When first published in 1903, the novel received a great deal of flak from both critics and readers, decrying its gruesome ending. When republished in 1904 by Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York and London, the original ending was retained, but when Stoker attempted to republish it once more, shortly before his death in 1912, he was told that he would have to change the ending. As a result, Stoker removed Chapter XVI "Powers – Old and New" and gave the book a new, happier ending. For many years the original ending was unavailable to most readers. The 2008 Penguin Classics edition of The Jewel of Seven Stars, edited by Kate Hebblethwaite, restored the original text, including the original ending and Chapter XVI, and included the second, upbeat ending as an appendix.