The Killing (U.S. TV series)
|Genre||Serial crime drama|
|Developed by||Veena Sud|
Brendan Sexton III
Jamie Anne Allman
|Theme music composer||We Fell to Earth|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||2|
|No. of episodes||26 (List of episodes)|
|Executive producer(s)||Veena Sud
|Location(s)||Vancouver, British Columbia|
|Running time||45 minutes|
|Production company(s)||Fox Television Studios
|Picture format||1080i (HDTV)|
|Audio format||Dolby Digital 5.1|
|Original run||April 3, 2011– present|
The Killing is an American crime drama television series based on the Danish television series Forbrydelsen (literally The Crime), translated as The Killing in its English language distribution. The American version was developed by Veena Sud and produced by Fox Television Studios and Fuse Entertainment. The series' first season, consisting of 13 hour-long episodes, premiered on the cable channel AMC on April 3, 2011, with a two-hour premiere. On June 13, 2011, AMC ordered a second season that contained 13 episodes, which debuted on April 1, 2012, with a two-hour premiere. AMC announced on July 27, 2012, that the series would not be renewed for a third season. However, on January 15, 2013, AMC and Fox Television Studios announced that the series had been renewed for a 12 episode third season. The third season will premiere on June 2, 2013 with a two-hour episode.
|Mireille Enos||Sarah Linden||Main|
|Joel Kinnaman||Stephen Holder||Main|
|Billy Campbell||Darren Richmond||Main|
|Michelle Forbes||Mitch Larsen||Main|
|Brent Sexton||Stan Larsen||Main|
|Kristin Lehman||Gwen Eaton||Main|
|Eric Ladin||Jamie Wright||Main|
|Brendan Sexton III||Belko Royce||Main||Guest|
|Jamie Anne Allman||Terry Marek||Main|
|Annie Corley||Regi Darnell||Main||Guest|
|Liam James||Jack Linden||Recurring||Main|
|Peter Sarsgaard||Tom Seward||Main|
|Amy Seimetz||Danette Lutz||Main|
|Johnny Ray Gill||Alton Singleterry||Main|
|Elias Koteas||Ed Skinner||Main|
- Evan Bird as Tom Larsen, Rosie's brother (season 1–2)
- Seth Isaac Johnson as Denny Larsen, Rosie's brother (season 1–2)
- Tom Butler as Lesley Adams, the mayor (season 1–2)
- Garry Chalk as Lt. Michael Oakes, the detectives' boss (season 1–2)
- Katie Findlay as Rosie Larsen, the teenage girl who was found dead (season 1–2)
- Brandon Jay McLaren as Bennet Ahmed, a teacher at Rosie's high school (season 1–2)
- Ashley Johnson as Amber Ahmed, Bennet Ahmed's wife (season 1–2)
- Callum Keith Rennie as Rick Felder, Sarah's fiancé (season 1–2)
- Kacey Rohl as Sterling Fitch, Rosie's best friend (season 1–2)
- Alan Dale as Senator Eaton, Gwen's father (season 1–2)
- Richard Harmon as Jasper Ames, Rosie's ex-boyfriend (season 1–2)
- Barclay Hope as Michael Ames, Jasper's father (seasons 1–2)
- Claudia Ferri as Nicole Jackson, the manager of the Wapi Eagle Casino (season 1–2)
- Don Thompson as Janek Kovarsky, a figure from Stan Larsen's shady past (season 1–2)
- Mark Moses as Lt. Erik Carlson, Linden's new boss at the police department (season 2)
- Brian Markinson as Gil Sloane, Holder's NA sponsor (season 2)
- Aaron Douglas as Gabe, a death row prison guard (season 3)
- Andrew Jenkins as Cody, Sarah's co-worker from the ferry (season 3)
- Benjamin Charles Watson as Rayna, a transgender teen (season 3)
- Gregg Henry as Carl Reddick, Holder's seasoned new partner (season 3)
Series overview 
Season one (2011) 
The first season covers the first two weeks of the investigation of the murder of local teenager Rosie Larsen and has three main storylines: the police investigation into Rosie's murder, the Larsen family's attempts to deal with their grief, and the fluctuating electoral fortunes of a political campaign that becomes embroiled in the case.
Season two (2012) 
The second season debuted on April 1, 2012, with a two-hour premiere. The season resumes the investigation into the murder and reveals secrets about the Larsen family as well as a possible conspiracy within the campaign race and the Seattle police department. The Larsen murder case gets closed, with the discovery of those involved in it.
