6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons

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The Inniskillings (6th Dragoons)
Inniskilling Dragoons Badge.jpg
Badge of the Inniskilling Dragoons
Active 1689–1922
Country  Kingdom of Ireland (1689–1800)
 United Kingdom (1801–1922)
Allegiance British Empire
Branch British Army
Type Cavalry of the Line
Role Heavy Cavalry
Size 1 Regiment
Nickname The Skins
Motto Inniskilling
March (Quick) Fare Ye Well Enniskillen. (Slow) The Inniskilling Dragoons.
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Field Marshal Viscount Allenby

The 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1689. It saw service for three centuries, before being amalgamated into the 5th/6th Dragoons (later the 5th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards, then finally the 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards) in 1922.

The 'Skins' (as they were known) are one of the four ancestor regiments of the Royal Dragoon Guards.

The regiment was first raised as Sir Albert Cunningham's Regiment of Dragoons in 1689, by the regimenting of various independent troops, and ranked as the 6th Dragoons. It later took the nickname of the "Black Dragoons", and in 1751 was formally titled as the 6th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Dragoons, later simply the 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons.

Arguably one of the most famous cavalry regiments of all time[by whom?]. One of their most notable battles was the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. They also fought with distinction at the Battle of Waterloo in the Charge of the Union Brigade and again during the Crimean War as part of the successful Charge of the Heavy Brigade against superior numbers at the Battle of Balaklava.

World War I sounded the death knell for mounted cavalry as it became apparent that technology had moved forward with greater destructive power and made horsed cavalry redundant on the modern battlefield. The British Army reorganised and reduced its cavalry corps by disbanding or amalgamating many of its famous cavalry regiments in 1922 as part of the Geddes Reforms. The Inniskillings was one of those affected.

History[edit]

The '89[edit]

In 1689 James II Stuart, the dethroned King of England, landed in Ireland with aid provided by the French in an attempt to overthrow William of Orange. During the "Defence of Enniskillen" (1689)[1] the Governor of the town Gustav Hamilton raised three regiments to fight on the side of William of Orange.

An oath was taken by each man upon a bible:

I, D. H., do hereby testify and declare, and upon the Holy Evangelists swear, that I will own and acknowledge Gustavus Hamilton, Esq., Chief Governor of this town of Enniskillen, and shall give due obedience to him and my superior officers in all his and their commands, and shall to the utmost of my power and ability defend him, them, and this place, with the country adjacent, together with the Protestant religion and interest, with my life and fortune, against all that shall endeavour to subvert the same. So help me God, and the holy contents of this book.

One of the regiments raised was a cavalry unit of Dragoons (mounted troops), first established on the 20th of June, 1689. As was the custom of that time the regiment was named Conyngham's Dragoons - after its commanding officer, Sir Albert Conyngham. It would later become known as the "Enniskillen Dragoons", after Hamilton's headquarters at Enniskillen Castle.

After the relief of the Siege of Derry in 1689 the regiment continued its pursuance of the Williamite Wars. On Wednesday 19 June an attempt was made to force contact with Jacobite forces under the command of Brigadier Sutherland. The "Enniskilliners" came upon a force of horse and foot at the churchyard of Belturbet and what followed is described by Thomas Witherow:

Tuesday proved to be a day of incessant rain, so that all military operations were for the time suspended; but a Council of War was held by the Enniskilleners, and, as it was in vain to think of overtaking Sutherland, it was resolved to attack the party in Belturbet. Next day, Wednesday the 19th of June, they marched forward, and when within two miles of the town, the dragoons of both parties came in sight of each other. After an exchange of shots, the horse of the enemy were driven back and pursued into Belturbet, and the Enniskillen horse surrounding the church and churchyard, kept them there till the foot came forward and secured possession of the adjoining buildings. Having taken up their position in the houses overtopping the churchyard, they so galled the garrison with their shot that at the end of two hours it consented to surrender. The conditions were that all the prisoners should have their lives, and that the officers, in addition, should be allowed to retain their clothes and money. The result was that nearly three hundred prisoners and a great booty fell to the victors, consisting of two barrels of powder, seven hundred muskets, fifty-three dragoon horses, and as many red coats as served for two companies. In addition, a great quantity of provisions amounting to twenty tons of bread, flour, wheat, and malt, was sent to Enniskillen by water. Thirteen commissioned officers were detained as prisoners, but the two hundred common soldiers were taken to Enniskillen, and were employed in erecting the fort, which was then approaching completion.[2]

It was numbered the 7th Dragoon Regiment in 1690 and fought with distinction at the Battle of the Boyne. In 1691 it was renamed Echlin's Dragoons (also known as the Enniskillen Horse)[2]

  • 1708 The regiment left Ireland and did not return to its home ground for another one hundred years.
  • 1715 Dalrymple's Dragoons (sometimes called Stair's Dragoons or The Black Dragoons). During this time the regiment saw action in Scotland against the rebel highlanders and also helped to put down riots in Manchester.
  • 1734 Cadogan's Dragoons.
  • 1743 Dalrymple's Dragoons (sometimes called Stair's Dragoons). The regiment was sent to Flanders in 1742 and took part in the War of Austrian Succession where the battle honour of Dettingen was authorised to be placed on its standard.
  • 1745 Leslie's Dragoons (sometimes called Rothe's Dragoons). The regiment again distinguished itself in the battles of Fontenoy in 1745, Roucoux in 1746 and at Vall in 1747. Soon afterwards it returned to England.
  • 1750 Cholmondley's Dragoons.

