The Island Princess
The authorship and the stage premier of the play are generally thought to have occurred c. 1619–21; it was acted at Court during the latter year, by the King's Men. The second Beaumont/Fletcher folio of 1679 offers a cast list for the play, a list that includes John Lowin, John Underwood, William Ecclestone, Richard Sharpe, Joseph Taylor, Robert Benfield, George Birch, and Thomas Pollard.
Fletcher's solo authorship is generally recognized; his characteristic pattern of linguistic preferences is continuous throughout. The 1647 folio text is not especially short, though it does show some signs of cutting: several scenes have characters that appear but do not speak.
Fletcher's sources were two books on exploration, L'histoire de Ruis Dias, et de Quixaire, Princess des Moloques, a novella by Le Seigneur de Bellan (1615), which derives from the Conquista de las Islas Molucas by Bartolemé Leonardo de Argensola (1609).
In the Restoration
Like many of Fletcher's plays, this play was revived in the Restoration era in adapted forms. The play was adapted four times, by an anonymous author, by Nahum Tate, by Thomas d'Urfey, and again by Peter Anthony Motteux, the latter being the more successful. The anonymous version, The Island Princess, or The Generous Portugal, was staged before royalty on 6 November 1668; Samuel Pepys saw the production three times in the following year, on 7 January, 9 February and 23 April 1669, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Motteux's version, replete with songs, dances, and special effects, was popular, and frequently performed, down to 1708. All four adaptations were printed, the anonymous in 1669, d'Urfey's in 1682, Tate's in 1687, and Motteux's in 1699 and 1701.
In crafting the play's plot, Fletcher exploits the recent history and contemporary events of his era, involving the European discovery of the East Indies (modern-day Indonesia). During the 16th century, the first Europeans in East Asia — the Spanish, from their colony of the Philippines, and the Portuguese, operating out of their base in Malacca (conquered in 1511) — sought trading rights and influence in the Spice Islands, the modern Moluccas or Maluku Islands. Several small independent states in the region, notably the islands of Tidore and Ternate, controlled much of the spice production of the region, and constituted a tempting target of European greed and ambition. The Portuguese eventually became dominant in the later 16th century (though Spain ruled Portugal in the 1580–1640 era). While the Portuguese never fully conquered and colonized the Spice Islands, they were commercially and militarily predominant in the area for several decades — though by Fletcher's era the Portuguese were being supplanted by the Dutch.
Fletcher does not strive for factual accuracy in his treatment of his subject. Most notably, he mischaracterizes the Muslim populations of Tidore and neighboring states as pagans. Quisara and other members of the indigenous culture refer to their "gods," and Quisara says that they worship the Sun and Moon. The play's Christian protagonist Armusia considers them devil worshippers.
The play opens with a conversation among three Portuguese gentlemen: Piniero and two confederates discuss the current political situation on Tidore. The King of Tidore has recently been captured by the Governor of Ternate, a local rival; but this does not prevent the Governor from joining the group of suitors that clusters around the King's sister, Quisara. She is a celebrated beauty and a highly desirable potential match; local rulers, the Kings of Bacan and Syana, vie for her favor — as does a prominent member of the Portuguese community, Piniero's uncle Ruy Dias. The local rulers, vain and pompous, quarrel among themselves; Quisara clearly prefers the more serious and mature Dias. Quisara humbles her suitors with a bold challenge: she will marry the man who rescues her brother the King from captivity. Even Ruy Dias's spirit is temporarily quelled; he says he must consult with his councillors before taking any action.
One man present is not cowed: Armusia is a new arrival in the region, and with two friends he decides to take precipitate action to rescue the captured King. Sailing to Ternate, Armusia masquerades as a merchant, rents a house next to the Governor's palace and prison, and loads it with gunpowder. When night comes he sets off the charge, and while the people of Ternate cope with the resulting conflagration, Armusia and his companions stage a prison break and free the King. They sail back to Tidore before the Governor and his officials can prevent them.
The rescue creates a sensation on Tidore. The King is abundantly grateful for rescue; but Quisara is appalled to find that her promise now commits her to marry a man she has never met. She reproves Ruy Dias for his slowness of action, and for allowing this situation to develop. Ruy Dias is humiliated, and in conversation with his nephew Piniero hints that he would like to see Armusia killed. Piniero encourages the idea; he plays with the role of villain, but only to provoke and study the reactions of others. Piniero goes to Quisara, and she too seems to welcome the idea of Armusia's death.
Armusia is depressed by Quisara's coldness and hostility, but his friends urge him to pursue the princess boldly — even encouraging him to ravish her. Armusia does not go so far, though he does bribe (with a kiss and a jewel) Panura, Quisara's waiting woman, into granting him access to Quisara's private apartment. Quisara is offended by his violation of her privacy, but Armusia charms her with his courtly manners and palliates much of her hostility. Ruy Dias, coming to see the princess, passes Armusia on his way out, and realizes that he is losing the contest for the island princess's affections. He dismisses the idea of murder as unworthy, and challenges Armusia to a duel. They fight as Quisara watches: Armusia wounds Dias and wins the duel, but treats his defeated rival with nobility and compassion.
The Governor of Ternate, attempting to get back at Armusia and the Portuguese, adopts a disguise as a native holy man; he uses his intimate knowledge of courtly affairs to impress the King and Quisara with his insight and wisdom. He stirs up ill-will against the Europeans on religious grounds. Quisara agrees to marry Armusia — but she asks him to convert to the native religion, a notion that Armusia rejects, in angry and insulting terms. The disguised governor manipulates the King into imprisoning Armusia as a result.
Armusia faces torture, but refuses to bend on the matter of religious principle. Ruy Dias and the other Portuguese attack Tidore to rescue him; in the process, Piniero and Panura expose the Governor of Ternate's disguise and manipulations. Seeing that they have been duped, the King forms a pact with the Europeans, and Quisara, awed by Armusia's courage and faith, experiences a conversion to Christianity, opening the way for their marriage.
Along with The Sea Voyage, another play in Fletcher's canon, The Island Princess has been discussed by some late 20th century scholars and critics as part of the literature of colonialism and anti-colonialism.
- E. H. C. Oliphant, The Plays of Beaumont and Fletcher: An Attempt to Determine Their Respective Shares and the Shares of Others, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1927; p. 140.
- Michael Neill, "Material Flames: The Space of Mercantile Fantasy in John Fletcher's The Island Princess," in: Renaissance Drama 28, Jeffrey Masten and Wendy Wall, eds., Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press, 1999; p. 109.
- Arthur Colby Sprague, Beaumont and Fletcher on the Restoration Stage, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1926; pp. 49, 74, 82-6, 123 and ff.
- Andrew Hadfield, Literature, Travel, and Colonial Writing in the English Renaissance, 1545–1625, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998; pp. 1-2.
- Claire Jowitt, Travel Drama and Gender Politics, 1589–1642: Real and Imagined Worlds, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2003; p. 104 and ff.
- Gordon MacMullan, The Politics of Unease in the Plays of John Fletcher, Amherst, MA, University of Massachusetts Press, 1994; p. 224 and ff.
- Claire Jowitt, The Island Princess and race . In: Cheney, P., Hadfield, A. and Sullivan, GA., eds., Early modern English drama: a critical companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 287-297