The King in Yellow
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2010)|
Cover of an 1895 edition
|Author||Robert W. Chambers|
|Genre||Decadent literature, Horror, Supernatural|
|Publisher||F. Tennyson Neely|
The King in Yellow is a book of short stories by American writer Robert W. Chambers, first published by F. Tennyson Neely in 1895. The book is named after a fictional play with the same title which recurs as a motif through some of the stories. The first half of the book features highly esteemed weird stories, and the book has been described by critics such as E. F. Bleiler, S.T. Joshi, and T. E. D. Klein as a classic in the field of the supernatural. There are ten stories, the first four of which, "The Repairer of Reputations", "The Mask", "In the Court of the Dragon" and "The Yellow Sign", mention The King in Yellow, a forbidden play which induces despair or madness in those who read it. "The Yellow Sign" inspired a film of the same name released in 2001.
The British first edition was published by Chatto & Windus in 1895 (316 pages).
The first four stories are loosely connected by three main devices:
- A fictional play in book form entitled The King in Yellow
- A mysterious and malevolent supernatural entity known as The King in Yellow
- An eerie symbol called The Yellow Sign
These stories are macabre in tone, centering, in keeping with the other tales, on characters that are often artists or decadents. The first and fourth stories, "The Repairer of Reputations" and "The Yellow Sign", are set in an imagined future 1920s America, whereas the second and third stories, "The Mask" and "In the Court of the Dragon", are set in Paris. These stories are haunted by the theme: "Have you found the Yellow Sign?"
The weird and macabre character gradually fades away during the remaining stories, and the last three are written in the romantic fiction style common to Chambers' later work. They are all linked to the preceding stories by their Parisian setting and their artistic protagonists.
List of stories
The stories in the book are:
- "The Repairer of Reputations" – A powerful, weird story of egotism and paranoia that carries the imagery of the book's title.
- "The Mask" – A dream story of art, love, and uncanny science.
- "In the Court of the Dragon" – A man is pursued by a sinister church organist who is after his soul.
- "The Yellow Sign" – An artist is troubled by a sinister churchyard watchman who resembles a coffin worm.
- "The Demoiselle d'Ys" – A ghost story, the theme of which anticipates H. G. Wells' "The Door in the Wall" (1911).
- "The Prophets' Paradise" – A sequence of eerie prose poems that develop the style and theme of a quote from the fictional play The King in Yellow which introduces "The Mask".
- "The Street of the Four Winds" – An atmospheric tale of an artist in Paris who is drawn to a neighbor's room by a cat; the story ends with a macabre touch.
- "The Street of the First Shell" – A war story set in the Paris Siege of 1870.
- "The Street of Our Lady of the Fields" – Romantic American bohemians in Paris.
- "Rue Barrée" – Romantic American bohemians in Paris, with a discordant ending that playfully reflects some of the tone of the first story.
The play called The King in Yellow
The imaginary play The King in Yellow has two acts and at least three characters: Cassilda, Camilla, and "The Stranger", who may or may not be the title character. Chambers' story collection excerpts sections from the play to introduce the book as a whole, or individual stories. For example, "Cassilda's Song" comes from Act 1, Scene 2 of the play:
- Along the shore the cloud waves break,
- The twin suns sink behind the lake,
- The shadows lengthen
- In Carcosa.
- Strange is the night where black stars rise,
- And strange moons circle through the skies,
- But stranger still is
- Lost Carcosa.
- Songs that the Hyades shall sing,
- Where flap the tatters of the King,
- Must die unheard in
- Dim Carcosa.
- Song of my soul, my voice is dead,
- Die thou, unsung, as tears unshed
- Shall dry and die in
- Lost Carcosa.
The short story "The Mask" is introduced by an excerpt from Act 1, Scene 2d:
- Camilla: You, sir, should unmask.
- Stranger: Indeed?
- Cassilda: Indeed it's time. We have all laid aside disguise but you.
- Stranger: I wear no mask.
- Camilla: (Terrified, aside to Cassilda.) No mask? No mask!
It is also stated, in the "The Repairer of Reputations," that the final moment of the first act involves the character of Cassilda on the streets, screaming in a horrified fashion, "Not upon Us, oh king! Not upon us!".