Season three (2013) 
A year after the Rosie Larsen case, Stephen Holder searches for a runaway girl and uncovers a string of murders connecting to Sarah Linden's previous murder investigation. Linden, no longer a detective, must return to both a career and a case she had put behind her.
The pilot was ordered by AMC in January 2010, and then was picked up for a full series order in August 2010. The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, with some scenes in season two filmed in Coquitlam, British Columbia at Riverview Hospital. Production began on the pilot episode on December 2, 2010. The pilot is written by series creator and executive producer Veena Sud and is directed by Patty Jenkins.
In contrast to the original Danish series, executive producer Veena Sud explained, "We're creating our own world. We are using the Danish series as a blueprint, but we are kind of diverging and creating our own world, our world of suspects and, potentially, ultimately who killed Rosie Larsen." Sud describes the series as "slow-burn storytelling in a sense that every moment that we don't have to prettify or gloss over or make something necessarily easy to digest, that we're able to go to all sorts of places that are honest, and dark, and beautiful and tragic, in a way that is how a story should be told."
Cancellation and revival 
AMC announced on July 27, 2012, that the series would not be renewed for a third season. However, Fox Television Studios announced that they were attempting to shop the show to other networks. In August 2012, it was revealed that Fox Television Studios was in talks with both DirecTV and Netflix in an attempt to revive the series. In November 2012, it was confirmed that Fox Television Studios were in final negotiations with Netflix in order to continue the series for a third season. AMC, who had originally canceled the show, was also included in part of the deal. The deal in question would gain the network the privilege of airing the new episodes before they are hosted by Netflix in return for sharing any associated production costs with Netflix. Variety reported on November 30, 2012, that the show will be returning to AMC, planning for a May 2013 debut, with production set to begin months before that. Cast members Mireille Enos and Joel Kinnaman are confirmed to return, with Veena Sud as showrunner and returning writers including executive producers Dawn Prestwich and Nicole Yorkin. On December 12, 2012, it was confirmed that cast members Billy Campbell, Michelle Forbes and Brent Sexton will not return for the third season.
On January 15, 2013, AMC and Fox Television Studios announced that the series has been renewed for a 12 episode third season. Production started on February 25, 2013 in Vancouver, Canada and is scheduled to end on June 25, 2013.
Critical reception 
Season one 
The series premiere was praised by most critics, and holds a Metacritic score of 84/100. Tim Goodman of The Hollywood Reporter gave the series a very positive review, calling it "excellent, absorbing and addictive. When each episode ends, you long for the next – a hallmark of great dramas." Goodman also praised Mireille Enos' performance as the lead character Sarah, saying "It's not until you watch Enos play Sarah for a while that it sinks in – there hasn't been a female American character like her probably ever." Entertainment Weekly's Ken Tucker gave it a B+, saying "The acting is strikingly good" and that "Some viewers may find The Killing a little too cold and deliberate, but give it time. Its intensity builds steadily, giving the series unexpected power." Alex Strachan of The Vancouver Sun says the series "is soaked in atmosphere and steeped in the stark realism of Scandinavian crime novelists Henning Mankell and Stieg Larsson" and that it "is not as much about a young girl's murder as it is a psychological study of what happens afterward, how a tight-knit community tries to recover and how a dead child's mother, father and siblings learn to deal with their pain in their own private ways." Matt Roush of TV Guide applauded the series, calling the acting "tremendous" and that he "was instantly hooked by the moody atmosphere of this season-long murder mystery set in Seattle." He went on to say "What really stands out for me, in this age of cookie-cutter procedurals, is how The Killing dramatizes the devastation a violent death has on a family, a community, on the people involved in the investigation. Nothing about this show is routine."
Subsequent episodes were met with lesser praise by some critics, criticizing the show's reliance upon increasingly implausible red herrings to drive each episode, and the withholding of details about each characters' background, especially Rosie's, thus making them difficult to relate to or empathize with.
The first season finale was met with negative reviews from a number of critics. The Los Angeles Times called it "one of the most frustrating finales in TV history", with Alan Sepinwall of HitFix.com calling the end "insulting". Finally, Maureen Ryan of AOL TV said the finale "killed off any interest I had in ever watching the show again." "[The show] began last spring looking like the smartest, most stylish pilot in years," complained Heather Havrilevsky in The New York Times Magazine. "Fast-forward to the finale, in which we learn that what we've been watching is actually a 26-hour-long episode of Law & Order, and we're only halfway through it."
