The Great Escape (film)
|The Great Escape|
original poster by Frank McCarthy
|Directed by||John Sturges|
|Produced by||John Sturges|
|Screenplay by||James Clavell
W. R. Burnett
Walter Newman (uncredited)
|Based on||The Great Escape
by Paul Brickhill
|Music by||Elmer Bernstein|
|Cinematography||Daniel L. Fapp
|Edited by||Ferris Webster|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|Running time||165 minutes|
The film is based on the book of the same name by Paul Brickhill, a non-fiction first-hand account of the mass escape from Stalag Luft III in Sagan (now Żagań, Poland), in the province of Lower Silesia, Nazi Germany. The characters are based on real men, and in some cases are composites of several men. The film was made by the Mirisch Company, released by United Artists, and produced and directed by John Sturges.
In 1943, having expended enormous resources on recapturing escaped Allied prisoners of war (POWs), the Germans move the most determined to a new, high-security prisoner of war camp. The commandant, Luftwaffe Colonel von Luger, tells the senior British officer, Group Captain Ramsey, "There will be no escapes from this camp." Ramsey replies that it is their duty to try to escape, to which von Luger replies with exasperation over the numerous escape attempts performed by the new arrivals. When Ramsey reasons with the commandant that officers will not forget their duty, even in prison, von Luger calmly replies by pointing out the various features of the new camp designed to prevent escape, as well as the perks the prisoners will receive as an incentive not to try. After several failed escape attempts on the first day, the POWs settle into life at the prison camp.
Gestapo and SS agents bring RAF Squadron Leader Roger Bartlett to the camp and present him to von Luger. Known as "Big X," Bartlett is introduced as the principal organiser of escapes and Gestapo agent Kuhn orders that he be kept under the most restrictive permanent security confinement, which Colonel von Luger, disgusted by the Nazis and the SS, only makes a "note" of, treating the command with complete contempt. As Kuhn leaves, he warns Bartlett that if he escapes again, he will be shot. Bartlett is then placed with the rest of the POWs, rather than the restrictive holding that Gestapo agent Kuhn had demanded.
Locked up with "every escape artist in Germany", Bartlett immediately plans the greatest escape attempted — with tunnels for breaking out 250 prisoners, much to the surprise of the X organisation. The intent is to "confuse, confound and harass the enemy" to the point that as many troops and resources as possible will be wasted on finding POWs instead of being used on the front line.
Teams are then organised to tunnel, make civilian clothing, forge documents, procure contraband materials, and prevent guards from discovering their work. Flight Lieutenant Robert Hendley, an American in the RAF, is "the scrounger" who finds what the others need, from a camera to clothes and identity cards. Australian Flying Officer Louis Sedgwick, "the manufacturer," makes tools such as picks for digging and bellows for pumping air into the tunnels. Flight Lieutenants Danny Valinski and William "Willie" Dickes are "the tunnel kings" in charge of making the tunnels. Flight Lieutenant Andrew MacDonald acts as intelligence provider and Bartlett's second-in-command. Lieutenant Commander Eric Ashley-Pitt of the Royal Navy devises a method of hiding bags in the prisoners' trousers and spreading dirt from the tunnels over the camp, under the guards' noses. Forgery is handled by Flight Lieutenant Colin Blythe, who becomes nearly blind due to progressive myopia caused by intricate work by candlelight: Hendley takes it upon himself to be Blythe's guide in the escape.
The prisoners work on three tunnels simultaneously, calling them "Tom," "Dick" and "Harry." Work on Harry and Dick is stopped so that more work can be performed on Tom. The noise generated by digging work is covered by the prisoner choir led by Flight Lieutenant Dennis Cavendish, the group's surveyor.
USAAF Captain Virgil Hilts, "the Cooler King," irritates guards with frequent escape attempts and general irreverence. Hilts and RAF Flying Officer Archibald Ives conceive of an escape attempt through a short tunnel at a blind spot right near the edge of the camp, a proposal which is accepted by Bartlett on the grounds that vetoing every independent escape attempt would raise suspicion of the collective escape attempt which they were planning. However, Hilts and Ives are caught and returned to the 'cooler'. Upon release from the cooler, Bartlett requests that Hilts use his next escape attempt as an opportunity for surveillance for the other prisoners; a request which Hilts refuses. Meanwhile, Hendley forms a friendship with German guard Werner, which he exploits on several occasions to smuggle documents and other items of importance to the prisoners.
