The Lady of Shalott
"The Lady of Shalott" is a Victorian ballad by the English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892). Like his other early poems – "Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere" and "Galahad" – the poem recasts Arthurian subject matter loosely based on medieval sources. Tennyson wrote two versions of the poem, one published in 1833, of twenty stanzas, the other in 1842 of nineteen stanzas.
The poem was loosely based on the Arthurian legend of Elaine of Astolat, as recounted in a thirteenth-century Italian novella titled Donna di Scalotta (No. LXXXII in the collection Cento Novelle Antiche), with the earlier version being closer to the source material than the later. Tennyson focused on the Lady's "isolation in the tower and her decision to participate in the living world, two subjects not even mentioned in Donna di Scalotta."
The first four Stanzas of the 1842 poem describe a pastoral setting. The Lady of Shalott lives in an island castle in a river which flows to Camelot, but little is known about her by the local farmers.
- And by the moon the reaper weary,
- Piling sheaves in uplands airy,
- Listening, whispers, " 'Tis the fairy
- Lady of Shalott."
Stanzas five to eight describe the lady's life. She suffers from a mysterious curse, and must continually weave images on her loom without ever looking directly out at the world. Instead, she looks into a mirror, which reflects the busy road and the people of Camelot that pass by her island.
- She knows not what the curse may be,
- And so she weaveth steadily,
- And little other care hath she,
- The Lady of Shalott.
The reflected images are described as "shadows of the world", a metaphor that makes clear that they are a poor substitute for seeing directly ("I am half-sick of shadows".)
Stanzas nine to twelve describe "bold Sir Lancelot" as he rides by, and is seen by the lady.
- All in the blue unclouded weather
- Thick-jewell'd shone the saddle-leather,
- The helmet and the helmet-feather
- Burn'd like one burning flame together,
- As he rode down to Camelot.
The remaining seven stanzas describe the effect on the lady of seeing Lancelot; she stops weaving and looks out of her window toward Camelot, bringing about the curse.
- Out flew the web and floated wide-
- The mirror crack'd from side to side;
- "The curse is come upon me," cried
- The Lady of Shalott.
She leaves her tower, finds a boat upon which she writes her name, and floats down the river to Camelot. She dies before arriving at the palace. Among the knights and ladies who see her is Lancelot, who thinks she is lovely.
- "Who is this? And what is here?"
- And in the lighted palace near
- Died the sound of royal cheer;
- And they crossed themselves for fear,
- All the Knights at Camelot;
- But Lancelot mused a little space
- He said, "She has a lovely face;
- God in his mercy lend her grace,
- The Lady of Shalott."
According to scholar Anne Zanzucchi, "[i]n a more general sense, it is fair to say that the pre-Raphaelite fascination with Arthuriana is traceable to Tennyson's work". Tennyson's biographer Leonée Ormonde finds the Arthurian material is "Introduced as a valid setting for the study of the artist and the dangers of personal isolation".
Modern critics consider The Lady of Shalott to be representative of the dilemma that faces artists, writers, and musicians: to create work about and celebrate the world, or to enjoy the world by simply living in it. Feminist critics see the poem as concerned with issues of women's sexuality and their place in the Victorian world. Critics argue that "The Lady of Shallot" centers around the temptation of sexuality and her innocence preserved by death. Christine Poulson  discusses a feminist viewpoint and suggests: "the Lady of Shallott's escape from her tower as an act of defiance, a symbol of female empowerment...". Based on Poulson's view, escaping from the tower allows for the Lady of Shallott to emotionally break free and come into terms with female sexuality.
The depiction of death has also been interpreted as sleep. Critic Christine Poulson says that sleep has a connotation of physical abandonment and vulnerability, which can suggest either sexual fulfillment or be a metaphor for virginity. Fairytales, such as Sleeping Beauty or Snow White, have traditionally depended upon this association. So, as related to the Lady of Shallott, Poulson says that "for in death [she] has become a Sleeping Beauty who can never be wakened, symbols of perfect feminine passivity." 
The fact that the poem works through such complex and polyvalent symbolism indicates an important difference between Tennyson's work and his Arthurian source material.[original research?] While Tennyson's sources tended to work through allegory, Tennyson himself did not.