Season two 
The early seasonal episodes received generally favorable reviews from critics, scoring a 68 on Metacritic. Lori Rackl of the Chicago Sun-Times stated: "Few television shows are as addictive as this pensive, wonderfully paced suspenser." The Washington Post's Hank Stuever stated: "My own enjoyment of The Killing begins and ends with the gloom so brilliantly conveyed by its pace and performances." Brian Lowry of Variety stated the series remained "compelling," adding "the writers... are adept at overcoming the stodgy pace by dangling tantalizing clues near each hour's end, creating a strong pull to see what transpires next." HitFix's Alan Sepinwall compared this season to the first and called it "better". He added: "The performances are still good, and now the characterization is a bit better. When you add that to the fine atmosphere... and you view the mystery itself as a kind of necessary evil that allows you to see the parts of the show that do work, then it's not bad."
The season finale "What I Know" received mixed reviews. Sepinwall stated: "I'd like to say that season 2 of The Killing was an improvement on season 1, and in some ways, it probably was. The second season certainly did a better job of doing what Veena Sud claimed to be doing last year, in that it took advantage of the extra time to sketch in some of the characters... I honestly feel like any kinder feelings I have for the second season came from the complete lack of investment I had in it." Sean McKenna of TV Fanatic rated the finale 4.7 out of 5 stars, but, upon first viewing, "wasn't sure what to feel. I wasn't elated. I wasn't excited," however, after watching it again, was "sucked into the world, mesmerized not by the victory of our hero cops...but by the gut-wrenching moments that unfolded." CraveOnline's William Bibbiani called the finale "an odd duck." After citing Jamie's early revelation as "melodramatic silliness", Bibbiani added: "The rest of the episode gets its job done, with one major, glaring flaw. The characters end up more or less where they need to be, but some nearly ridiculous loose ends remain." Brandon Nowalk of The A.V. Club rated this finale a C-, calling it "so unconvincing," adding "I couldn't believe how little all this resolution affected me after The Killing so thrillingly took my grudging engagement for a ride a few weeks ago. This is the same show that delivered Richmond’s hospital nightmare, the hunt for Holder, the anti-Western standoff "Sayonara, Hiawatha," and the crazy train of the last two weeks? No, this is the full-circle episode, the one that takes the show back to its roots. Wah wah."
When it premiered, the pilot was AMC's second-highest original series premiere following The Walking Dead. The premiere drew 2.7 million viewers and a 2 household rating. The two encores of the premiere episode brought the ratings of the premiere up to a total of 4.6 million total viewers and a 3.7 household rating. The UK premiere on Channel 4 brought in 2.2 million viewers. In the second season, the viewership and ratings dipped to a series low 1.59 million viewers and 0.6 rating with adults aged 18–49.
Awards and nominations 
|2011||1st Critics' Choice Television Awards||Best Drama Series||The Killing||Nominated|
|Best Actress in a Drama Series||Mireille Enos||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress in a Drama Series||Michelle Forbes||Nominated|
|63rd Primetime Emmy Awards||Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series||Mireille Enos||Nominated|
|Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series||Michelle Forbes||Nominated|
|Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series||Patty Jenkins (Episode: "Pilot")||Nominated|
|Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series||Veena Sud (Episode: "Pilot")||Nominated|
|Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Drama Series||Elizabeth Kling (Episode: "Pilot")||Nominated|
|Outstanding Casting for a Drama Series||The Killing||Nominated|
|2012||38th Saturn Awards||Best Television Presentation||The Killing||Nominated|
|Best Actress in Television||Mireille Enos||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor in Television||Joel Kinnaman||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress in Television||Michelle Forbes||Won|
|64th Writers Guild of America Awards||Best New Series||The Killing||Nominated|
|69th Golden Globe Awards||Best Actress – TV Series Drama||Mireille Enos||Nominated|
|Directors Guild of America Award||Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Dramatic Series||Patty Jenkins||Won|
|2013||39th Saturn Awards||Best Syndicated Cable Television Series||The Killing||Pending|
|Best Actress in Television||Mireille Enos||Pending|
|34th Young Artist Awards||Best Performance in a TV Series - Supporting Young Actor||Seth Isaac Johnson||Nominated|
In March 2013, Netflix, an on-demand Internet provider, closed negotiations with Fox Television Studios with a deal to be the exclusive subscription service for the series' third season. Netflix will stream the season approximately three months after its finale. It already provides the first two seasons.
