. ^ The Imam's Arabic titles are used by the majority of Twelver Shia who use Arabic as a liturgical language, including the Usooli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, and to a lesser extent Alawi
  8. ^ Turkish titles are generally used by Alevi, a fringe Twelver group, who make up around 10% of the world Shi'a population. The titles for each Imam literally translate as "First Ali", "Second Ali", and so forth. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1. 
  9. ^ The abbreviation CE refers to the Common Era solar calendar, while AH refers to the Islamic Hijri lunar calendar.
  10. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Muhammad". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. 2004. ISBN 978-0-02-865769-1. 
  13. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 190–192
  14. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.192
  15. ^ Ordoni (1990) p.117
  16. ^ "Fatimah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  17. ^ Ordoni (1990) pp. 42–45
  18. ^ Amin. Vol. 4. p.103
  19. ^ "Fatima", Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill Online.(see:Umar at Fatimah's house)
  20. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "Hasan ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  21. ^ a b "Hasan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  22. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 194–195
  23. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.195
  24. ^ a b c d "al-Husayn". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  25. ^ Calmard, Jean. "Husayn ibn Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  26. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 196–199
  27. ^ a b c d Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALĪ B. AL-ḤOSAYN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  28. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.202
  29. ^ a b c d e Madelung, Wilferd. "AL-BAQER, ABU JAFAR MOHAMMAD". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  30. ^ Tabatabae (1979), p.203
  31. ^ a b c d e f Tabatabae (1979), pp. 203–204
  32. ^ "Wasil ibn Ata". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  33. ^ a b Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALĪ AL-HĀDĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  34. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p.205
  35. ^ Tabatabae (1979) p. 78
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Tabatabae (1979), pp. 205–207
  37. ^ a b c d e Tabatabae (1979), p. 207
  38. ^ a b c d e f Madelung, Wilferd. "'ALĪ AL-HĀDĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  39. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 208–209
  40. ^ a b c d Halm, H. "'ASKARĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  41. ^ Tabatabae (1979) pp. 209–210
  42. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 209–210
  43. ^ "Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Hujjah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  44. ^ Tabatabae (1979), pp. 211–214
  45. ^ a b c d Tabatabae (1979), pp. 210–211

References[edit]

Encyclopedias
Books

External links[edit]