The Joy of Sect
"The Joy of Sect" is the thirteenth episode of The Simpsons' ninth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 8, 1998. In the episode, a cult called the "Movementarians" takes over Springfield, and Homer and the rest of the Simpson family become members. Homer and Bart are initially introduced to a pair of young Movementarian recruiters in an airport. Homer becomes brainwashed, and moves his family into the cult compound. David Mirkin had the initial idea for the episode, Steve O'Donnell was the lead writer, and Steven Dean Moore directed. The writers drew on many groups to develop the Movementarians, but were principally influenced by Scientology, Heaven's Gate, the Unification Church, and Peoples Temple.
The episode was later analyzed from religious, philosophical, and psychological perspectives; books on The Simpsons compared the Movementarians to many of the same groups from which the writers had drawn influence. The show contains many references to popular culture, including the title reference to The Joy of Sex and a gag involving Rover from the television program The Prisoner. USA Today and The A.V. Club featured "The Joy of Sect" in lists of important episodes of The Simpsons.
|“||He's obviously the most powerful mind we've ever dealt with.||”|
—Jane, Movementarian recruiter, on Homer Simpson
At the airport Homer meets Glen and Jane, recruiters for the new religious movement Movementarianism. They invite Homer and many Springfield residents to watch an orientation film. The film explains over many hours that a mysterious man known only as "The Leader" will guide Movementarians aboard a spaceship to the planet Blisstonia, where they will live in everlasting happiness. The lengthy film brainwashes most of the attendees into worshipping The Leader, but Homer does not pay enough attention to be affected. After trying other methods, Glen and Jane finally convert him by singing the theme to Batman, replacing the word "Batman" with the word "Leader".
After Homer joins the cult and signs over his savings and house, he moves his family to the Movementarian compound, where everyone is forced to harvest lima beans. The Leader lives in a "Forbidden Barn" where the spaceship is supposedly being constructed. He only appears briefly, waving to his followers from a Rolls-Royce. Movementarianism's power and popularity grow; the local Presbylutheran church empties, and the cult takes over the city's media. Montgomery Burns decides to start his own religion, jealous of The Leader's tax-exempt status, and declares himself a god at an elaborate ceremony at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant. Watching Springfieldians are unimpressed, however, after Burns' muscle-bound wax outfit catches fire in a pyrotechnics display.
Though defiant at first, all the Simpson children are converted to Movementarianism. Marge is the only family member to resist, and escapes from the heavily-guarded compound. Outside, she finds Reverend Lovejoy, Ned Flanders, and Groundskeeper Willie, who have all resisted the Movementarians, and with their help, she tricks her family into leaving the compound with her. At Flanders' home Marge deprograms her children by pretending to offer hover bikes. Homer seems to yield after Ned offers him a beer, but just as the first drop lands on Homer's tongue, he is captured by the Movementarians' lawyers.
Back at the compound, Homer reveals to a crowd of Movementarians that he is no longer brainwashed. Homer opens the doors of the Forbidden Barn to expose the cult as a fraud, but he and the crowd are surprised to find "one hell of a spaceship" inside. The Leader proclaims that, due to Homer's "lack of faith", humanity will never reach Blisstonia. The Springfieldians fear that The Leader is correct but the crude spaceship disintegrates in flight, revealing The Leader on a pedal-powered aircraft fleeing with everyone's money. The crowd's faith is broken but The Leader does not fly very far, crashing on Cletus Spuckler's front porch. Cletus takes the town's money from the Leader at gunpoint.
As the Simpsons return home, Lisa remarks, "It's wonderful to think for ourselves again." The family becomes hypnotized by a Fox television commercial, however, which declares, "You are watching Fox." In unison, the family responds, "We are watching Fox."