Critics such as Hatfield have suggested that The Lady of Shalott is a representation of how Tennyson viewed society; the distance at which other people are in the lady's eyes is symbolic of the distance he feels from society. The fact that she only sees them reflected through a mirror is significant of the way in which Shalott and Tennyson see the world—in a filtered sense. This distance is therefore linked to the artistic licence Tennyson often wrote about.
The poem was particularly popular amongst artists of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who shared Tennyson's interest in Arthuriana; several of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood made paintings based on episodes from the poem. There were two aspects, in particular, of 'The Lady of Shalott' that intrigued these artists, and those were the idea of the lady trapped in her tower and the dying girl floating down the river towards Camelot.
The 1857 Moxon's edition of Tennyson's works was illustrated by William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Hunt depicted the moment when the Lady turns to see Lancelot. In the background of the illustration, Hunt juxtaposes the window facing Lancelot with a painting of Christ's crucifixion. According to Christine Poulson, the Crucifixion is the archetype of self-sacrifise, and further emphasizes the ideal that the lady of Shallot fails to represent. Poulson also considers this representation of the subject in the context of changing women's roles in the 1880s and 1890s, suggesting that it served as a warning of imminent death to women who stepped from their restricted roles and explored their desires.
Rossetti depicted Lancelot's contemplation of her 'lovely face'. Neither illustration pleased Tennyson, who took Hunt to task for depicting the Lady caught in the threads of her tapestry, something which is not described in the poem. Hunt explained that he wanted to sum up the whole poem in a single image, and that the entrapment by the threads suggested her "weird fate". The scene fascinated Hunt, who returned to the composition at points throughout his life, finally painting a large scale version shortly before his death. He required assistants, as he was too frail to complete it himself. This deeply conceived evocation of the Lady, ensnared within the perfect rounds of her woven reality, is an apt illustration of the mythology of the weaving arts. This work is now in the collection of the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art in Hartford, Connecticut.
John William Waterhouse painted three episodes from the poem. In 1888, he painted the Lady setting out for Camelot in her boat; this work is now in the Tate Gallery. In 1894, Waterhouse painted the Lady at the climactic moment when she turns to look at Lancelot in the window; this work is now in the City Art Gallery in Leeds. Poulson argues that Waterhouse's impressionistic painting style in his 1894 rendering of 'The Lady of Shalott' evokes a "sense of vitality and urgency". In 1915, Waterhouse painted "I Am Half-Sick of Shadows," Said the Lady of Shalott, as she sits wistfully before her loom; this work is now in the Art Gallery of Ontario.
Because of the similarity in the stories, paintings of Elaine of Astolat tend to be very similar to paintings of the Lady of Shalott. The presence of a servant rowing the boat is one aspect that distinguishes them.
- The poem is alluded to in Oscar Wilde's 1890 novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, when Sibyl Vane says, "I have grown sick of shadows."
- Nancy Mitford referenced the Lady of Shalott in her 1949 novel Love in a Cold Climate.
- A character in Eric Frank Russell's novel Next of Kin (1959) quotes the poem.
- Miss Jean Brodie, in Muriel Spark's 1961 novel The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, reads the poem out loud to her class.
- Agatha Christie used the line "The mirror crack'd from side to side" to title her 1962 novel The Mirror Crack'd from Side to Side, and the poem plays a large part in the plot.
- The Lady of Shalott is referenced several times in Bel Kaufman's 1965 novel Up the Down Staircase.
- Jessica Anderson uses the line "'Tirra lirra,' by the river" to title her 1978 novel Tirra Lirra by the River.
- Sharyn McCrumb's first published novel was a murder mystery titled Sick Of Shadows.
- Robin Klein uses the line "All in the blue unclouded weather" to title her 1991 short story collection All in the Blue Unclouded Weather.
- In Diana Wynne Jones' 1993 novel Hexwood, one of the main characters, Ann Stavely, compares herself to the Lady of Shalott in that she uses a mirror to look outside her window.
- Patricia A. McKillip uses an adaptation of the poem as a primary theme of her 2000 novel The Tower at Stony Wood.