While the British POWs enjoy a 4th of July celebration arranged by the three Americans, the guards discover tunnel Tom. The mood drops to disappointment and hits Ives hardest. He is drawn to the barbed wire that surrounds the camp and climbs it in view of guards. Hilts runs to stop him but is too late, and Ives is shot dead near the top of the fence. The prisoners switch their efforts to Harry. Hilts agrees to change his plan to reconnoiter outside the camp and allows himself to be recaptured. The information he brings back is used to create maps showing the nearest town and railway station.
The last part of the tunnel is completed on the night of the escape, but it proves to be 20 feet short of the woods, which are to provide cover. Bartlett vetoes changing plans, noting that all the escapees' forged documents are dated for that day. Hilts devises a scheme to have the men exit the tunnel between guard sweeps, signaled by him from the woods via tugs on a rope. Danny, having spent much of his time in the tunnel and barely survived multiple cave-ins, develops claustrophobia and nearly refuses to go, but is helped along by Willie. However, an impatient would-be escapee is discovered while exiting the tunnel and thwarts the completion of the escape effort. In the end, seventy-six escape.
After attempts to reach neutral Switzerland, Sweden and Spain, almost all the POWs are recaptured or killed. Hendley and Blythe steal an aircraft to fly over the Swiss border, but the engine fails and they crash-land. Soldiers arrive and Blythe, his eyesight damaged, stands and is shot. Hendley surrenders and is captured as Blythe dies. Cavendish, having hitched a ride in a truck, is captured at a checkpoint, while another POW, Haynes, is captured in his German soldier disguise.
Bartlett is identified in a crowded railway station by Gestapo agent Kuhn. Eric Ashley-Pitt overpowers Kuhn and kills him with his own gun, but is shot and killed by soldiers while attempting to escape. In the commotion, Bartlett and MacDonald slip away, but they are caught while boarding a bus after MacDonald blunders by replying in English to a suspicious Gestapo agent who wishes them "Good luck" in English. Hilts steals a motorcycle and is pursued by German soldiers, jumps a first line barbed wire fence at the German-Swiss border and drives on to the Neutral Zone, but becomes entangled in the second line of the barbed fence right on the Swiss-Border and is captured.
Three truckloads of recaptured POWs go down a country road and split off in three directions. One truck, containing Bartlett, MacDonald, Cavendish, Haynes and others, stops in a field and the POWs are told to get out and "stretch their legs." They are shot dead. In all, fifty escapees are murdered. Hendley and nine others are returned to the camp. Von Luger is relieved of command of the prison camp and is driven away by the SS for failing to prevent the breakout.
Only three make it to safety. Danny and Willie steal a rowing-boat and proceed down-river to the Baltic coast, where they board a Swedish merchant ship. Sedgwick steals a bicycle and rides through the countryside, then rides hidden in a freight train carriage to France, where he is guided by the Resistance to Spain. Hilts is returned to the camp alone and taken back to the cooler. Lieutenant Goff, one of the Americans, gets Hilts's baseball and glove and throws it to him when Hilts and his guards pass by. The guard locks him in his cell and walks away, but momentarily pauses when he hears the familiar sound of Hilts optimistically bouncing his baseball against a cell wall. The film ends with the caption "This picture is dedicated to the fifty."
Following the deaths of James Garner, Richard Attenborough and Angus Lennie in 2014, the main surviving cast members are David McCallum, John Leyton, Lawrence Montaigne, Tom Adams, George Mikell and William Russell.
The film was to a fair extent a work of fiction, based on the real events but with numerous compromises made for purposes of commercial appeal, serving as a vehicle for its box-office stars. While many of its characters were fictitious and events glossed over, most were amalgams of several real characters and many were based on real people. There were no escapes by motorcycle, or aircraft. Nor were the recaptured prisoners executed in one place at the same time. The screenwriters increased the importance of the roles of American POWs; the real escape was by British and other allied personnel, none being American. The three prisoners who escaped to freedom were Norwegian (Jens Müller & Per Bergsland) and Dutch (Bram van der Stok). While Americans in the POW camp initially contributed significantly to building the tunnels and worked on the early escape plans, they were moved to their own compound seven months before the tunnels were completed. Hilts' dash for the border by motorcycle was added by request of McQueen, who did the stunt riding himself except for the final jump (done by Bud Ekins).
Ex-POWs asked film-makers to exclude details about the help they received from their home countries, such as maps, papers, and tools hidden in gift packages, lest it jeopardise future POW escapes. The film-makers complied.
