A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus
|A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus|
Title page of Vol. I, UK first edition, 1828
|Publisher||John Murray (UK)
G. & C. Carvill (USA)
|Media type||Print (Hardback)|
|Preceded by||Tales of a Traveller|
|Followed by||Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada|
A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus is a biographical account of Christopher Columbus, one of the first examples of American historical fiction and one of several attempts at national myth-making undertaken by American writers and poets of the 19th century, written by Washington Irving in 1828 and published in four volumes in Britain and in three volumes in the United States. The work was the most popular biographical account of Columbus in the English-speaking world until the publication of Samuel Eliot Morison's biography Admiral of the Ocean Sea in 1942.
Irving was invited to Madrid to translate Spanish-language source material on Columbus into English. Irving decided instead to use the sources to write his own four volume biography and history. Irving employed 19th century critical methods, but much of his material has been changed by modern research.
Historians have noted Irving's "active imagination" and called some aspects of his work "fanciful and sentimental." Literary critics have noted that Irving "...saw American history as a useful means of establishing patriotism in his readers, and while his language tended to be more general, his avowed intention toward Columbus was thoroughly nationalist. From Irving's preface to the work, however, a contradictory intent emerges, that of the desire to write an accurate history: "In the execution of this work I have avoided indulging in mere speculations or general reflections, excepting such as rose naturally out of the subject, preferring to give a minute and circumstantial narrative, omitting no particular that appeared characteristic of the persons, the events, or the times; and endeavoring to place every fact in such a point of view, that the reader might perceive its merits, and draw his own maxims and conclusions" (I, 12-13). The critic William L. Hedges, in "Irving's Columbus: The Problem of Romantic Biography," argues: "To a large extent [Irving] may have been unconscious of his approach to history. And consciously he could not formulate his intentions except in stock phrases.".
One glaring weakness, then, of the work as a historical biography, is the enduring mythic assertion that it was only the voyages of Columbus that finally convinced Europeans of his time that the Earth is not flat. In truth, no educated or influential member of medieval society believed the Earth to be flat. The idea of a spherical Earth had long been espoused in the classical tradition and was inherited by medieval academics. That people believed otherwise was listed in 1945 by the Historical Association (of Britain) as the second of 20 in a pamphlet on common errors in history.
From the perspective of constructivist literary critique, "[m]ost of the critics who react this way, however, attack the work with counterevidence that is already present in Irving's text. The problem with the biography, therefore, is not that Irving presented only a partial portrait but rather that, in his ambivalence about the character of his hero and the imperialism that established the American colonies, as well as in his confusion about the function of historical writing, he created two portraits of Columbus" 
- Provost, Foster (1991). Columbus: An Annotated Guide to the Scholarship on His Life and Writings, 1750 to 1988. Detroit: Omnigraphics. p. 44. ISBN 1-55888-157-3.
- Jones, Brian (2008). Washington Irving. City: Arcade Publishing. p. 240ff. ISBN 1-55970-836-0.
- Shreve, Jack (January 1991). "Christopher Columbus: A Bibliographic Voyage". Choice 29: 703–711.
- Hazlett, John D. "Literary Nationalism and Ambivalence in Washington Irving's The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus." American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography 55.4 (1983): 560-575.
- Hedges, William L. "Irving's Columbus: The Problem of Romantic Biography," The Americas, 13 (Oct. 1956), 129
- Russell, Jeffrey (1991). Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0275939561.
- Members of the Historical Association (1945). Common errors in history. General Series, G.1. London: P.S. King & Staples for the Historical Association., pp.4–5. The Historical Association published a second list of 17 other common errors in 1947.
- Hazlett, John D. "Literary Nationalism and Ambivalence in Washington Irving's The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus." American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography 55.4 (1983): 564.
- A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Vol. I online at the Internet Archive
- A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Vol. II online at the Internet Archive
- A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Vol. III online at the Internet Archive
- A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Vol. IV online at the Internet Archive