- The poem is discussed and quoted in Libba Bray's 2003 novel A Great and Terrible Beauty.
- A stanza is located at the beginning of each chapter in Meg Cabot's 2005 novel Avalon High.
- The poem is referenced in Jilly Cooper's 2006 novel Wicked! where the phrase The curse is upon me is given a humorous re-interpretation in an English Literature class scene.
- Lisa Ann Sandell's 2007 novel Song of the Sparrow is a retelling of her story.
- Alan C. Bradley uses the line "I am half-sick of shadows" to title his book I Am Half-Sick of Shadows (2011).
- In Jasper Fforde's 2011 novel One of our Thursdays Is Missing, the Lady of Shalott possesses a mirror that allows characters in the Book World to see into the real world ("the Outland").
- Sarah Gridley's 2013 poetry collection entitled Loom is heavily influenced by The Lady of Shalott.
- The Lady of Shalott is featured on the Seven of Mirrors tarot card in the Chrysalis Tarot deck.
- The poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson is used for narration and as a narrative device in the one short story "Camelot Garden" written by manga author Kaori Yuki.
- In the title of her short story "Save the Reaper" (1998), Alice Munro alludes to the ballad's lines "Only the reapers, reaping early" and "And by the moon the reaper weary" respectively.
- In the tale of the "Three Weavers", a fairy tale embedded in chapter XIV of the children's book The Little Colonel at Boarding-School (1903) by Annie Fellows Johnston, the Lady of Shalott is mentioned.
- The first was probably a setting for chorus and orchestra by the English composer Cyril Rootham, composed in 1909–10. The only known performance of this work was given in the School Hall at Eton College on 18 September 1999, with the Broadheath Singers and the Windsor Sinfonia conducted by Robert Tucker.
- French composer Olivier Messiaen wrote a piece for solo piano La dame de Shalotte in 1917 based on Tennyson's poem.
- Popular folk duo the Indigo Girls reference the Lady of Shalott in the song "Left Me a Fool" (first released on their 1987 album Strange Fire). Lamenting the lack of depth and substance she finds when getting to know a beautiful lover, the singer sings "you remind me of Shalott, only made of shadows, even though you're not."
- Canadian singer Loreena McKennitt adapted the poem to music, and featured it on her 1991 album, The Visit.
- British musician and singer, Richard Thompson, took the title for his 1994 album "Mirror Blue" from the poem: 'And sometimes thro' the mirror blue/ The knights come riding two and two.'
- Composer Jon Parr Vijinski wrote a symphonic tone poem entitled The Lady of Shalott (2001). His use of thematic material, complex harmonies, and rich orchestral colour seek to link the story to its mediaeval source, and the spirit of chivalry – such as de Troyes, von Eschenbach and Malory.
- Israeli progressive rock group "Atmosphera", recorded a 16 minute epic named "Lady of Shalott" about the ballad. the recording was never released until 2002 on the band's only album which was recorded in the 70s.
- Dutch gothic metal band Autumn also reference the Lady of Shalott in the songs "Who Has Seen Her Wave Her Hand", "Mirrors Magic Sights", "When Lust Evokes the Curse", "Floating Towards Distress" and, arguably "Behind the Walls of Her Desire" from their 2002 album When Lust Evokes the Curse. Each song retelling parts of the story from the poem.
- The song titled "Shalott" on Emilie Autumn's 2006 album Opheliac tells the poem from her own perspective, where she quotes the Lady of Shalott as saying "But then, I could have guessed it all along, 'cause now some drama queen is gonna write a song for me." She uses imagery from the poem, and quotes it directly: "I'm half sick of shadows".
- Swedish pop band The Cardigans reference the poem with the line 'Mirror cracked from side to side' in a bonus track on the UK edition of Super Extra Gravity, entitled 'Give Me Your Eyes'.
- The country music video, If I Die Young, by The Band Perry has clear visual references to the Lady of Shalott. Lead vocalist Kimberly Perry holds a book of poems by Tennyson as she lies in a boat, floating down a river like the Lady of Shalott. As her recumbent form within the boat drifts downstream, Perry sings:
Sink me in the river, at dawn
Send me away with the words of a love song
The boat in the Perry video is similar to some illustrations, such as the image by W. E. F. Britten. The very last scene of the video shows a close-up of two pages of the poem.