In reality Canadians played an important role in the construction of the tunnels and the escape itself. Of the 1,800 or so POWs in the compound, 600 were involved in preparations for the escape; 150 of these were Canadian. Wally Floody, an RCAF pilot and mining engineer who was the real-life "tunnel king", was engaged as a technical advisor for the film.
Steve McQueen, in a role based on at least two pilots, David M. Jones and John Dortch Lewis(but see debate), has been credited with the most significant performance. Critic Leonard Maltin wrote that "the large, international cast is superb, but the standout is McQueen; it's easy to see why this cemented his status as a superstar."
Richard Attenborough was cast as Sqn Ldr Roger Bartlett RAF ("Big X"), a character based on Roger Bushell, the South African-born British POW who was the mastermind of the real Great Escape. This was the film that first brought Attenborough to wide popular attention in the United States.
Group Captain Ramsey RAF (the "SBO") was based on Group Captain Herbert Massey, a WWI vet who had volunteered in WWII. He is played by James Donald. Massey walked with a limp, and so did Ramsey in the movie who walked with a cane. Massey had suffered severe wounds to the same leg in both wars. There would be no escape for him but as Senior British Officer, he had to know what was going on. Group Captain Massey had been a veteran escaper himself and had been in trouble with the Gestapo. His experience allowed him to offer sound advice to the X-Organisation. Another officer that had most likely inspired the character of Ramsey was Wing Commander Harry Day. There was an uncanny resemblance between Harry Day and James Donald as Group Captain Ramsey in this picture.
Flt Lt Colin Blythe RAF ("The Forger") was based on Tim Walenn and played by Donald Pleasence. Pleasence himself had served in the Royal Air Force during World War II. He was shot down and spent a year in German prisoner-of-war camp Stalag Luft I.
The film is accurate in showing that only three escapees made home runs, although the people who made them differed from those in the film. The escape of Danny and Willie in the film is based on two Norwegians who escaped by boat to Sweden, Per Bergsland and Jens Müller. The successful escape of Coburn's Australian character via Spain was based on Dutchman Bram van der Stok.
Location and set design
The film was made at the Bavaria Film Studio in the Munich suburb of Geiselgasteig in rural Bavaria where sets for the barrack interiors and tunnels were constructed. The camp was constructed in a clearing in the Perlacher forest near the studio. The German town near the real prison camp was Sagan (now Żagań, Poland); it was renamed Neustadt in the film. Many scenes were filmed in and around the town of Füssen in Bavaria, including its railway station. The nearby district of Pfronten  with its distinctive St. Nikolaus Church and scenic background also features often in the film. Many scenes involving trains and stations were filmed near Deisenhofen station and on the Großhesselohe - Holzkirchen railway line.
The film depicts the tunnel codenamed Tom as having its entrance under a stove and Harry's as in a drain sump in a washroom. In reality, Dick's entrance was the drain sump, Harry's was under the stove, and Tom's was in a darkened corner next to a stove chimney.
The motorcycle chase scenes culminating in the jumping of the barbed wire were shot on meadows outside Füssen, and the "barbed wire" that Hilts crashed into before being recaptured was simulated by strips of rubber tied around barbless wire, constructed by the cast and crew in their spare time. The jump scene was performed by stuntman Bud Ekins in place of Steve McQueen. Other parts of the chase scene were done by McQueen playing both Hilts and the soldiers chasing him because of McQueen's ability on a motorcycle.
Intrada Records album
|Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|2.||"At First Glance"||3:07|
|4.||"If At Once"||2:31|
|8.||""X"/Tonight We Dig"||1:30|
|12.||"The Plan/The Sad Ives"||1:43|
|14.||"Hilts And Ives"||0:38|
|Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (Cont'd)|
|5.||"Released Again/Escape Time"||5:25|
|6.||"20 Feet Short"||3:06|
|8.||"At The Station"||1:33|
|9.||"On The Road"||3:27|
|10.||"The Chase/First Casualty"||6:49|
|12.||"More Action/Hilts Captured"||6:07|
|15.||"Three Gone/Home Again"||3:13|
|Original 1963 United Artists Score Album|
|3.||"Cooler And Mole"||2:26|
|7.||"On The Road"||2:54|
The Great Escape grossed $11,744,471 at the box office, after a budget of $4 million. It became one of the highest grossing films of 1963, despite heavy competition and, in the years since its release, its audience has only broadened, cementing its status as a cinema classic. It was entered into the 3rd Moscow International Film Festival where McQueen won the Silver Prize for Best Actor.