All of the excerpts come from Act I. The stories describe Act I as quite ordinary, but reading Act II drives the reader mad with the "irresistible" revealed truths. "The very banality and innocence of the first act only allowed the blow to fall afterward with more awful effect." Even seeing the first page of the second act is enough to draw the reader in: "If I had not caught a glimpse of the opening words in the second act I should never have finished it [...]" ("The Repairer of Reputations").
Chambers usually gives only scattered hints of the contents of the full play, as in this extract from "The Repairer of Reputations":
He mentioned the establishment of the Dynasty in Carcosa, the lakes which connected Hastur, Aldebaran and the mystery of the Hyades. He spoke of Cassilda and Camilla, and sounded the cloudy depths of Demhe, and the Lake of Hali. "The scolloped tatters of the King in Yellow must hide Yhtill forever," he muttered, but I do not believe Vance heard him. Then by degrees he led Vance along the ramifications of the Imperial family, to Uoht and Thale, from Naotalba and Phantom of Truth, to Aldones, and then tossing aside his manuscript and notes, he began the wonderful story of the Last King.
A similar passage occurs in "The Yellow Sign", in which two protagonists have read The King in Yellow:
Night fell and the hours dragged on, but still we murmured to each other of the King and the Pallid Mask, and midnight sounded from the misty spires in the fog-wrapped city. We spoke of Hastur and of Cassilda, while outside the fog rolled against the blank window-panes as the cloud waves roll and break on the shores of Hali.
||This section possibly contains original research. (November 2010)|
Chambers borrowed the names Carcosa, Hali, and Hastur from Ambrose Bierce: specifically, his short stories "An Inhabitant of Carcosa" and "Haïta the Shepherd". There is no strong indication that Chambers was influenced beyond liking the names. For example, Hastur is a god of shepherds in "Haïta the Shepherd", but is implicitly a location in "The Repairer of Reputations", listed alongside the Hyades and Aldebaran. Possible influences may include Edgar Allan Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death". Its synopsis is similar to Chambers's imaginary play: a masquerade is held by decadent members of the aristocracy. They isolate themselves from the outside world where the Red Death, a plague, reigns supreme. At the end of the masquerade, a stranger appears, wearing a bloodied shroud and a mask figuring a Red Death victim. When the shocked dancers try to unmask him, they find nothing but an empty shroud and a Mask; then they die from the plague, one by one. In both stories, colors have an ominous importance and the strangers are portents of both death and destruction.
Other texts, especially from the symbolist writers, may have influenced Chambers as well: "Le Roi au masque d'or" ("The king in the gold mask"), a short story written by Marcel Schwob—a French novelist and a friend of Oscar Wilde—was published in 1893 while Chambers was still studying in Paris. In this story, a king rules a city where all inhabitants are masked. One day, a strange blind beggar comes into his palace. After meeting with the beggar, the king, believing he's afflicted by leprosy, feels compelled to remove his mask; he then tears his own eyes out and leaves his city. A beggar now, the former king heads toward the faraway "city of the wretched" but dies before the end of his journey.
It is also possible that the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde, published in 1893, was another symbolist source of inspiration for The King in Yellow. Like The King in Yellow, Salomé was originally written in French before being translated; it was then banned in Britain because of its scandalous reputation. Wilde's play in one act involves a queen, a princess, a king, and an ominous prophet clad in camel's hair dress, Iokanaan, whose appearance may bring untold and terrible events. The ominous language used, the drama, and the feeling of unease and expectation, evokes Chambers's play; on page one of Salomé, the moon is described as a "little princess who wears a yellow veil"; on pages three and nine, the young Syrian says, "How pale the princess is! Never have I seen her so pale." On page 16, the young Syrian is named by Salome: his name is Narraboth and he beseeches Salome to avoid looking at Iokanaan and, finally, commits suicide. Marcel Schwob corrected the original French version of Salomé on behalf of Oscar Wilde.
Brian Stableford pointed out that the story "The Demoiselle d'Ys" was influenced by the stories of Théophile Gautier, such as "Arria Marcella" (1852); both Gautier and Chambers' stories feature a love affair enabled by a supernatural time slip.
H.P. Lovecraft read The King in Yellow in early 1927 and included passing references to various things and places from the book—such as the Lake of Hali and the Yellow Sign—in "The Whisperer in Darkness" (1931), one of his seminal Cthulhu Mythos stories. Lovecraft borrowed Chambers' method of only vaguely referring to supernatural events, entities, and places, thereby allowing his readers to imagine the horror for themselves. The imaginary play The King in Yellow effectively became another piece of occult literature in the Cthulhu Mythos alongside the Necronomicon and others.
