The Long Goodbye (film)

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The Long Goodbye
theatrical release poster
Directed by Robert Altman
Produced by Elliott Kastner
Jerry Bick
Screenplay by Leigh Brackett
Story by Raymond Chandler
Starring Elliott Gould
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Vilmos Zsigmond
Editing by Lou Lombardo
Distributed by United Artists
Release dates
  • March 7, 1973 (1973-03-07)
Running time 112 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1.7 million

The Long Goodbye is a 1973 neo noir, directed by Robert Altman and based on Raymond Chandler's 1953 novel of the same name. The screenplay was written by Leigh Brackett, who co-wrote the screenplay for The Big Sleep in 1946. The film stars Elliott Gould as Philip Marlowe, and features Sterling Hayden, Nina Van Pallandt, Jim Bouton and Mark Rydell.

The story's time period was updated from 1949/1950 to 1970s Hollywood. The Long Goodbye has been described as "a study of a moral and decent man cast adrift in a selfish, self-obsessed society where lives can be thrown away without a backward glance ... and any notions of friendship and loyalty are meaningless."[1]


Late one night, private investigator Philip Marlowe is visited by his close friend, Terry Lennox, who asks for a lift from Los Angeles to the CaliforniaMexico border at Tijuana. He obliges.

On returning home, Marlowe is met by two police department detectives, who accuse Lennox of having murdered his rich wife, Sylvia. Marlowe refuses to give them any information, so they arrest him. After three days in jail, the police release him, because Lennox committed suicide in Mexico. It is an open-and-shut case to the police and the press, but the "official facts" do not sit right with Marlowe.

In the meantime, Marlowe is hired by Eileen Wade, the platinum-blonde trophy wife of Roger Wade, an alcoholic novelist with writers' block, whose macho, Hemingway-like persona is proving self-destructive. She asks that Marlowe find her husband, who, despite such regular alcoholic binges and days-long disappearances from their Malibu home, now seems to be missing.

In the course of investigating Mrs. Wade's missing-husband case — visiting the sub-culture of "private" detoxification clinics for rich alcoholics and drug addicts — Marlowe learns that the Wades "knew" the Lennoxes socially. He is increasingly convinced that there is more to Terry's suicide and the murder of Sylvia.

Marlowe incurs the wrath of ruthless gangster Marty Augustine, who wants money returned that Lennox owed him. Augustine viciously injures his own mistress just to demonstrate what could happen to Marlowe, saying: "That's someone I love. You, I don't even like."

The return of Augustine's money in the nick of time frees Marlowe to take a second trip to Mexico, where he ultimately uncovers the truth of what happened between Terry and Sylvia Lennox.


Changes from the novel[edit]

The story and plot of the 1973 cinematic adaptation deviate drastically from those of the 1953 novel; screenplay writer Leigh Brackett took many literary liberties with the story, plot, and characters of The Long Goodbye in adapting it. In a major plot and character departure from the novel, at the film's end, Philip Marlowe kills his best friend, Terry Lennox. The father of millionairess Sylvia Lennox is not in the film's storyline; Roger Wade's murder is a suicide in the film; and gangster Marty Augustine and his subplots are entirely cinematic creations.

The Long Goodbye satirizes the changes in culture between the 1950s, when the private detective genre was popular, and the 1970s, when the film was released; a making-of featurette on the DVD is entitled "Rip van Marlowe,″ to emphasize the contrast between Marlowe's anachronistically 50s behavior with the film's 1970s setting. One cliche of the genre invoked in the film is culled from the original novel when Marlowe, under police interrogation, asks "Is this where I'm supposed to say, 'What's all this about?', and he says, 'Shut up! I ask the questions'?"[2] Marlowe's chain-smoking, contrasted with a health-conscious California in which no one else in the movie smokes, is cited as another example of Marlowe's incongruity with his surroundings.