Critical and public response was mostly enthusiastic, with a 92% rating on Rotten Tomatoes In 1963 New York Times critic Bosley Crowther wrote: "But for much longer than is artful or essential, The Great Escape grinds out its tormenting story without a peek beneath the surface of any man, without a real sense of human involvement. It's a strictly mechanical adventure with make-believe men." British film critic Leslie Halliwell described it as "pretty good but overlong POW adventure with a tragic ending". In Time magazine 1963: "The use of color photography is unnecessary and jarring, but little else is wrong with this film. With accurate casting, a swift screenplay, and authentic German settings, Producer-Director John Sturges has created classic cinema of action. There is no sermonizing, no soul probing, no sex. The Great Escape is simply great escapism".
In a 2006 poll in the United Kingdom, regarding the family film that television viewers would most want to see on Christmas Day, The Great Escape came in third, and was first among the choices of male viewers.
In 2009, seven POWs returned to Stalag Luft III for the 65th anniversary of the escape and watched the film. According to the veterans, many details of the first half depicting life in the camp were authentic, e.g. the machine-gunning of Ives, who snaps and tries to scale the fence, and the actual digging of the tunnels. In 2014, the RAF staged a commemoration of the escape attempt, with 50 serving personnel carrying a photograph of one of the men shot.
Awards and honors
- Nominated Academy Award for Film Editing (Ferris Webster)
- Nominated Golden Globe Award for Best Picture
- Winner Moscow International Film Festival Best Actor (Steve McQueen)
- Nominated Moscow International Film Festival Grand Prix (John Sturges)
- Selected National Board of Review Top Ten Films of Year
- Nominated Writers Guild of America Best Written American Drama (James Clavell, W.R. Burnett) (Screenplay Adaptation)
In popular culture
References to scenes and motifs from the film, as well as Elmer Bernstein's theme, have appeared in other films, television series, and video games.
- The films Chicken Run, Reservoir Dogs, the 1998 remake of The Parent Trap, Top Secret!, Charlie's Angels, and Naked Gun 33 1/3: The Final Insult all contain references or homages to the film.
- Monty Python's Flying Circus, The Simpsons, Hogan's Heroes, Nash Bridges, Seinfeld, Get Smart, Fugget About It, Archer, Goodness Gracious Me and Red Dwarf have all parodied or paid homage to the film.
- In "Escape From Stalag Luft 112B," an episode of Ripping Yarns, Maj. Errol Phipps (played by Michael Palin) is depicted as being the only prisoner of war never to escape from the camp of the title.
- A fictional, made-for-television sequel, The Great Escape II: The Untold Story, appeared in 1988. It starred Christopher Reeve and Judd Hirsch, with Donald Pleasence as an SS villain.
- The television comedy series Hogan's Heroes has been compared to the film The Great Escape, but beyond the similarities of being set in a Luft Stalag during World War II, prisoners trying to escape and digging tunnels and German guards (which are common to all such movies) the similarities end. Hogan's Heroes involves prisoners, not trying to escape, but carrying out acts of espionage and sabotage involving spies, defectors, escaped prisoners from other camps, resistance groups, German secret weapons and beautiful women. Characterization of the Germans is also completely different especially the camp commandant as well as the interaction between the prisoners and guards.
- In the television drama series Suites season 3 episode 9 Jessica Pearson instructs Louis Litt to conduct himself as the "Cool King" a reference to Steve McQueen's character in the movie.
- Bernstein's Great Escape theme tune has been taken up by the Pukka Pies England Band, a small brass band who have played in the crowd at England football team matches since 1996. They released an arrangement of the theme as a single for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and a newer version for UEFA Euro 2000.
In 1986 Ocean software released The Great Escape for the Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum and DOS platforms.
In the video game Freelancer, the protagonist, Edison Trent, is dressed in an outfit identical to the one worn by Steve McQueen's character Virgil Hilts.
- Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company The Changed the Film Industry, Uni of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p 174
- Wolter, Tim (2001). POW baseball in World War II. McFarland. pp. 24–5. ISBN 978-0-7864-1186-3.
- Craig, Phil (October 24, 2009) He shot the hero of the Great Escape in cold blood. But was this one Nazi who DIDN'T deserve to hang? Daily Mail Retrieved January 10, 2011
- Hollywood droppet nordmenn fra krigsfilm (in Norwegian)
- Brickhill, Paul, The Great Escape
- "Steve McQueen 40 Summers Ago". July 14, 2005. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- The Great Escape: Heroes Underground documentary, available on The Great Escape DVD Special Edition.
- Canadians and the Great Escape Accessed=January 7, 2012
- Maltin, Leonard (1999). Leonard Maltin's Family Film Guide. New York: Signet. p. 225. ISBN 0-451-19714-3.
