The Human Stain
First edition cover
|Cover artist||Michaela Sullivan|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|LC Class||PS3568.O855 H8 2000|
The Human Stain (2000) is a novel by Philip Roth set in late 1990s rural New England. Its first person narrator is 65-year-old author Nathan Zuckerman, who appeared in several earlier Roth novels, and who also figures in both American Pastoral (1997) and I Married a Communist (1998), two books that form a loose trilogy with The Human Stain. Zuckerman acts largely as an observer rather than the protagonist of the novel, who is Coleman Silk, a retired professor of classics whose complex story is slowly revealed.
The story is told by Nathan Zuckerman, a writer who lives quietly in New England, where Coleman Silk is his neighbor. Silk is a former professor and dean of faculty at nearby Athena College, a fictional institution in the Berkshires of western Massachusetts. Silk is accused of racism by two African American students. The uproar leads to Silk's resignation. Soon after, his wife Iris dies of a stroke, which Silk feels is caused by the stress of his being forced out of the college. Silk begins a relationship with Faunia Farley, a 34-year-old local woman who works as a janitor at the college and is illiterate. Silk is criticized by feminist scholars at the college for this.
It is slowly revealed through Zuckerman's musings that Silk is an African American who has been "passing" as Jewish (and white) since a stint in the Navy. He completed graduate school, married a white woman and had four children with her. He never told his wife and children of his African American ancestry. As Roth wrote in the novel, Silk chose "to take the future into his own hands rather than to leave it to an unenlightened society to determine his fate".
The Human Stain is set in 1998 in the United States, during the period of President Bill Clinton's impeachment hearings and scandal over Monica Lewinsky. It is the third of Roth's postwar novels that take on large social themes.
In 2012, Roth said publicly that his inspiration for the novel was based on an event in the life of his friend Melvin Tumin, a "professor of sociology at Princeton for some thirty years." He further noted that he was only vaguely acquainted with Broyard during his lifetime.
Despite the statement from the actual author of the book, many literary critics have noted the similarity between Silk and Anatole Broyard, including Michiko Kakutani, Janet Maslin, Lorrie Moore, Touré, and Brent Staples, Broyard, wrote Touré, "the great literary critic of The New York Times in the 1970s and ’80s, was probably the inspiration for Coleman Silk, even though the author has directly said who the inspiration was. He was born black in New Orleans but passed as white in New York. Even as he was dying, with his wife urging him to reveal his secret to his children, he refused to tell them he was black." Broyard died in 1990.
The Human Stain is the third in a trilogy, following American Pastoral and I Married a Communist, in which Roth explores American morality and its effects. Here he examines the cut-throat and, at times, petty, atmosphere in American academia, in which "political correctness" was upheld. Roth said he wrote the trilogy to reflect periods in the 20th century—the McCarthy years, the Vietnam War, and President Bill Clinton's impeachment—that he thinks are the "historical moments in post-war American life that have had the greatest impact on my generation."
The journalist Michiko Kakutani said that, in The Human Stain, Roth explores issues of identity and self-invention in America which he had long explored in earlier works. She wrote the following interpretation:
It is a book that shows how the public Zeitgeist can shape, even destroy, an individual's life, a book that takes all of Roth's favorite themes of identity and rebellion and generational strife and refracts them not through the narrow prism of the self but through a wide-angle lens that exposes the fissures and discontinuities of 20th-century life. ... When stripped of its racial overtones, Roth's book echoes a story he has told in novel after novel. Indeed, it closely parallels the story of Nathan Zuckerman, himself another dutiful, middle-class boy from New Jersey who rebelled against his family and found himself exiled, 'unbound' as it were, from his roots."
Mark Shechner writes in his 2003 study that in the novel, Roth explores issues in American society that force a man such as Silk to hide his background, to the point of not having a personal history to share with his children or family. He wanted to pursue an independent course unbounded by racial restraints, but became what he once despised. His downfall to some extent is engineered by Delphine Roux, the young, female, elite, French intellectual who is dismayed to find herself in a New England outpost of sorts, and sees Silk as having become deadwood in academia, the very thing he abhorred at the beginning of his own career.
Anatole Broyard controversy
In the reviews of the book in both the daily and the Sunday New York Times in 2000, Kakutani and Lorrie Moore connected the central character of Coleman Silk to the life of Anatole Broyard, a well-known New York literary editor of the Times. Other writers in the academic and mainstream press made the same suggestion. After Broyard's death in 1990, it had been revealed that he racially passed during his many years employed as a critic at The New York Times.
In 2008, Roth stated in an interview that he had not known of Broyard's ancestry when he started writing the book and had only learned of it months later. On September 7, 2012, Roth wrote an open letter to Wikipedia in The New Yorker in which he dismissed critics' earlier suggestions that his novel was inspired by Anatole Broyard. He said that he had used an incident in the life of his friend Melvin Tumin, professor of sociology at Princeton, and created everything else about his character, Coleman Silk. Roth used details from Tumin's experience in the events that led to Silk's resigning from the college. Roth acknowledged that he had met Broyard and had heard a rumor about his ancestry but wrote that he barely knew him. Bliss Broyard, the daughter of Anatole Broyard, responded on her Facebook page, "I think it’s completely reasonable that Roth should be allowed to have the last word on who inspires his characters. . . BUT I don’t think it’s reasonable that Roth gets to dictate what conclusions other people draw about his characters." The Facebook posting was republished on Salon.com by Prachi Gupta with the heading, "Does Philip Roth know what inspired his novel?"