In 1751, a Royal warrant dictated that all Regiments of Horse and Foot would be numbered by seniority. They would be referred to by that number rather than their Colonel's name in an effort to reduce confusion. Under this regulation, the Inniskillings were numbered and renamed the 6th Regiment of Dragoons.

  • 1751 6th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Dragoons.
  • 1758 6th or Inniskilling Regiment of Dragoons. The regiment saw further service on the European continent in the Seven Years' War and fought at Minden and Wetter in 1759 with great distinction.
  • 1815 6th (Enniskilling) Regiment of Dragoons. The regiment, as part of the Union Brigade of heavy cavalry, fought alongside their soon-to-be comrades the 5th Dragoon Guards, at Waterloo and during the Crimean war, particularly at the Battle of Balaklava.

The Charge of The Union Brigade at Waterloo[edit]

The Union Brigade was composed of three regiments of heavy cavalry, one English (The Royal Dragoons), one Scottish The Scots Greys and one Irish (the Inniskillings), hence their brigade title.

"The Union Cavalry Brigade was now ordered forward. The 6th/Inniskilling Dragoons passed through the ranks of the Royal Scots and the Black Watch, and the Royal Dragoons, further to the right, went through the 28th Foot and passed the right flank of the Royal Scots. The Greys, who had been in a theoretical reserve position, according to W. A. Thorburn, late curator at the National War Museum of Scotland, "moved straight to their front, which took them through the ranks of the Gordons. The head of the French Division was now only 20 yards away and the Greys simply walked into the 1st/45th Infantry of the Line. There was no gallop and no charge." It is clear from the French report that they did not expect to see British cavalry materializing through the ranks of the British infantry. When the cavalry hit them, the 45th were in the act of forming line, and their 1st battalion was at once thrown into violent confusion, already shaken by the fire of the 92nd. The regimental eagles were carried by the 1st battalion of all French infantry regiments, and in a few minutes the Greys were in the midst of the battalion, at which stage Sergeant Charles Ewart of Captain Vernor's troop captured the eagle of the 45th. He was ordered to take it to the rear, which he reluctantly did, but sat on his horse for sometime watching the engagement before finally setting off for Brussels with his trophy. The rest of the French columns believed what they saw could only be an advance guard, and were now under the mistaken impression that they were being attacked by large numbers of cavalry. The Royal Dragoons and 6th/Inniskilling Dragoons charged Donzelot's Division and the Eagle of the 105th Regiment was taken by the Royal Dragoons. These were the only two Eagles captured during the entire Waterloo campaign. At this point the divisions of Marcognet and Donzelot were not completely shaken, although contrary to romantic legend, the Union Brigade did not, and could not, defeat an Army Corps of some 16,900 infantry on their own. Having carried out a highly successful defensive action in support of infantry, the Union Brigade lost all cohesion and refused to recognize or hear any orders. The Greys were given the recall several times but were so out of hand that no notice was taken. Instead they went off on a wild rampage down the interval between the French Divisions, NOT through the troops themselves; many Greys were shot by the surprised and somewhat bewildered rear French battalions, who were still advancing, unaware of the confusion on their own front, or of the defeat of their leading brigade. In fact, the French infantry, expecting what they thought must be the main cavalry attack (by their own massive standards), finally brought themselves to halt, made an effort to form to receive Cavalry, and finally fell back in considerable confusion."[3]

The Charge of the Heavy Brigade at Balaklava[edit]

William Simpson lithograph depicting the Inniskilling Dragoons at the Battle of Balaklava

The first assault line consisted of the Scots Greys and one squadron of the Inniskillings, a total of less than 250 sabres. Only when the RSMs declared themselves happy with the alignment did Scarlett order his bugler to sound the 'Charge'. The idea of a charge conjures up images of the Light Brigade dashing forward at speed but Dragoons were larger men with much heavier equipment so their charge was more of a trot. Floundering at obstacles such as ditches or coppices they headed towards the massed ranks of Russian cavalry, pressing on inexorably at a mere 8 miles an hour.[4] Slow they may have been but the effect of these heavy cavalrymen slamming into the much lighter Russian cavalry stunned their enemy. A letter from a Captain of the Inniskillings illustrates the mellee which followed:

"Forward - dash - bang - clank, and there we were in the midst of such smoke, cheer, and clatter, as never before stunned a mortal's ear. it was glorious! Down, one by one, aye, two by two fell the thick skulled and over-numerous Cossacks.....Down too alas! fell many a hero with a warm Celtic heart, and more than one fell screaming loud for victory. I could not pause. It was all push, wheel, frenzy, strike and down, down, down they went. Twice I was unhorsed, and more than once I had to grip my sword tighter, the blood of foes streaming down over the hilt, and running up my very sleeve....now we were lost in their ranks - now in little bands battling - now in good order together, now in and out."

