The Knight in the Panther's Skin

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ვეფხისტყაოსანი
Vepkhistqaosani
The Knight in the Panther's Skin
ვეფხისტყაოსანი XVII საუკუნე.jpg
17th-century manuscript of Vepkhistqaosani
Author(s) Shota Rustaveli
Dedicated to Queen Tamar of Georgia
Language Georgian
Date c. 1180–1205/07
First printed edition by King Vakhtang VI in 1712
Genre epic poetry, national epic
Length 6,500 lines
Subject love, friendship, heroism, loyalty
Period covered Reign of Queen Tamar of Georgia
Georgian Golden Age

The Knight in the Panther's Skin (Georgian: ვეფხისტყაოსანი pronounced [vɛpʰxist’q’ɑosɑni] "one who owns a leopard skin") is a Georgian medieval epic poem, consisting of over 1600 shairi quatrains, written in the 12th century by the Georgian epic poet Shota Rustaveli, the "crown and glory of the Georgian culture".[1] It is considered as the "masterpiece of the Georgian literature" which held for centuries a prominent place in the heart of Georgians, majority of whom is able to quote whole stanzas from the poem.[2] Till the early 20th century, a copy of this poem was part of the dowry of any bride.[3][4]

Rustaveli with the entire wealth of the old Georgian written culture by following the best traditions of the Georgian folklore, developed and raised the Georgian poetry to an unprecedented heights, poetry which would describe the highest ideals and aspirations of the Georgian nation.[5]

The story takes place in India and Arabia.[6] It tells the friendship between the two heroes, Avtandil and Tariel, and the quest to find the object of love, Nestan-Darejan. Dedicated to Queen Tamar of Georgia who is a model for Nestan-Darejan, the work boasts the size and glory of the Kingdom of Georgia in its golden age. These idealized heroes, the devoted friends are united by courtly love, generosity, sincerity, dedication, who proclaim equality between men and women, with great joy. The poem is regarded as the "coronation of thought, poetic and philosophical art of medieval Georgia",[7] a complex work with rich and transcending genres. It has been described as "epic", "chivalric romance", "epic romance" and "epic poem of lyric poetry."[8] Despite its formal complexity, it bears to this day "the Georgian vision of the world."[9]

History of the work[edit]

Rustaveli presenting Queen Tamar the poem, by Mihály Zichy.

Context and time[edit]

The creation of poem corresponds to the golden age of the Kingdom of Georgia and the reign of Queen Tamar who was enthroned by her father King George III. Tamar was celebrated by poets for her beauty, intelligence and diplomatic skills, she magnified the Georgian kingdom to its historical maximum extension, repulsed the invasions and established protectorates over many Muslim and Christian lands around. Under her reign, the economy prospered and the Georgian caravans reached Ayyubid Egypt, the Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. Medieval science grew and the largest monasteries and churches in Georgia were built, secular literature developed to the point of equaling the greatest religious texts, works such as "Tamariani", odes to the Queen by Chakhrukhadze and "Abdulmesiani" ("Servant of the Messiah"), archaic cycle of odes by Ioane Shavteli celebrating Queen Tamar and King David the Builder, whose long reign ushered the Georgian golden age. In this very period of "remarkable growth"[10] of Georgian culture Shota Rustaveli composed his poem. Rustaveli, a Meskhetian from the south-western Georgian town of Rustavi, he was close to Queen Tamar with him being perhaps her treasurer.[11] He would have also participated in many military campaigns and his stories would take place far from Georgia, but recognizable by many things such as the wine culture or a woman being the king who became an heir of her father.[12]

In the very prologue, Rustaveli mentions that he wrote this poem for praising the "King" Tamar.[13]

თამარს ვაქებდეთ მეფესა სისხლისა ცრემლ-დათხეული,
ვთქვენი ქებანი ვისნი მე არ-ავად გამორჩეული.
მელნად ვიხმარე გიშრის ტბა და კალმად მე ნა რხეული,
ვინცა ისმინოს, დაესვას ლახვარი გულსა ხეული.
By shedding tears of blood we praise King Tamar,
whose praises I, not ill-chosen, have told forth.
For ink I have used a lake of jet, and for pen a pliant crystal.
Whoever hears, a jagged spear will pierce his heart.