In the story, Lovecraft linked the Yellow Sign to Hastur, but from his brief (and only) mention it is not clear what Lovecraft meant Hastur to be. August Derleth developed Hastur into a Great Old One in his controversial reworking of Lovecraft's universe, elaborating on this connection in his own mythos stories. In the writings of Derleth and a few other latter-day Cthulhu Mythos authors, the King in Yellow is an Avatar of Hastur, so named because of his appearance as a thin, floating man covered in tattered yellow robes.
In Lovecraft's cycle of horror sonnets, Fungi from Yuggoth, sonnet XXVII "The Elder Pharos" mentions the last Elder One who lives alone talking to chaos via drums: "The Thing, they whisper, wears a silken mask of yellow, whose queer folds appear to hide a face not of this earth...."
In the Call of Cthulhu roleplaying game published by Chaosium, the King In Yellow is an avatar of Hastur who uses his eponymous play to spread insanity among humans. He is described as a hunched figure clad in tattered, yellow rags, who wears a smooth and featureless "Pallid Mask". Removing the mask is a sanity-shattering experience; the King's face is described as "inhuman eyes in a suppurating sea of stubby maggot-like mouths; liquescent flesh, tumorous and gelid, floating and reforming."[attribution needed]
Although none of the characters in Chambers' book describe the plot of the play, Kevin Ross fabricated a plot for the play within the Call of Cthulhu mythos.
- Karl Edward Wagner used it as a motif in his 1981 short story "The River of Night's Dreaming". The story was adapted as the sixteenth episode of the TV series The Hunger in 1998.
- Marion Zimmer Bradley's Darkover novels contain references to Aldones, Camilla, Cassilda, Carcosa, the cloud Lake of Hali, Naotalba, and Hastur. Though Hali is a city by a lake, the characters and places do not otherwise resemble Chambers' characters.
- Some writers have attempted to write a full or partial text for the imaginary The King in Yellow, including James Blish in his short story "More Light", Lin Carter ("Tatters of the King", 1986), and others.
- "The King in Yellow" is a 1938 short story by Raymond Chandler. It is a crime story in which the narrator has apparently read Chambers' book and uses the phrase to describe one of the other characters.
- Vincent Starrett wrote a poem called "Cordelia's Song from The King in Yellow", which was published in the April 1938 issue of Weird Tales.
- Frank Belknap Long's 1928 story "The Space-Eaters" alludes to Chambers' "The Yellow Sign".
- Robert Silverberg used the exchange between Camilla, Cassilda, and the Stranger as the epigraph to his novel Thorns (1967).
- In Robert A. Heinlein's The Number of the Beast, Zeb Carter mentions the King in Yellow's "world" as one to be avoided.
- Stephen King, in his novel Thinner (written under the pen-name Richard Bachman), includes a reference to the "King in Yellow" as a head shop from which the protagonist's daughter buys an item.
- Brian Keene's short story "'The King,' in: Yellow", recounts the story of a modern-day couple who attend a performance of the play performed by "actors" who strongly resemble deceased singers and musicians such as Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix—and Elvis Presley as "The King".
- The King in Yellow makes an appearance in the final volume of Grant Morrison's The Invisibles.
- Paul Edwin Zimmer's Dark Border series used a number of the names that feature in The King in Yellow, including Hastur, Hali, and Carcosa.
- The Doctor Who novel The Death of Art, by Simon Bucher-Jones, starts with a reference to "Naotalba's Song", and includes the art students from Chambers as incidental characters.
- Cleveland Moffett wrote two supernatural stories collected in the book The Mysterious Card (1912) that were influenced by the stories in The King in Yellow, although they do not refer to any of the names in Chambers' work.
- Joseph S. Pulver has written nearly 30 tales and poems that are based on and/or include The King in Yellow, Carcosa, and other elements from Chambers' stories. Pulver also edited an anthology of new fiction related to The King in Yellow, titled A Season in Carcosa, released in 2012 by Miskatonic River Press.
- Michael Cisco's short story collection Secret Hours contains the short story "He Will Be There", based on The King In Yellow mythology and dedicated to his friend Joseph S. Pulver.