The novel was well received, became a national bestseller, and won numerous awards. In choosing it for its "Editors' Choice" list of 2000, The New York Times wrote:
When Zuckerman and Silk are together and testing each other, Roth's writing reaches an emotional intensity and a vividness not exceeded in any of his books. The American dream of starting over entirely new has the force of inevitability here, and Roth's judgment clearly is that you can never make it all the way. There is no comfort in this vision, but the tranquility Zuckerman achieves as he tells the story is infectious, and that is a certain reward.
- New York Times "Editors' Choice" (2000)
- Koret Jewish Book Award (2000)
- Chicago Tribune Editor's Pick (2000)
- WH Smith Literary Award (2001)
- National Jewish Book Award (2001)
- PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction (2001)
- Prix Médicis étranger; Meilleur livre de l'année 2002
- Taylor, Charles (April 24, 2000). "Life and life only". Salon. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Michiko Kakutani (May 2, 2000). "Confronting the Failures of a Professor Who Passes". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Philip Roth (September 7, 2012). "An Open Letter to Wikipedia". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
- Shechner (2003), 187
- Safer (2003), 239
- Shechner (2003), 186–195
- Lorrie Moore, "The Wrath of Athena", New York Times, May 7, 2000, accessed August 20, 2012. Quote: "In addition to the hypnotic creation of Coleman Silk – whom many readers will feel, correctly or not, to be partly inspired by the late Anatole Broyard – Roth has brought Nathan Zuckerman into old age, continuing what he began in American Pastoral.
- Tierney, William G. (2002). "Interpreting Academic Identities: Reality and Fiction on Campus", The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 73, No. 1, Special Issue: The Faculty in the New Millennium (Jan. - Feb., 2002), pp. 161-172
- Brent Staples, "Editorial Observer; Back When Skin Color Was Destiny, Unless You Passed for White", New York Times, September 7, 2003, accessed January 25, 2011. Quote: "This was raw meat for Philip Roth, who may have known the outlines of the story even before Henry Louis Gates Jr. told it in detail in 'The New Yorker' in 1996. When Mr. Roth's novel about "passing" – The Human Stain – appeared in 2000, the character who jettisons his black family to live as white was strongly reminiscent of Mr. Broyard."
- Sarris, Andrew (November 3, 2003). "Cinematic Stain Stirs My Soul: Coleman Silk, I Feel Your Pain". The New York Observer. Retrieved September 13, 2012. "my professional debt to the late Anatole Broyard, the 'passer' and Times book reviewer on whom Mr. Roth's Coleman Silk is partly based."(subscription required)
- Patricia J. Williams (October 27, 2003). "Rush Limbaugh's inner black child (The Human Stain, movie adaptation of book by Philip Roth)". The Nation. Retrieved September 13, 2012. "Philip Roth's novel The Human Stain attracted considerable attention some years back; it was widely read as a fictionalized version of literary critic Anatole Broyard's life. Broyard, an editor at The New York Times Book Review, was a light-skinned black man who decided early in his career to 'pass'; he cut ties with his family and lived his life as a white man."(subscription required)
- Kaplan, Brett Ashley (2005). "Anatole Broyard's Human Stain: Performing Postracial Consciousness." Philip Roth Studies, 1.2 (2005): 125–44
- Boddy, Kasia (2010). Philip Roth's Great Books: A Reading of The Human Stain. Cambridge Quarterly (2010) 39 (1): 39-60. doi: 10.1093/camqtly/bfp025
- Shechner (2003), 186
- Robert Hilferty (September 16, 2008). "Philip Roth Serves Up Blood and Guts in 'Indignation' (Update1)". Bloomberg. "I knew Anatole slightly, and I didn't know he was black. Eventually there was a New Yorker article describing Anatole's life written months and months after I had begun my book."
- Prachi Gupta (September 19, 2012). "Does Philip Roth know what inspired his novel?". Salon.
- Staff writer (December 3, 2000). "Editors' Choice: The 10 best books of 2000". The New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "The Human Stain: Awards". Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 2008-03-28. "This complex novel about 'dissembling and impersonation is the work of a remarkable creative intelligence,' added Alvin H. Rosen."
- PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction: Winners 1996–2006
- LA Times Book Awards, Los Angeles Times, press release, June 2001
- Safer, Elaine B. "Tragedy and Farce in Roth's the Human Stain". in Bloom, Harold (ed.) Philip Roth. Chelsea House. ISBN 0–7910–7446–3
- Shechner, Mark (2003). Up Society's Ass, Copper: Rereading Philip Roth. University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 9780299193546
- Boddy, Kasia (2010). "Philip Roth's Great Books: A Reading of The Human Stain". Cambridge Quarterly (2010) 39 (1): 39-60. doi: 10.1093/camqtly/bfp025
- Faisst, Julia (2006). "Delusionary Thinking, Whether White or Black or in Between: Fictions of Race in Philip Roth's The Human Stain". Philip Roth Studies, 2006
- Kaplan, Brett Ashley (2005). "Anatole Broyard's Human Stain: Performing Postracial Consciousness." Philip Roth Studies, 1.2 (2005): 125-44.
- Moynihan, Sinéad (2010). Passing into the Present: Contemporary American Fiction of Racial and Gender Passing. Manchester University Press, ISBN 978-0719082290
- Tierney, William G. (2002). "Interpreting Academic Identities: Reality and Fiction on Campus". The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 73, No. 1, Special Issue: The Faculty in the New Millennium (Jan. – Feb., 2002), pp. 161–172
- The Human Stain at Random House's Reading Group Center page
- Awards: The Human Stain, Houghton Mifflin
- "Philip Roth's open letter to Wikipedia" – Sept 7, 2012, New Yorker Blog 'Page Turner'