The episode was the second and last episode written by Steve O'Donnell and was based on an idea from David Mirkin. Mirkin had been the show runner during seasons five and six, but had been brought back to run two episodes during the ninth season. He said he was attracted to the notion of parodying cults because they are "comical, interesting and twisted." He conceived the episode after hearing a radio show about the history of cults whilst driving home one night. The main group of writers that worked on the episode were Mirkin, O'Donnell, Jace Richdale and Kevin Curran. The episode's title "The Joy of Sect" was pitched by Richdale. Steven Dean Moore directed the episode.
Aspects of the Movementarians were inspired by different cults and religions, including Scientology, Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple, the Heaven's Gate group, the Unification Church, the Oneida Society, and Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. In particular, the leader driving through the fields in a Rolls Royce was partly inspired by the Bhagwans, and the notion of holding people inside the camp against their will was a reference to Jim Jones. The name "Movementarians" itself was simply chosen for its awkward sound. The scene during the six-hour orientation video where those who get up to leave are induced to stay through peer pressure and groupthink was a reference to the Unification Church and EST Training. The show's producers acknowledged that the ending scene of the episode was a poke at Fox as "being the evil mind controlling network." The episode's script was written in 1997, at roughly the same time that the members of the Heaven's Gate cult committed mass suicide. The writers noticed strange parallels between Mirkin's first draft and Heaven's Gate, including the belief in the arrival of a spaceship and the group's members wearing matching clothes and odd sneakers. Because of these coincidences, several elements of the episode were changed so that it would be more sensitive in the wake of the suicides.
Chris Turner's book Planet Simpson describes the Movementarians as a cross between the Church of Scientology and Raëlism, with lesser influences from Sun Myung Moon and Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Planet Simpson also notes the Simpsons' chant at the conclusion of the episode as evidence of a "true high-growth quasi-religious cult of our time," referring to television. The book refers to a "Cult of Pop," which it describes as "a fast growing mutation ersatz religion that has filled the gaping hole in the West's social fabric where organized religion used to be". Martin Hunt of FACTnet notes several similarities between the Movementarians and the Church of Scientology. "The Leader" physically resembles L. Ron Hubbard; the Movementarians' "trillion year labor contract" alludes to the (Scientology) Sea Org's billion year contract; and both groups make extensive use of litigation. The A.V. Club analyzes the episode in a piece called "Springfield joins a cult", comparing the Movementarians' plans to travel to "Blisstonia" to Heaven's Gate's promises of bliss after traveling to the Hale-Bopp comet. However, it also notes that "The Joy of Sect" is a commentary on organized religion in general, quoting Bart as saying, "Church, cult, cult, church. So we get bored someplace else every Sunday." Planet Simpson discusses The Simpsons' approach to deprogramming in the episode, noting groundskeeper Willie's conversion to the philosophy of the Movementarians after learning about it while attempting to deprogram Homer. Author Chris Turner suggests that Marge should have instead gone with the "Conformco Brain Deprogrammers" used in the episode "Burns' Heir" to convince Bart to leave Mr. Burns and come back home.
In The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, the authors cite "escaping from a cult commune in 'The Joy of Sect'" as evidence of "Aristotle's virtuous personality traits in Marge." As the title suggests, the book The Psychology of the Simpsons: D'oh! examines "The Joy of Sect" from a psychological point of view. It discusses the psychology of decision-making in the episode, noting, "Homer is becoming a full-blown member of the Movementarians not by a rational choice, ... but through the process of escalating behavioral commitments." The Psychology of the Simpsons explains the key recruitment techniques used by the Movementarians, including the charismatic leader, established authority based on a religious entity or alien being (in this case "Blisstonia"), and the method of taking away free choice through acceptance of the Leader's greatness. The book also analyzes the techniques used during the six-hour Movementarian recruitment film. In that scene, those who rise to leave are reminded that they are allowed to leave whenever they wish. They are, however, questioned in front of the group as to specifically why they wish to leave, and these individuals end up staying to finish watching the film. The book describes this technique as "subtle pressure," in contrast to the "razor wire, landmines, angry dogs, crocodiles and evil mystery bubble Marge confronts to escape, while being reminded again that she is certainly free to leave." The Psychology of the Simpsons writes that "the Leader" is seen as an authority figure, because "He has knowledge or abilities that others do not, but want." Instead of traditional mathematics textbooks, the children on the compound learn from Arithmetic the Leader's Way and Science for Leader Lovers.