- Lawrence Watt-Evans adopted the name for the immortal high priest of Death in a series of novels--The Lure of the Basilisk, The Seven Altars of Dusarra, The Sword of Bheleu, and The Book of Silence—collectively known as The Lords of Dûs.
- The King in Yellow is the antagonist of Miyuki Miyabe's YA fantasy novel The Book of Heroes.
- Anders Fager's book Collected Swedish Cults contains the short story "The Queen In Yellow" in which an institutionalized artist transforms into the demi-god "The Queen in Yellow Rampant".
- Alan K. Baker's book Feaster from the Stars uses The King in Yellow as an adversary to investigators Blackwood and Harrington in the second book of the series.
- Blue Öyster Cult's song "E.T.I. (Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)", from the 1976 album Agents of Fortune, refers to "the King in Yellow and the Queen in Red".
- In 2002 Rainfall Records released a CD called The King in Yellow by The Society of The Yellow Sign (a name taken from a story by Joseph S. Pulver), containing songs and spoken-word pieces and songs based on Chambers' creations.
- British black metal band Anaal Nathrakh have a song called "The Yellow King" on their 2006 album Eschaton, as well as a quotation from the book in the liner notes.
- Belgian extreme metal band Ancient Rites have a song "Dim Carcosa" on the album of the same name; its lyrics are directly based on "Cassilda's song" from The King in Yellow.
- Czech black metal band Root have a song named "Cassilda's Song" on their 1992 album The Temple in the Underworld. The lyrics are exactly the same as they appear in "The King in Yellow".
- Toyah's 1982 album The Changeling includes a song, "The Packt", that includes the first two quoted couplets of Act I in its lyrics.
- In 1995, hundred years after the first publication of The King In Yellow, Dutch playwright Frank Rieter wrote the song "King in Yellow" in collaboration with composer Rood Adeo. With lyrics based on the imaginary play, Camilla, Carcosa and the golden mask are being mentioned. The song appeared on Adeo’s 1997 ‘Nighthawks at the Diner’-album Fool’s Tango.
- The Call of Cthulhu role-playing game has featured the Hastur mythos and the King in Yellow over the years; one prominent example is the campaign Tatters of the King which also includes extracts from the play, as well as an early scene in which the player characters attend an ill-fated performance.
- Issue 134 of Dungeon Magazine featured a Dungeons and Dragons adventure written by Matthew Hope called "And Madness Followed" about a bard who performed The King in Yellow for increasingly larger communities, each time warping the populace into Far Realm horrors.
- The King in Yellow is an expansion to the Lovecraft-themed Arkham Horror adventure board game, involving a troupe of actors who intend to perform the eponymous play. The King himself does not appear, but if the play is performed to its conclusion, it drives the entire population of Arkham insane.
- The videogame Persona 2: Eternal Punishment for PlayStation features Hastur as a summonable Persona. The tarot card from which he is summoned is known as the "King in Yellow" card, and is of the Tower arcanum.
- The final boss in Magicka is a powerful being called Assatur (alternative name of Hastur), the King in Yellow, who threatens to destroy the world.
The first season of the HBO original series True Detective uses the phrases "The Yellow King", "Carcosa" and "You, sir, should unmask", as well as other themes and ideas from the book. Its use in the TV series resulted in a spike in sales of the book.
- In 2001, director Aaron Vanek and writer John Tynes adapted much of the book's content into a film titled The Yellow Sign released on DVD by Lurker Films.
- Carcosa Seri Negara, a hotel in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was built as the residence of Sir Frank Swettenham, the first British Resident-General of the Federated Malay States, in 1896-1897. He named it after the city in The King in Yellow.
- "The King In Yellow: First Edition Controversy". Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- American Supernatural Tales. Penguin Classics. Penguin Books. 2007. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-14-310504-6.
First publication: Robert W. Chambers, The King in Yellow ... F. Tennyson Neely, 1895
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- Klein, T. E. D. (1986). "Chambers, Robert W(illiam)". In Sullivan, Jack. The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural. New York: Penguin/Viking. pp. 74–6. ISBN 0-670-80902-0.
- "The King in Yellow". Internet Speculative Fiction Database. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- "The King in Yellow" in e.g. Chambers, Robert W. (2004). The Yellow Sign and Other Stories. Call of Cthulhu Fiction. Chaosium. p. 3. ISBN 1-56882-170-0.