- Read aloud in an episode of Upstairs, Downstairs titled "The Understudy." (1975)
- In the 1985 television adaptation of Lucy Maud Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables, Anne Shirley reads various stanzas of the poem and acts out the Lady of Shalott's tragic end as she floats down the river; lines from Tennyson's "Lancelot and Elaine" are also referenced. In the book, the poem enacted is consistently "Lancelot and Elaine".
- In the ITV series Lewis (Inspector Lewis in the US), episode titled "Old, Unhappy, Far Off Things" (2011), D.S. Hathaway quotes the line "Out flew the web and floated wide".
- This poem forms the backbone of voice-over for the episode "Tracie's Story" (2012) from BBC1 Drama Accused starring Sean Bean as a transgender woman in a highly destructive relationship with a married man.
- In the ITV series Endeavour, the eponymous Endeavour Morse is heard reading part of the poem aloud in "Girl" (2013).
- In the Episode one of the 1995 BBC Production of The Buccaneers, Laura Testvalley (Cheire Lunghi) reads part of it to Annabel St. George. (Carla Gugino). The Lady of Shalott does not appear on the original book by Edith Wharton.
- Potwin, L.S. (December 1902). "The Source of Tennyson's The Lady of Shalott". Modern Language Notes (Modern Language Notes, Vol. 17, No. 8) 17 (8): 237–239. doi:10.2307/2917812. JSTOR 2917812.
- Zanzucchi, Anne. "The Camelot Project at the University of Rochester: Alfred Lord Tennyson". Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- Poulson, Christine. Death and the Maiden: The Lady of Shallot and the Pre-Raphaelites. pp. 173–194. Check date values in:
- Poulson, Christine (1995). "Death and the Maiden: The Lady of Shalott and the Pre-Raphaelites". Reframing the Pre-Raphaelites: 173–194.
- Poulson, Christine (1995). Death and the Maiden: The Lady of Shallot and the Pre-Raphaelites. Aldershot, UK: Scolar Press. pp. 173 – 194.
- Poulson, Christine (1995). Reframing the Pre-Raphaelites. Aldershot, England: Scolar Press. p. 173.
- Poulson, Christine. "Death and the Maiden: The Lady of Shalott and the Pre-Raphaelites". Reframing the Pre-Raphaelites: 183.
- Mitford, Nancy. Love in a Cold Climate. London: Penguin Books, 1954. 138. Print.
- Spark, Muriel. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. London: MacMillan and Company Limited, 1961. 4, 23–24. Print.
- Isla Duncan, Alice Munro's Narrative Art, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2011, ISBN 978-0-230-33857-9 (hardcover), ISBN 978-1-137-00068-2 (ebook), p. 85–86.
- Music video by The Band Perry performing If I Die Young. 2010. Republic Nashville Records.
- Thomas L. Jeffers, "Nice Threads: Tennyson’s Lady of Shalott as Artist,” Yale Review 89 (Fall 2001), 54–68.
- Thomas L. Jeffers, “Tennyson’s Lady of Shalott and Pre-Raphaelite Renderings: Statement and Counter-Statement,” Religion and the Arts 6:3 (2002), 231-
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Lady of Shalott.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Text of the Poem
- Side-by-side comparison of the 1833 & 1842 versions of Tennyson's poem (provided by The Camelot Project at the University of Rochester)
- The story as found in Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur
- "Lancelot and Elaine"
- Tennyson's The Lady of Shalott: an overview (includes e-text)
- Anne Zanzucchi, "Alfred Lord Tennyson"
- The Lady of Shalott film adaptation by WAG Screen.
- The Lady of Shalott set to music From the 1990 concept album "Tyger and Other Tales"
- "If I Die Young" on YouTube
- Jon Parr Vijinski The Lady of Shalott – A Symphonic Tone Poem on YouTube
- "La dama di Shalott nella traduzione di Gabriella Rouf.". Il Covile. 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2013. (Italian)