International distribution 
|Brazil||A&E Network Brasil||2011|
|Canada||AMC||April 3, 2011|
|France||Paris Première||October 17, 2011|
|Germany||RTL Crime||March 1, 2013|
|Hong Kong||TVB Pearl||January 11, 2012|
|Israel||Yes Oh||January 26, 2012|
|Italy||Fox Crime||November 3, 2011|
|Latvia||TV3||December 6, 2012|
|Lithuania||TV3||October 25, 2011|
|Slovakia||TV JOJ||January 7, 2013|
|Sweden||TV4||June 13, 2011|
|United Kingdom||Channel 4||July 7, 2011|
|Turkey||Fox Crime||November 14, 2011|
|Portugal||Fox||December 4, 2012|
Online promotion 
Season one promotion on AMC's The Killing website included "Rosie's Room", a virtual simulation of murder victim Rosie Larsen's bedroom that users could explore in order to learn more about Rosie's life and search for secrets and clues that could help lead to the discovery of who is responsible for her untimely death. Users could peek inside Rosie's dresser, look under her bed, listen to her answering machine messages, flip through her vinyl record collection, and explore her laptop computer to access her social networking profile, vlogs, photos and emails. Season one promotion also included an interactive application called the "Suspect Tracker", where users could vote each week for who they think is the prime suspect in the murder investigation and discuss their theories about the case and its suspects with other fans. A personality quiz titled "How Would You Be Cast in a Crime Thriller?" was also released prior to season one, which told users what part they would be cast in on The Killing based on their reactions to various crime-related situations. AMC's The Killing website also featured exclusive sneak peek and behind the scenes videos, trivia games, numerous photo galleries, episode and character guides, a blog, and a community forum.
For season two's promotion, AMC's The Killing website added the "Rosie Larsen Interactive Case File", which gives a glimpse into the suspects, evidence, crime scene photographs, and documents related to the case.
See also 
- Dayton, Lee (February 10, 2011). "The Killing Will Debut With a 2 Hour Premiere on Sun., Apr. 3". AMC. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- "AMC Renews "The Killing" – Network Greenlights Season Two for 13 Episodes" (Press release). AMC. June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- Andreeva, Nellie (January 14, 2012). "AMC Sets Return Dates For 'Killing' & 'Mad Men', Supersizes 'Walking Dead's' Season 3". Deadline. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- Ng, Philiana (July 27, 2012). "AMC Cancels 'The Killing'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "AMC and Fox Television Studios Partner on "The Killing" Season Three". The Futon Critic. January 15, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- Hibberd, James (March 29, 2013). "'The Killing' season 3 gets premiere date". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- Slezak, Michael (February 12, 2013). "Scoop: Peter Sarsgaard Joins The Killing". TV Line. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Ausiello, Michael (February 12, 2013). "Exclusive: Indie Actress Amy Seimetz Makes a Killing, Joins AMC Drama as a Series Regular". TV Line. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (February 8, 2013). "Scott Grimes Joins CBS’ ‘NCIS: LA’ Spinoff, Two Cast In AMC’s ‘The Killing’". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (February 19, 2013). "Josh Hamilton Boards Bravo Pilot 'Rita', Johnny Ray Gill Joins AMC's 'The Killing'". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Goldberg, Lesley; Ng, Philiana (January 28, 2013). "Elias Koteas to Co-Star in 'The Killing' Revival". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (February 20, 2013). "HBO Series ‘True Detective’, AMC’s ‘The Killing’ Add To Casts". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (February 27, 2013). "Brian Geraghty Joins 'Boardwalk Empire'". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Ng, Philiana (March 5, 2013). "'The Killing' Recruits 'L.A. Complex' Star for Recurring Role (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (March 15, 2013). "Gregg Henry To Recur On ‘The Killing’, John Cho To Guest Star In Pilot ‘Sleepy Hollow’". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- "AMC Orders Two Pilots, Building on Network's Original Programming Strategy" (Press release). AMC. January 20, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- "AMC Picks up Next Original Series – Untitled Project Formerly Known as The Killing". AMC. August 11, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Eng, Joyce (December 2, 2010). "AMC Begins Production on The Killing". TV Guide. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Goldman, Eric (January 10, 2011). "The Killing Brings Murder to AMC". IGN. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Hibberd, James (July 27, 2012). "'The Killing' cancelled by AMC". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- Ausiello, Michael (August 22, 2012). "Exclusive: The Killing Lives? Netflix and DirecTV Each Eye Revival of Axed AMC Drama". TVLine. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Andreeva, Nellie (November 8, 2012). "AMC And Netflix Near Deal To Resurrect 'The Killing'". Deadline. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Levine, Stuart (November 30, 2012). "Writers back at work on AMC's 'The Killing'". Variety. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Levine, Stuart (December 12, 2012). "Campbell departs 'The Killing'". Variety. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "BCFC Film List - TV Series - The Killing Season 3". British Columbia Film Commission. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- "The Killing: Season 1". Metacritic. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