In the words of Colonel Paget of the Light Brigade "It was a mighty affair, and considering the difficulties under which the Heavy Brigade laboured, and the disparity of numbers, a feat of arms which, if it ever had its equal, was certainly never surpassed in the annals of cavalry warfare, and the importance of which in its results can never be known."[4]

  • The Charge of the Heavy Brigade by Sir Alfred Tennyson [5]

Renamings and Amalgamations[edit]

In 1861 the regiment was renamed the 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons. Most cavalry regiments during the latter part of the 19th century did service in India, Egypt and in South Africa and the 6th Inniskillings was no exception. The regiment eventually returned from India to land in France in January 1915 to serve with great distinction during the Great War. During the split between Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State, the regiment was among the few Irish units retained. In 1921 it was renamed The Inniskillings (6th Dragoons). It was amalgamated a year later in 1922 with 5th (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) Dragoon Guards to form 5th/6th Dragoons. In 1927 its title changed again to the 5th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards. The regiment was granted the augmentation of "Royal" in 1935 and had its name changed to the 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards. In 1938 the regiment became mechanized, later being reassigned to the Royal Armored Corps in 1939. After the Cold War ended, the regiment was amalgamated in 1992 with the 4th/7th Dragoon Guards to create the Royal Dragoon Guards.

The Regimental Chapel[edit]

The Regimental chapel is in St Macartin's Cathedral, Enniskillen

Enniskillen Castle[edit]

Enniskillen Castle

Enniskillen Castle and the regiments raised at Enniskillen during the Williamite Wars are inextricably linked. The Inniskilling Dragoons were quartered there many times since their formation. The badge of the regiment also features a depiction of the castle.

  • Why Inniskilling and not Enniskillen? Inniskilling was the original name of the town - anglicised from Irish meaning 'Island of Kathleen'. Since then the name has changed around 20 times before finally settling on its present spelling of Enniskillen.[6]

Notable Dragoons[edit]

Lawrence 'Titus' Oates of Scott's Antarctic Expedition was an officer in the regiment. The story of Captain Oates of the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons, has become a legend. The member of Scott's ill-fated expedition to the South Pole in 1912, who, suffering badly from frostbite and exhaustion, and in an extreme example of self-sacrifice walked out into the blizzard on the 16th March - sacrificing himself to save his fellow men.

Colonels — with other names for the regiment[edit]

6th Dragoons[edit]

Black Dragoons
  • 1715 John, Earl of Stair. app. 4 March 1714/1715 —Dalrymple's Dragoons or Earl of Stair's Dragoons
  • 1734 Charles, Lord Cadogan. app. 19 June 1734 —Lord Cadogan's Dragoons
  • 1743 John, Earl of Stair. app. 25 April 1743 —Earl of Stair's Dragoons
  • 1745 John, Earl of Rothes. app. 29 May 1745 —Leslie's or Earl of Rothes' Dragoons
  • 1750 James Cholmondeley. app. 16 June 1750 —to 1751 Cholmondeley's Dragoons

On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant provided that in future regiments would not be known by their colonels' names, but by their "number or rank"

1751 6th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Dragoons[7][edit]

1861 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons[edit]

1921 The Inniskillings (6th Dragoons)[edit]

1922 5th/6th Dragoons[edit]

On amalgamation with 5th (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) Dragoon Guards

1927 5th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards[edit]

1935 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards[edit]

1992 Royal Dragoon Guards[edit]

On amalgamation with 4th/7th Dragoon Guards

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.libraryireland.com/Derry1689/VI-1.php
  2. ^ a b http://www.libraryireland.com/Derry1689/VI-19.php
  3. ^ the Scabbard, Journal of the Military Miniature Society of Illinois, 1998.[1]
  4. ^ a b http://victorianweb.org/history/crimea/paget/heavy.html
  5. ^ http://home.att.net/~TennysonPoetry/chba.htm
  6. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/yourplaceandmine/fermanagh/A974405.shtml
  7. ^ Jackson, Major E. S., The Inniskilling Dragoons: the records of an old heavy cavalry regiment (London: Arthur L. Humphreys, 1909).

External links[edit]

  • North Irish Dragoons (A re-enactment society)
  • Rock Island Auction (Photography of Inniskilling Dragoons, Prince of Wales' Dragoon Guards, 7th Princess Royal's Dragoon Guard, and Royal Dragoons 1834 pattern helmets with examples having the full dress bearskin crest.)