- "The Mask" in e.g. Chambers, Robert W. (2004). The Yellow Sign and Other Stories. Call of Cthulhu Fiction. Chaosium. p. 33. ISBN 1-56882-170-0.
- Chambers, Robert W. (2004). The Yellow Sign and Other Stories. Call of Cthulhu Fiction. Chaosium. p. 20. ISBN 1-56882-170-0.
- Chambers, Robert W. (2000). Joshi, S. T., ed. The Yellow Sign and Other Stories. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. p. xiv. ISBN 978-1-56882-126-9.
- Poe, Edgar Allan (1850). "The Masque of the Red Death". In Willis, N.P.; Lowell, J. R.; Griswold, R. W. The Works of the Late Edgar Allan Poe: with notices of his life and genius. Volume 1: Tales. New York: J. S. Redfield. p. 344. OCLC 3741354.
- Schwob, Marcel (1893). Le Roi au masque d'or (in French). Paris: P. Ollendorff. pp. 303–315. OCLC 9436749.
- Wilde, Oscar (1894). Salomé: A tragedy in one act. London. p. 7. OCLC 79405695. Printed for Elkin Mathews and John Lane.
- Wilde, Salomé, pp. 1, 3, 9, 16–24.
- Brian Stableford, "The King in Yellow" in Frank N. Magill, ed. Survey of Modern Fantasy Literature, Vol 2. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Salem Press, Inc., 1983. (pp. 844-847).
- Joshi, S. T.; Schultz, David E. (2001). "Chambers, Robert W[illiam]". An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-313-31578-7.
- Pearsall, Anthony B. "Yellow Sign". The Lovecraft Lexicon (1st ed.). Tempe, AZ: New Falcon. p. 436. ISBN 0-313-31578-7.
- Lovecraft, Howard Phillips (1971). Fungi from Yuggoth and other poems. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-02147-2.
- "More Light" in McCaffrey, Anne (1981). Alchemy and Academe. Del Rey. pp. 104–137. ISBN 0-345-28643-X.
- Carter, Lyn (2006). "Tatters of the King". In Price, Robert M. The Hastur Cycle (2nd ed.). Chaosium. p. 282. ISBN 978-1-56882-192-4.
- Starrett, Vincent (1990)."Cordelia’s Song from The King in Yellow", in Haining, Peter, Weird Tales, Xanadu, (p. 94). ISBN 1-85480-050-7 .
- "Parodic treatment of horror motifs from various classics-"The Wendigo" and "The Willows" by Algernon Blackwood, "The Yellow Sign" by Robert W. Chambers, etc." "The Space-Eaters" in E. F. Bleiler and Richard Bleiler, Science-Fiction: The Early Years. Kent State University Press, 1990. (p.452). ISBN 9780873384162.
- Keene, Brian (2005). Fear of Gravity. Delirium Books. ISBN 978-1-929653-74-4.
- Clute, John; Grant, John (1997). Encyclopedia of Fantasy. Orion. p. 177.
- Fager, Anders (2011). Collected Swedish Cults. Bonnier. ISBN 9789146220961.
- Ria Misra (February 21, 2014). "True Detective has made 1895 book The King in Yellow a bestseller". io9.
- "'True Detective' References Boost 'The King in Yellow' Book". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- Bleiler, Everett (1948). The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers.
- Rehearsals for Oblivion: Act 1 - Tales of The King in Yellow, edited by Peter A. Worthy, Elder Signs Press, 2007
- Strange Aeons 3'' (an issue dedicated to The King in Yellow, edited by Rick Tillman and K.L. Young, Autumn 2010
- The Hastur Cycle, edited by Robert M. Price, Chaosium, 1993
- The Yellow Sign and Other Stories, edited by S.T. Joshi, Chaosium, 2004
- Watts, Richard; Love, Penelope (1990). Fatal Experiments. Oakland, CA: Chaosium. ISBN 0-933635-72-9.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The King in Yellow at Project Gutenberg
- The King in Yellow at yankeeclassic.com
- The King in Yellow at sff.net
- The King in Yellow title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- "The King in Yellow": An Introduction by Christophe Thill
- The King in Yellow, part 1 at librivox.org
- The King in Yellow, part 2 at librivox.org
- The Kind in Yellow - Large Print Edition