- Goodman, Tim (March 27, 2011). "The Killing: TV Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Tucker, Ken (March 25, 2011). "The Killing". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
- Strachan, Alex (March 25, 2011). "AMC's The Killing a taut psychological study". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
- Roush, Matt (March 21, 2011). "Ask Matt: SNL, Castle, Fringe, Glee, Being Human and More!". TV Guide. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
- "The Killing". The A.V. Club. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Zoller Seitz, Matt (May 23, 2011). "How "The Killing" killed itself". Salon.com. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- VanDerWerff, Todd (June 20, 2011). "'The Killing' recap: One of the most frustrating finales in TV history". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- Sepinwall, Alan (June 19, 2011). "'The Killing' – 'Orpheus Descending': Reviewing the season finale". HitFix. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- Ryan, Maureen (June 19, 2011). "'The Killing' Season 1 Finale Recap". AOL TV. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- Havrilevsky, Heather (December 16, 2011). "'Clues That Lead to More Clues That Add Up to Nothing'". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "The Killing: Season 2 Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More". Metacritic. April 3, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Rackl, Lori (May 2, 2012). "‘The Killing’ promises answers, finally". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Stuever, Hank (March 30, 2012). "‘The Killing’s’ second season: Not guilty as charged". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Lowry, Brian (March 23, 2012). "Variety Reviews - The Killing". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Sepinwall, Alan (March 30, 2012). "Review: AMC's 'The Killing' returns, slightly improved, for season 2". HitFix. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Sepinwall, Alan (June 17, 2012). "Season finale review: 'The Killing' - 'What I Know': Who done it?". HitFix. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- McKenna, Sean (June 18, 2012). "The Killing Season Finale Review: Who Killed Rosie?". TVFanatic.com. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- Bibbiani, William (June 18, 2012). "THE KILLING 2.13 'What I Know'". CraveOnline. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
- Norwalk, Brandon (June 18, 2012). "What I Know". The A.V. Club. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- Goldberg, Lesley (April 4, 2011). "AMC's 'The Killing' Premieres Strong". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- Laughlin, Andrew (July 8, 2011). "'The Killing' debuts with 2.2m on Channel 4". Digital Spy. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
- Kondolojy, Amanda (April 24, 2012). "Sunday Cable Ratings: 'Game of Thrones,' + 'Real Housewives ATL' 'Mad Men,' 'Veep,' 'The Client List' & More". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Ausiello, Michael (June 6, 2011). "Mad Men, Fringe, Good Wife, Modern Family, Community, Justified Lead Critics Choice Kudos". TVLine. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Emmy Nominations 2011: Full List". The Hollywood Reporter. July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- Goldberg, Matt (February 29, 2012). "Saturn Award Nominations Announced; HUGO and HARRY POTTER Lead with 10 Nominations Each". Collider. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "2012 Writers Guild Awards Television, News, Radio, Promotional Writing, and Graphic Animation Nominees Announced" (Press release). Writers Guild of America. December 7, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Hibberd, James (December 15, 2011). "Golden Globe TV nominations list: 'Homeland,' 'Game of Thrones,' 'American Horror Story'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Stanhope, Kate (January 29, 2012). "The Artist and Curb Your Enthusiasm Win Top Prizes at Directors Guild Awards". TV Guide. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- Truitt, Brian (February 20, 2013). "'The Hobbit' leads Saturn Awards with nine nominations". USA Today. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- "34th Annual Young Artist Awards". Young Artist Awards. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (March 14, 2013). "Netflix Pacts For ‘The Killing’ Season 3". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- "The Killing – Summary". TVB Pearl. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "Jau šį mėnesį per TV3 – serialas išrankiam žiūrovui "Žmogžudystė"". TV3. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Január 2013 na Slovensku v znamení seriálov (aktualizované 13.1.)". SERIÁLY.kinema.SK. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "The Killing: Rosie's Room". AMC. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "The Killing: Suspect Tracker". AMC. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "The Killing: Crime Thriller Quiz". AMC. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "The Killing: Rosie Larsen Case File". AMC. Retrieved April 2, 2012.