And in the epilogue he praises the queen's king consort David Soslan.[14]

ქართველთა ღმრთისა დავითის, ვის მზე მსახურებს სარებლად,
ესე ამბავი გავლექსე მე მათად მოსახმარებლად,
ვინ არის აღმოსავლეთით დასავლეთს ზართა მარებლად,
და ორგულთა მათთა დამწველად, ერთგულთა გამახარებლად.
God of the Georgians, David, who the sun is his servant,
And here I wrote this poetry for their use,
The one who rules on the east and west,
To burn the infidels, and please the devoted.

Content and form[edit]

Title[edit]

Georgian title ვეფხისტყაოსანი (vepkhistqaosani) literally means "one with a skin of vepkhi". The identity of the animal that it refers to is not certain and it can be a tiger, panther or leopard. In modern Georgian, it refers to the tiger. However, according to more modern research it would rather mean a panther. Similarly, the qualification of "knight" is not derived from the original title and its alternative translations exist, such as the "valiant" or simply a "man."[15] The alternative English titles of the poem also are "Lord of the Panther Skin"[16] and "The Man in the Panther's Skin".[17]

Story[edit]

The story can be divided into two parts: the first part shows Avtandil looking for Tariel, the knight in the panther's skin and the second his quest for Nestan-Darejan.

Search for Tariel[edit]

Tariel, the knight in the panther's skin.

The King of Arabia Rostevan having no son to succeed him, confers the kingship on his only daughter, the beautiful and wise, Tinatin, who has a tender affection for Avtandil, the knight and the commander-in-chief. One day, when King Rostevan and Avtandil are hunting they encounter a mysterious grief-stricken knight dressed in the panther's skin who kills several members of the royal guard sent by the king and disappears. Tinatin then asks Avtandil to find this strange knight promising him in return her faithful love. After three years of searching, he finally finds the knight in the panther's skin. His name would be Tariel and he will then tell Avtandil his story. Tariel served to the king of the seven kingdoms of India, King Parsadan. The king had a daughter, Nestan-Darejan, who had been brought away from the court. When Tariel saw her for the first time, he fell in love immediately but she was promised to the Khwarezmian prince. Tariel could not bear the idea of marriage, and at the request of Nestan he killed the suitor. The princess was then placed on a boat and adrift on the seas. Despite Tariel's lengthy research for his love he could no find her. Later he met Nuradin-Pridon, ruler of Mulgazanzar, who told him that Nestan was alive but trapped on a distant boat. Tariel retired to a cave to live a wild life with Asmat, the former servant and messenger of Nestan. Moved by this story, Avtandil promises his friendship and brotherhood to Tariel and agrees to help him find his love, Nestan-Darejan. Avtandil returned to home to Arabia, he tells Tinatin the story of Tariel and returns to his new friend, going against the king Rostevan's will.[18]

Search for Nestan-Darejan[edit]

Avtandil then leaves Tariel to get into the kingdom of Pridon, where he did not hear anything about new on Nestan. Continuing his quest, he arrives at city of Gulansharo. He met Patman, wife of the chief Usen, who falls in love with him. Avtandil, sensing she knows the fate of Nestan, gives himself right to be seduced by her. She tells him she has hosted Nestan and, as she was promised to the son of the king, she helped her escape, but in her flight she was abducted by the Kaji, a demon king. Avtandil then returns home to Pridon and then in the cave of Tariel and later all three friends decide to go to the country of Kaji with an army of three hundred men to find and deliver Nestan. When she's released, all return to Arabia, where King Rostevan, having forgiven Avtandil his flight and breaking the king's order they all celebrate the marriage of the latter with his only daughter, Tinatin. They then leave for India where Tariel marries his love Nestan. Pridon also returns to his homeland and the three friends reign happily with prosperity and generosity in their own respective realms.[19]

Places and characters[edit]

Tariel, Avtandil and Pridon looking at the Kajeti fortress.

Places[edit]

The poem is placed far away from Georgia in countries that the poet has certainly never visited: Arabia, India and "Khataeti" that is to say, China. The indications are vague and not designate any particular site.[20] It is the Georgian kingdom that has existed through these distant lands. It seems that the choice of places refers primarily to the national character of these peoples: the Arabs are portrayed as more rational, as the king Rostevan and his knight Avtandil with their communication skills and action help to break deadlocks. Conversely, the Indians appear to be more emotional and impulsive and cause unintended disasters, as of the image of Tariel and Nestan.[21] Other locations mentioned as the Kajeti or country of Kaj demons are imaginary. As for Gulansharo, capital of the "Kingdom of the Seas", has been compared to Venice.[22]

Characters[edit]