In Pinsky's The Gospel According to the Simpsons, one of the show's writers recounted to the author that the producers of The Simpsons had vetoed a planned episode on Scientology in fear of the Church's "reputation for suing and harassing opponents". Pinsky found it ironic that Groening spoofed Scientology in spite of the fact that the voice of Bart Simpson, Nancy Cartwright, is a Scientologist, having joined in 1989. Pinsky notes that Matt Groening later "took a shot at Scientology" in Futurama with the fictional religion "Church of Robotology". Groening said he received a call from the Church of Scientology concerned about the use of a similar name.
The episode contains several references to popular culture. The title of the episode is a spoof of the book The Joy of Sex by Alex Comfort. When Marge attempts to leave the compound, she is chased by the Rover guard "balloon" from the 1967 television program The Prisoner. Neal Hefti and Nelson Riddle's theme music to the 1960s Batman series is used in the episode to indoctrinate Homer, while "I Love You, You Love Me" sung by Barney the Dinosaur on the Barney and Friends/Barney and the Backyard Gang series is used to brainwash babies. When Mr. Burns introduces his new religion, most of the sequence is a parody of the promotional video of Michael Jackson's 1995 album HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I. Willie scratching his nails along the church window to get Marge and Reverend Lovejoy's attention is a reference to the 1975 film Jaws, in which the character Quint performs a similar action. The Springfield Airport contains the "Just Crichton and King Bookstore", referencing authors Michael Crichton and Stephen King, authors famous for their airport novels, carrying only their works. When Hans Moleman, while in the store, asks the clerk, "Do you have anything by Robert Ludlum?", the clerk replies, "Get out".
In its original broadcast, "The Joy of Sect" finished 27th in ratings for the week of February 2-8, 1998, with a Nielsen rating of 9.6, equivalent to approximately 9.4 million viewing households. It was the fourth highest-rated show on the Fox network that week, following The X-Files, King of the Hill, and Ally McBeal.
In a 2006 article in USA Today, "The Joy of Sect" was highlighted among the six best episodes of The Simpsons season 9, along with "Trash of the Titans," "The Last Temptation of Krust," "The Cartridge Family," "Dumbbell Indemnity," and "Das Bus." The A.V. Club featured the episode in its analysis of "15 Simpsons Moments That Perfectly Captured Their Eras." The Mirror gave the episode positive mention in its review of the Season 9 DVD release, and wrote "The Joy of Sect is hilarious with only Marge keeping her head." Isaac Mitchell-Frey of the Herald Sun cited the episode as the highlight of the season. The Sunday Mail highlighted the episode for their "Family Choice" segment, commenting: "Normally, a show about religious cults would spell doom and gloom. Only Bart, of The Simpsons, could make a comedy out of it but then, he and his cartoon family are a cult in their own right anyway!"
Jeff Shalda of The Simpsons Archive used the episode as an example of one of the "good qualities present in The Simpsons," while analyzing why some other aspects of The Simpsons make Christians upset. The book I Can't Believe It's a Bigger and Better Updated Unofficial Simpsons Guide commented that the episode was "an odd one," with "a lot of good moments," and went on to state that it was "a nice twist to see Burns determined to be loved." However, the book also noted that "The Joy of Sect" is "another one where the central joke isn't strong enough to last the whole episode." In a lesson plan for St Mary's College, Durham: An Introduction to Philosophy: The Wit and Wisdom of Lisa Simpson, the episode is described in a section on "False Prophets" as applicable for "... studying the more outrageous manifestations of 'religion' or those simply alert to the teachings of Christ on the subject."
