The Inklings was an informal literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford, England, for nearly two decades between the early 1930s and late 1949. The Inklings were literary enthusiasts who praised the value of narrative in fiction and encouraged the writing of fantasy.
The more regular members of the Inklings, many of them academics at the University, included:
- J. R. R. Tolkien
- C. S. Lewis
- Owen Barfield
- Charles Williams
- Tolkien's son, Christopher Tolkien
- Lewis's elder brother, Warren Lewis
- Roger Lancelyn Green
- Adam Fox
- Hugo Dyson
- Robert Havard
- J. A. W. Bennett
- Lord David Cecil
- Nevill Coghill
More infrequent visitors included:
- Percy Bates
- Charles Leslie Wrenn
- Colin Hardie
- James Dundas-Grant
- John David Arnett
- Jon Fromke 
- John Wain
- John Walsh
- R. B. McCallum
- Gervase Mathew
- C.E. Stevens
"Properly speaking," wrote Warren Lewis, "the Inklings was neither a club nor a literary society, though it partook of the nature of both. There were no rules, officers, agendas, or formal elections." As was typical for university literary groups in their time and place, the Inklings were all male. (Dorothy L. Sayers, sometimes claimed as an Inkling, was a friend of Lewis and Williams, but never attended Inklings meetings.)
Readings and discussions of the members' unfinished works were the principal purposes of meetings. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, Lewis's Out of the Silent Planet, and Williams's All Hallows' Eve were among the novels first read to the Inklings. Tolkien's fictional Notion Club (see "Sauron Defeated") was based on the Inklings. Meetings were not all serious; the Inklings amused themselves by having competitions to see who could read the notoriously bad prose of Amanda McKittrick Ros for the longest without laughing.
The name was associated originally with a society of Oxford University's University College, initiated by the then undergraduate Edward Tangye Lean circa 1931, for the purpose of reading aloud unfinished compositions. The society consisted of students and dons, among them Tolkien and Lewis. When Lean left Oxford during 1933, the society ended, and Tolkien and Lewis transferred its name to their group at Magdalen College. On the association between the two 'Inklings' societies, Tolkien later said "although our habit was to read aloud compositions of various kinds (and lengths!), this association and its habit would in fact have come into being at that time, whether the original short-lived club had ever existed or not."
Until late 1949, Inklings readings and discussions usually occurred during Thursday evenings in C. S. Lewis's college rooms at Magdalen College. The Inklings and friends were also known to informally gather on Tuesdays at midday at a local public house, The Eagle and Child, familiarly and alliteratively known in the Oxford community as The Bird and Baby, or simply The Bird. Later pub meetings were at The Lamb and Flag across the street, and in earlier years the Inklings also met irregularly in yet other pubs, but The Eagle and Child is the best known.
The Marion E. Wade Center, located at Wheaton College, Illinois is devoted to the work of seven British authors including four Inklings and Dorothy L. Sayers. Overall, the Wade Center has more than 11,000 volumes including first editions and critical works. Other holdings on the seven foremost authors (G. K. Chesterton, George MacDonald, Dorothy L. Sayers, and Inklings Owen Barfield, C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, and Charles Williams) include letters, manuscripts, audio and video tapes, artwork, dissertations, periodicals, photographs, and related materials.
The Mythopoeic Society is a literary organization devoted to the study of mythopoeic literature, particularly the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, and Charles Williams, founded in 1967 and incorporated as a non-profit organization in 1971.
A resurrection of the Inklings in Oxford was made in 2006; the group still meets every Sunday evening, currently at St Cross College nearby the Eagle and Child. It has similar aims and methods to the original group, albeit with somewhat gentler criticism.
Named after the Inklings is The Inklings Society based in Aachen, and their yearbook, Inklings Jahrbuch für Literatur und Ästhetik, published from 1983 by Brendow, Moers. The yearbook contains scholarly articles and reviews, dealing with Inklings members in particular, but also with fantasy literature and mythopoeia in general.
The members of the Inklings are the three Caretakers of the Imaginarium Geographica in James A. Owen's series, The Chronicles of the Imaginarium Geographica. The existence and founding of the organization is also alluded to, in the third novel, The Indigo King.
- Kilby & Mead 1982, p. 230.
- "The Inklings". The Journal of Inklings-Studies. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Edwards, Bruce L, CS Lewis: Apologist, philosopher, and theologian.
- "War of Words over World's Worst Writer", Culture Northern Ireland.
- Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (2006), The Letters of JRR Tolkien, London: Harper Collins, p. 388 letter #298, ISBN 978-0-261-10265-1.
- "Eagle & Child pub", Headington, UK.
- Inklings (literary and art magazine), Miami University.
- Carpenter, Humphrey (1979), The Inklings: CS Lewis, JRR Tolkien, Charles Williams and their Friends, ISBN 0-395-27628-4
- Duriez, Colin; Porter, David (2001), The Inklings Handbook: The Lives, Thought and Writings of CS Lewis, JRR Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and their Friends, ISBN 1-902694-13-9
- Duriez, Colin (2003), Tolkien and CS Lewis: The Gift of Friendship, ISBN 1-58768-026-2
- Glyer, Diana (2007), The Company They Keep: CS Lewis and JRR Tolkien as Writers in Community, ISBN 0-87338-890-9
- Karlson, Henry (2010), Thinking with the Inklings, ISBN 1-4505-4130-5
- Kilby, Clyde S.; Mead, Marjorie Lamp, eds. (1982), Brothers and Friends: The Diaries of Major Warren Hamilton Lewis, San Francisco: Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-064575-X
- Knight, Gareth (Oct 2010), The Magical World of the Inklings, Barfield, Owen, foreword (new & expanded ed.), Skylight, ISBN 978-1‐908011‐01‐5.
- Segura, Eduardo; Honegger, Thomas, eds. (2007), Myth and Magic: Art According to the Inklings, Walking Tree Publishers, ISBN 978-3-905703-08-5
- Journal of Inklings Studies, Oxford, peer-reviewed & academic.
- Further Up and Further In, a CS Lewis and Inklings resource blog.
- An Inklings bibliography, The Mythopoeic Society.
- Inklings gesellschaft [Inklings Society] (in German), DE.
- Marion E. Wade Center (research collection), Wheaton.
- "Inklings", The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (entry).