The brave and loyal knight: Avtandil and Tariel[edit]

These two characters represent the most devouted and friend lover characters, both heroes capable of courtly love and men endowed with free will.[23] They initially were actively involved and served the kingdoms held position of modern "steward" or "Mayor of the Palace".[24] Besides their position they only obey their beloved therefore their love and dedication is unwavering. Their mutual commitment friendship they swear, also extends to a third person who is Nuradin-Pridon who is also endowed with the same heroic qualities. Tariel is however distinguished by his wild character as he's attributeed with the panther's skin. The qualities associated with him of animal what is the power, intelligence or passion adds the impression of his feelings, his dedication and courage, as his hatred and violence could be extreme and uncontrollable.[25] It is also close to Saint George slaying the dragon whose cult was particularly strong in the 12th century especially in the episode where Tariel kills a lion and a panther.[26]

The faithful and patient lover: Tinatin and Nestan-Darejan[edit]

Although they take little action, these female characters, Tinatin and Nestan-Darejan are constantly present in thoughts of the knights and in the narrative tension as a whole. Princesses, a higher rank than their servant knights, they are inspired by the Queen Tamar or reflect the fact that each of them is the sovereign in their own realm.[27] Tinatin chooses her own husband, and it references to Queen Tamar as her role of the king and his father Rostevan, ceding his throne to his daughter references King George III of Georgia who was succeeded by her daughter in 1178, after his death.[28] Tinatin is a static character who leaves no time to the court of his father in Arabia. Nestan being a prisoner in the distant regions, is also passive. But their confidence, righteousness, shows these two women being faithful and respective lovers. As for Patman, she is an altered representation of their type but an infidel during the absence of her husband.[29] Patman takes little account of family honor as she humiliates her husband on account of his bodily defects. Patman's character is true to life from the artistic point of view. Despite everything, she is capable of displaying both affection and sincere warmth peculiar to a woman. She spares no effort to save Nestan. It is very characteristic that when Patman learns of the purpose of Avtandil's journey, she makes no attempt to keep the man she loves at her side even for a short time.[30]

Human relationships[edit]

Attack against the Kajs and reunion of Tariel and Nestan-Darejan.
Avtandil and Tariel in cave with Asmat.
Coronation of Tinatin.

Rustaveli is a great humanist. The poet focuses his attention on a man as a complex of sincere feelings, emotions, passions and aspirations. To counterbalance the mentality of the Middle Ages and the ecclesiastic morality of asceticism Rustaveli's poem proclaims the freedom of man as a personality, freedom of thought and feeling.[31]

Love[edit]

In the prologue, Rustaveli describes three types of love: an inaccessible due to the divine, heavenly love; physical love; and finally, a higher earthly love or passionate love.[32] Rustaveli thinks that pure and constant love does not expect love in return.[33] Such kind of love can not be felt without a strong spirit and the only possibility of experiencing love of this order is determined by the natural qualities that should have a real human being. Therefore, the valiant must have its beautiful with impeccable behavior including a constant devotion, the rejection of social duties and selfless loyalty. And as the author puts it "love is a severe trial for man as for woman".[34]

Loyalty of Nestan that fills the work and supports the dramatic tension well before the appearance of the character, is a model of righteousness. When it was announced that she would be married against her own will, she protests with force and supports its consequences with her heroic courage and stoicism. For three heroes who go to her aid, fearless and selfless, the fight is intended as a quest for justice. Amorous conquest is also noticeably absent from the poem. Both romantic relationships are paralleled and never mixed as the true brotherhood between the two heroes prevent such incidents.[35] Love, like friendship, often gives rise to hyperbolic descriptions in the poem.[36]

Friendship[edit]

The friendship between the three heroes sworn, Avtandil, Tariel and Pridon, a clear narrative of the entire epic, binds them together and at the same time it binds their peoples. These three men belong to different nations, they find themselves with the same aspirations and the same goal and that is their union of forces that can and will destroy a tyranny and evil what is represented by the Kajs.[37] This friendship, full of honesty and courage, free of cowardice and sycophancy, must go to the death if necessary. Such friendship is also possible between persons of different sexes in this case of Tariel and Asmat who share the same cave in brotherhood. However, love and friendship are intertwined as love of a knight with his heroism is fully realized with the help of a disinterested friendship and absolute loyalty. Both feelings are also expressed in the terms when Avtandil even against the will and order of his king departs to help his friend in need. Moreover, the happiness of each is conditioned by the happiness of others. Tinatin allows Avtandil to leave for Tariel, because it is the duty of her suitor to rescue his friend to whom he has promised to help.[38]

