The Layer Monument
Located in the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Maddermarket, Norwich, the Layer monument is an early 17th century marble, polychrome mural monument (350 X 350 cm) installed circa 1600 to the memory of the lawyer and civic dignitary Christopher Layer (1533 - 1600). Its inscription translated from Latin reads-
This Urn of cold marble covers Christopher Layer who bore Christ in his heart along with Imperial Minds, Numa known for his justice, Fabius for his legal robe, and Cato for his strict morals. He had seen thrice twenty and thrice three years when he gave his body to be covered by the earth. He was great in years but greater with much honour, for twice he was Mayor of Norwich. His dearest wife bore him five daughters and three sons when she became a sad relic with a widow's bed. But two sons died and the one who survived his father placed here this tomb. Father died 19 June 1600 Mother died 23 January 1604.
The monument in unusual on two accounts, firstly, its four symbolic personifications each situated in individual niches on its two pilasters, Pax and Gloria, Vanitas and Labor, are rare examples of Northern Mannerist sculpture extant in Britain; secondly, its four figurines collectively are exemplary of how during the era of Elizabeth I Christian iconography integrated symbolism originating from the western esoteric traditions of alchemy and astrology into art such as the funerary monument. 
The Layer monument shares a number of iconographical details to an illustration found in a best-selling foundation book of chemistry Alchemia (1606) in a chapter entitled De Lapide Philosophorum by the German chemist Andreas Libavius.
Collectively the Layer monument's four figurines are a unique example of the quaternio of an alchemical mandala.  Through symbolic polarity they delineate essential coordinates associated with Mandala art, namely Space (Heaven and Earth) and Time (Young and Old). Through their multiplicity and variety, key attributes of Northern Mannerist art, they also delineate fundamental aspects of the human condition, gender, youth and age and Pleasure and Suffering; a fifth or quintessential element lays at the very centre of the monument and the commonest of all momento mori symbols in funerary art, a skull, which in the case of the Layer Monument is also the kernel or Vas Philosophorum of the whole mandala.
The role of the Quaternity in religious symbolism is discussed at length by the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. In essence, the Layer monument's four symbolic figurines represent spiritual entities which agree with Jung's analytical psychology, that the psyche moves toward individuation in fours (made up of pairs of opposites) and that the Christian Trinity could be improved upon by the quaternity, with the inclusion of missing, 'inferior', or suppressed aspects of the psyche, such as either the feminine or evil, for example, to more fully represent psychic totality.   
- Frances Yates The Occult Philosophy in Elizabethan England pub. RKP 1973
- Adam McLean The Alchemical Mandala pub. Phanes 1989
- C.G. Jung 'The Quaternio and the mediating role of Mercurius' CW Vol. 14 para. 5 - 13 pub. RKP 1955
- Carl Jung 'The Quaternity of the Homo Maximus' C.W Vol. 13 para. 206 -209 pub. RKP 1968
- The Layer monument: An Introduction and interpretation as an Alchemical Mandala. Kevin Faulkner pub. Pride Press 2013
- The Layer Monument