The Green Book (Muammar Gaddafi)
|The Green Book|
|Published in English||1976|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Green Book (Arabic: الكتاب الأخضر al-Kitāb al-Aḫḍar) is a short book setting out the political philosophy of the former Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi. The book was first published in 1975. It was "intended to be required reading for all Libyans." It is said to have been inspired in part by The Little Red Book (Quotations from Chairman Mao). Both were widely distributed both inside and outside their country of origin, and "written in a simple, understandable style with many memorable slogans." During the Libyan civil war copies of the book were burned by anti-Gaddafi demonstrators.
According to British author and former GLC member George Tremlett, Libyan children spent two hours a week studying the book as part of their curriculum; extracts were broadcast every day on television and radio; its slogans were found on billboards and painted on buildings in Libya; and by 1993 lectures and seminars on it at universities and colleges had been held in France, Eastern Europe, Colombia, and Venezuela.
The Green Book consists of three parts and has 110 pages with 200 words or more on each page.
- The Solution of the Problem of Democracy: The Authority of the People (published in late 1975)
- The Solution of the Economic Problem: Socialism (published in early 1977)
- The Social Basis of the Third International Theory (published in September 1981)
The Green Book rejects modern liberal democracy based on electing representatives as well as capitalism. Instead, it proposes a type of direct democracy overseen by the General People's Committee which allow direct political participation for all adult citizens.
The book states that "Freedom of expression is the right of every natural person, even if a person chooses to behave irrationally, to express his or her insanity." However, freedom of speech is based on public ownership of book publishers, newspapers, television, and radio stations, on the grounds that private ownership would be undemocratic.
George Tremlett has called the resulting media dull and lacking in a clash of ideas. Dartmouth College Professor Dirk Vandewalle describes the book as more a collection of aphorisms rather than a systematic argument. U.S. Ambassador David Mack called the book quite jumbled, with various ideas including "a fair amount of xenophobia" wrapped up in "strange mixture". Writing for the British Broadcasting Corporation, the journalist Martin Asser described the book as follows: "The theory claims to solve the contradictions inherent in capitalism and communism... In fact, it is little more than a series of fatuous diatribes, and it is bitterly ironic that a text whose professed objective is to break the shackles... has been used instead to subjugate an entire population."
- Dirk Vandewalle (3 March 2011) (audio/transcript). What's In Gadhafi's Manifesto?. Interview with Melissa Block. All Things Considered. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2011/03/03/134239733/Whats-In-Gadhafis-Manifesto. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Andrew Roberts (2 March 2011). "The Top 10 Quotes from Gaddafi's Green Book". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Metz, Helen Chapin (1987). "The Green Book". Libya: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. OCLC 19122696. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- Alexander Dziadosz (2 March 2011). "East Libyans burn Gaddafi book, demand constitution". Reuters Africa. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- al-Gaddafi, Muammar (1976) The Green Book People's Committee, Libya.
- Serge Schmemann (18 December 1987). "Qaddafi Foiled as an Ice Hockey Patron". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Tremlett, George (1993). Gadaffi: The Desert Mystic (First ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. pp. 208, 210, 214, 217, 220. ISBN 0-88184-934-0.
- Vandewalle, Dirk J. (2006). A history of modern Libya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85048-7. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Martin Asser (26 March 2011). "The Muammar Gaddafi story". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Jackie Northam (20 October 2011). "Moammar Gadhafi Ruled Libya With An Iron Fist". National Public Radio-. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- The Green Book, online English translation at mathaba.net
- International People's Conference Organization - an organisation dedicated to promoting The Green Book
- WorldCat: Formats and editions of The Green Book
- The Green Book three parts, translated in Tripoli. Claims absolute fidelity to the original.
- The Green Book globusz.com