- List of fictional religions
- Parody religion
- Religion in Futurama
- Religion in The Simpsons
- Religious satire
- UFO religion
- "The Joy of Sect". The Simpsons.com. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- Bates, James W.; Gimple, Scott M.; McCann, Jesse L., Richmond, Ray; Seghers, Christine, ed. (2010). Simpsons World The Ultimate Episode Guide: Seasons 1–20 (1st ed.). Harper Collins Publishers. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-00-738815-8.
- Martyn, Warren; Wood, Adrian (2000). "The Joy of Sect". BBC. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- Mirkin, David. (2006). Commentary for "The Joy of Sect", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Brandenberg, Eric J. (2004-12-17). "Multiple Emmy Award-winning producer/writer/director David Mirkin". Animation Magazine. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- Alberti, John (2004). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. p. 321. ISBN 0-8143-2849-0.
- O'Donnell, Steve. (2006). Commentary for "The Joy of Sect", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Turner, Chris (2005). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Da Capo Press. p. 269, The First Church of The Simpsons. ISBN 0-306-81448-X.
- Hunt, Martin. "Celebrity Critics of Scientology, Simpsons (TV show)". FACTnet. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- Koski, Genevieve; Josh Modell, Noel Murray, Sean O'Neal, Kyle Ryan, Scott Tobias (July 23, 2007). "Features: Inventory: 15 Simpsons Moments That Perfectly Captured Their Eras". The A.V. Club (2007, Onion Inc.). Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- Irwin, William; Aeon J. Skoble, Mark T. Conard (2001). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Open Court Publishing. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0-8126-9433-3.
- Brown, Alan S.; Chris Logan (2006). The Psychology of the Simpsons: D'oh!. BenBella Books, Inc. pp. 211–212. ISBN 1-932100-70-9.
- Gimple, Scott M.; Matt Groening, introduction (December 1, 1999). The Simpsons Forever!: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family ...Continued. HarperCollins. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-06-098763-3.
- Pinsky, Mark I.; Tony Campolo (2001). The Gospel According to the Simpsons. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22419-9.
- Brockes, Emma (2004-08-02). "That's my boy". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
- Burnett, John (March 12, 1997). "All things Considered: Scientology". All Things Considered (National Public Radio). Retrieved 2007-10-28.
- Groening, Matt. (2003). Commentary for "Hell Is Other Robots", in Futurama: Volume One [DVD]. 20th Century Fox. "I did get a call from a Scientologist who had somehow gotten hold of the script."
- Booker, M. Keith (2006). Drawn to Television: Prime-Time Animation from the Flintstones to Family Guy. Greenwood Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-275-99019-2.
- Associated Press (February 12, 1998). "CBS takes gold as Fox flexes muscle". Sun-Sentinel. p. 4E.
- Clark, Mike (December 22, 2006). "New on DVD". USA Today (Gannett Co. Inc.). Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- Staff (February 2, 2007). "DVDS: NEW RELEASES". The Mirror. p. 7.
- Mitchell-Frey, Isaac (February 11, 2007). "Comedy – The Simpsons, Series 9". Herald Sun. p. E12.
- Staff (March 15, 1998). "Family Choice: Today's TV highlights". Sunday Mail (Scottish Daily Record & Sunday Mail Ltd).
- Shalda, Jeff. (December 29, 2000). Religion in the Simpsons. Online. The Simpsons Archive. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- Taylor, Tessa (August Term 2004). An Introduction to Philosophy: The Wit and Wisdom of Lisa Simpson (PDF). St Mary's College, Durham: Farmington Institute. pp. 30–32.
- Gray, Jonathan, Fordham University (2007). "Imagining America: The Simpsons Go Global". Popular Communication (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.) 5 (2): 129–148. doi:10.1080/15405700701294111. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
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- "The Joy of Sect" at The Simpsons.com
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- "The Joy of Sect" at TV.com