Morals, religion and philosophy[edit]

Values[edit]

With the glorification of courtly love, Rustaveli leads to strongly condemn forced marriages. Poem also shows an admiration for the woman and demands for gender equality. Even though Queen Tamar is the first female monarch and the sovereign of the kingdom, women's political function, position and leading role in Georgia was very high be it the patronage of Georgia by the Virgin Mary or conversion of Georgians to Christianity by a woman, Saint Nino in the 4th century.[39] This "cult of woman"[40] celebrates her honor and freedom to choose her own husband and Nestan is the model of a noble woman who puts reason above passion. In equal rights, women can develop a sincere friendship with the opposite sex without love and desire and Asmat is dedicated to Tariel. Slavery is also condemned in the poem.[41]

Politically, the poem does not lack and is not without patriotism. The state must be led by a strong and autocratic central government, however, sovereigns must rule with justice and prudence.[42]

In general, the poem is a "manifest of living with joy". The success of the three heroes in the liberation of Nestan shows that justice can exist on earth, as with enough courage and perseverance, one can find the happiness here.[43]

Religious and philosophical views[edit]

The poem sometimes gives the impression of being a pagan work.[44] In fact, no prayer is inserted into the poem, and never appear references to Christ or the Virgin Mary, or the Trinity but only to Paul the Apostle. Paul is mentioned, although references to the Gospels and the Old Testament are many (ten occurrences of Garden of Eden, including references to the Euphrates, Gibeon and Levi).[45]

However, the moral framework of the work is Christian, with a clear dichotomy between a good god and a hard and disappointing world. This Christianity yet has no fanaticism, even though its references to Islam, its prophet Muhammad (st. 1019), to Mecca (st. 1154) and the Quran (st. 344, 523 and 1154) are not particularly benevolent, and it is sometimes mocking,[46] they nevertheless clearly show some knowledge of this religion.[47]

Philosophical references of the poem is the Pseudo-Dionysius (st. 1478) which could be identified with the Georgian monk Peter the Iberian, an idealist, who believes in the oneness of God and but sees the impossibility of knowing its real existence.[48]

Translations[edit]

Outside of Georgia, first interest in poem appears in 1802, when Eugene Bolkhovitinov publishes verbatim translation of the first stanza of the poem in Russian.[49] In 1828, Marie-Félicité Brosset made in France his first partial French translation.[50] In the 19th century the poem saw full translations into Polish,[51] German[52] and Russian. Extracts are published in Russian in 1845, in French and Armenian. In 1912, Marjory Wardrop publishes one of the best English translations available, given the proximity to the original.[53]