- Whalley, Kirsty (November 10, 2008). "Escape artist’s inspiring exploits". This is Local London (Newsquest Media Group / A Gannett Company). Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- The Great Escape, by Anton Gill, 2002, p. 96
- "Now sporting a huge, bushy moustache ... he set to work arranging the operations of the forgery department" (Vance 2003, p. 44)
- DVD extra
- Carroll, Tim (2004). The Great Escapers. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-904-5.
- Hall, Allan (March 24, 2009). "British veterans mark Great Escape anniversary". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group Limited). Retrieved October 26, 2009. Archived version October 26, 2009
- „Gesprengte Ketten - The Great Escape" Behind the scenes, Photographs of cameraman Walter Riml, Editor Helma Türk & Christian Riml, House Publication 2013, Page 28, 44ff 
- The Great Escape Locations Site Don J Whistance. Retrieved November 2011
- „Gesprengte Ketten - The Great Escape" Behind the scenes, Photographs of cameraman Walter Riml, Editor Helma Türk & Christian Riml, House Publication 2013, Page 110ff 
- „Gesprengte Ketten - The Great Escape" Behind the scenes, Photographs of cameraman Walter Riml, Editor Helma Türk and Christian Riml, House Publication 2013, Page 58ff 
- (Vance 2003, pp. 116–118)
- Rufford, Nick (February 13, 2009). "Video: The Great Escape, re-enacted". The Times (Times Newspapers Ltd). Retrieved October 20, 2009. See 4th paragraph. Archived version October 20, 2009
- Stone, Matt (2007). McQueen's Machines: The Cars and Bikes of a Hollywood Icon. Minneapolis, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-7603-38957. "There's a chase sequence in there where the Germans were after [McQueen], and he was so much a better rider than they were, that he just ran away from them. And you weren't going to slow him down. So they put a German uniform on him, and he chased himself!"
- Box Office Information for The Great Escape. The Numbers. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- Glenn Lovell, Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008 p224
- Eder, Bruce (2009). "allmovie – Review: The Great Escape". AllMovie. Macrovision Corporation. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
- "3rd Moscow International Film Festival (1963)". MIFF. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Bosley Crowther (August 8, 1963). "P.O.W.'s in 'Great Escape':Inmates of Nazi Camp Are Stereotypical – Steve McQueen Leads Snarling Tunnelers". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- Walker, John (1997). Halliwell's film and Video Guide. London: HarperCollins. p. 311. ISSN 1098-206X.
- "Cinema: The Getaway". Time (Time Inc.). July 19, 1963. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- "TV classics are recipe for Christmas Day delight". Freeview. December 11, 2006. Retrieved September 5, 2009. Archived version September 5, 2009
- "Veterans of the Great Escape visit old stalag" article at The Independent website
- Nixon, Rob (2008). "Pop Culture 101: The Great Escape". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- Walters, Mike. "Exclusive interview with The Pukka Pie England Band –". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- "ChartArchive – England Supporters' Band". Chartstats.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-19. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- Andrews, Allen. Exemplary Justice. London: Harrap, 1976. ISBN 0245527753
- Details the manhunt by the Royal Air Force's special investigations unit after the war to find and bring to trial the perpetrators of the "Sagan murders".
- Barris, Ted. The Great Escape: A Canadian Story. Toronto: Thomas Allen, 2013. ISBN 1771022728
- Brickhill, Paul The Great Escape. New York: Norton, 1950.
- Burgess, Alan. The Longest Tunnel. New York: Grove Press, 1990. ISBN 1555840337
- Hehner, Barbara. The Tunnel King: The True Story of Wally Floody and the Great Escape. Toronto: Harper Trophy Canada, 2004.
- Hevesi, Dennis. "Alex Cassie of 'Great Escape' Dies at 95," New York Times (April 22, 2012) p. 20
- Jens Müller. Tre kom tilbake ("Three returned"). Gyldendal 1946.
- Memoir by the surviving Norwegian escapee.
- Smith, Sydney. 'Wings' Day. Pan Books 1968 ISBN 0-330-02494-9
- story of Wing Commander Harry "Wings" Day
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Great Escape (film)|
- The Great Escape at the Internet Movie Database
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- The Great Escape at AllMovie
- James Garner Interview on the Charlie Rose Show (See 30:23–34:47 of video.)
- New publication with private photos of the shooting & documents of 2nd unit cameraman Walter Riml
- Photos of the filming
- The Great Escape locations
- The Great Escape at Rotten Tomatoes