Today, unabridged editions are available in many languages: Hungarian,[54] Ukrainian,[55] Armenian,[56] Azeri,[57] Uzbek,[58] Kazakh,[59] Abkhaz,[60] Chinese,[61] Ossetian,[62] Italian,[63] Romanian,[64] Kyrgyz,[65] Turkmen,[66] Japanese,[67] Spanish,[68] Mongolian,[69] Belarusian,[70] Moldovan,[71] Hebrew,[72] Chechen,[73] Kurdish,[74] Bashkir, Chuvash, Tatar, Esperanto[75] and partial translations are also in Persian.[76]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 17
  2. ^ Shengelia, p. 106
  3. ^ Shengelia, p. 105
  4. ^ Delshad, p. 18
  5. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 26
  6. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 19
  7. ^ Asatiani & Bendianashvili, p. 151
  8. ^ Malinka Velinova, "Interférence des genres dans les emplois du monologue médiéval", Institut Roustavéli, p. 160
  9. ^ Polet, p. 529
  10. ^ Polet, p. 500
  11. ^ Polet, p. 525
  12. ^ Kveselava, p. 13
  13. ^ The Knight in the Panther's Skin, st. 4
  14. ^ The Knight in the Panther's Skin, st. 1666
  15. ^ Orbeliani & Iordanishvili, 1949
  16. ^ Rustaveli, SUNY Press, 1977
  17. ^ Rustaveli, Netlancers Inc, 2014
  18. ^ The Knight in the Panther's Skin, III-XXX
  19. ^ The Knight in the Panther's Skin, XXX-XLV
  20. ^ Beynen, p. 221
  21. ^ Beynen, p. 219
  22. ^ Beynen, p. 222
  23. ^ Beynen, p. 228
  24. ^ Delshad, p. 50
  25. ^ Polet, p. 548
  26. ^ Mirianaschwili, Müller & Müller, «Schota Rustaveli, "Der Ritter im Tigerfell", 1999
  27. ^ Wardrop, p. 6
  28. ^ Beynen, p. 220
  29. ^ Wardrop, p. 7
  30. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 25
  31. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, pp. 25-26
  32. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 21
  33. ^ Wardrop, p. 4
  34. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, pp. 21-22
  35. ^ Beynen, p. 232
  36. ^ Wardrop, p. 7
  37. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 23
  38. ^ Polet, p. 527
  39. ^ Shengelia, p. 107
  40. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 22
  41. ^ Khakhanoff, p. 95
  42. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 24
  43. ^ Baramidze & Gamezardashvili, p. 20
  44. ^ Rayfield, p. 77
  45. ^ Wardrop, p. 270
  46. ^ Rayfield, p. 76
  47. ^ Wardrop, p. 4-5
  48. ^ Rayfield, pp. 77-78
  49. ^ Bolkhovitinov, Историческое изображение Грузии в политическом, церковном и учебном ее состаянии, St. Petersburg, 1802
  50. ^ Brosset, pp. 277-294
  51. ^ Lapchinski & Eristavi, 1840
  52. ^ Der Mann in Tigerfelle, von Schota Rustaveli, Arthur Leist, 1889
  53. ^ Taktakishvili & Urushadze, pp. 142-148
  54. ^ Tsereteli, pp. 661-664
  55. ^ Mikola Bajan, Kiev, 1937
  56. ^ Asatur, Yerevan, 1937
  57. ^ Vurghun, Rahim & Rustam, Baku, 1937
  58. ^ Shahzoda 1938 & Mirtemir 1959
  59. ^ Almaty, 1938
  60. ^ Gulia, Sokhumi, 1941
  61. ^ Li-tsi-e, Shanghai, 1943
  62. ^ Shavlokhovisa, Tskhinvali, 1943
  63. ^ La pelle di Leopardo di Schotha Rusthaveli, Milan, 1945
  64. ^ Vera Roman, Bucarest, 1947
  65. ^ Frunse, 1956
  66. ^ Ashgabat, 1957
  67. ^ Kotchlashvili & Fukuro, 1962
  68. ^ Gustavo de la Tore Botaro, Santiago, 1964
  69. ^ Gombojav, Ulan-Bator, 1965
  70. ^ Zvonak & Khvedarovitch, Minsk, 1966
  71. ^ Krecu, Chișinău, 1966
  72. ^ Agiashvili, 1967
  73. ^ Mouzaev, Grozny, 1969
  74. ^ Asad & Ankus, 2007
  75. ^ Baramidze, p. 344
  76. ^ Mortheza Phatem, Tbilisi, 1966

Sources[edit]

  • Marjory Scott Wardrop, The Man in the Panther's Skin: A Romantic Epic by Shota Rustaveli, Royal Asiatic Society, 1912
  • Donald Rayfield, The Literature of Georgia, Richmond, Curzon Press, 2000 (1st ed. 1994)
  • A. G. Baramidze & D. M. Gamezardashvili, Georgian Literature, Honolulu, University Press of the Pacific, 2001 (1st ed. 1968)
  • Kakha Shengelia, History of Georgia, Tbilisi, Caucasus University Publishing House, 2001
  • Jean-Claude Polet, Patrimoine littéraire européen, vol. 4a, Le Moyen Âge, de l'Oural à l'Atlantique. Littératures d'Europe orientale, De Boeck, 1993
  • Farshid Delshad, Studien zu den iranischen und semitischen Lehnwörtern im georgischen Nationalepos "Der Recke im Pantherfell", Iéna, 2002
  • Gijs Koolemans Beynen, "Adultery and Death in Shota Rustaveli's The Man in the Panther Skin", Courtly Arts and the Arts of Courtliness, 2004
  • M. Kveselava, Anthology of Georgian Poetry, Honolulu, University Press of the Pacific, 2001 (1st ed. 1948)
  • Nodar Asatiani & Alexandre Bendianashvili, Histoire de la Géorgie, Paris, l'Harmattan, 1997
  • A. Khakhanoff, «Abrégé de l'histoire et de la littérature géorgienne», dans Raphaël Isarloff, Histoire de Géorgie, Paris - Tbilissi, Charles Noblet - Librairie de la société géorgienne de lettres, 1900