The American iconography that Chandler laid down in his novels is maintained in the film. In addition to the 1948 Lincoln Continental Convertible Cabriolet that Marlowe drives, Gould also wears a tie with American flags on it (the tie looks plain red in the movie due to cinematographer Vilmos Zsigmond's post-flashing).[3]


Producers Jerry Bick and Elliott Kastner bought the cinematic rights to The Long Goodbye novel and made a production deal with the United Artists distribution company.[4] They commissioned the screenplay from Leigh Brackett who had written the script for the Humphrey Bogart version of The Big Sleep. The producers offered the script to both Howard Hawks and Peter Bogdanovich to direct it. Both refused the offer, but Bogdanovich recommended Robert Altman, who, initially, was uninterested, until allowed to cast Elliott Gould as Philip Marlowe — despite the producers' original choices being Robert Mitchum and Lee Marvin.[4]

United Artists president David Picker may have picked Gould to play Marlowe as a ploy to get Altman to direct. At the time, Gould was in professional disfavor because of his rumored troubles on the set of A Glimpse of Tiger, in which he bickered with co-star Kim Darby, fought with director Anthony Harvey, and acted erratically. Consequently, he had not worked in nearly two years; nevertheless, Altman convinced Bick that Gould suited the role.[4] United Artists had Elliott Gould undergo the usual employment medical examination and a psychological examination attesting to his mental stability.[5]

Jim Bouton, cast as Marlowe's friend Terry Lennox, was not an actor. He was a former Major League Baseball pitcher and the author of the best-selling book Ball Four.


In adapting Chandler's book, Leigh Brackett had problems with its plot which she felt was "riddled with cliches" and was faced with the choice of making it a period piece or updating it.[6] Altman received a copy of the script while shooting Images in Ireland. He liked the ending because it was so out of character for Marlowe. He agreed to direct but only if the ending was not changed.[7] Altman and Brackett spent a lot of time talking over the plot. Altman wanted Marlowe to be a loser. He even nicknamed Gould's character Rip Van Marlowe, as if he had been asleep for 20 years, had woken up, and was wandering around Los Angeles in the early 1970s but "trying to invoke the morals of a previous era".[8] Her first draft was too long and she shortened it but the ending was inconclusive.[6] She had Marlowe shooting Terry Lennox.[9] Altman conceived of the film as a satire and made several changes to the script, like having Roger Wade commit suicide and having Marty Augustine smash a Coke bottle across his girlfriend's face.[9] Altman said, "it was supposed to get the attention of the audience and remind them that, in spite of Marlowe, there is a real world out there, and it is a violent world".[10]

Principal photography[edit]

Altman did not read all of Chandler's book and instead utilized Raymond Chandler Speaking, a collection of letters and essays. He gave copies of this book to the cast and crew, advising them to study the author's literary essays.[9] The opening scene with Philip Marlowe and his cat came from a story a friend of Altman's told him about his cat only eating one type of cat food. Altman saw it as a comment on friendship.[7] The director decided that the camera should never stop moving and put it on a dolly.[11] However, the camera movements would counter the actions of the characters so that the audience would feel like a voyeur. To compensate for the harsh light of southern California, Altman gave the film a soft, pastel look reminiscent of old postcards from the 1940s.[11] When it came to the scenes between Philip Marlowe and Roger Wade, Altman had Elliott Gould and Sterling Hayden ad-lib most of their dialogue[9] because, according to the director, Hayden was drunk and stoned on marijuana most of the time. Altman had originally wanted Dan Blocker for the role of Wade, but Blocker died just before principal photography began.[12] He was, however, reportedly thrilled by Hayden's performance despite him being second choice to Blocker. Altman's Malibu Colony home was used as the location for scenes which took place in Wade's house.


The soundtrack of The Long Goodbye features two songs, "Hooray for Hollywood" and the eponymous "The Long Goodbye," composed by John Williams and Johnny Mercer. It was Altman's idea to have every occurrence of that song arranged differently, from hippie chant, to supermarket muzak, to radio music, effectively achieving the correct mood for the hero's encounters with eccentric Californians, while pursuing his case.[13]

Critical reception[edit]

The Long Goodbye was previewed at the Tarrytown Conference Center in Tarrytown, New York. The gala was hosted by Judith Crist, then the film critic for New York magazine.[10] The film was not well received by the audience except for Nina van Pallandt's performance. Altman attended a Q&A session afterwards and the mood was "vaguely hostile", leaving the director reportedly "depressed".[10]

The Long Goodbye was not well received by critics during its limited release in Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Miami.[10] Time magazine's Jay Cocks wrote, "Altman's lazy, haphazard putdown is without affection or understanding, a nose-thumb not only at the idea of Philip Marlowe but at the genre that his tough-guy-soft-heart character epitomized. It is a curious spectacle to see Altman mocking a level of achievement to which, at his best, he could only aspire".[15] As a result, the New York opening was canceled at the last minute after several advance screenings had already been held for the press. The film was abruptly withdrawn from release with rumors that it would be re-edited.[10] They[who?] analyzed the reviews for six months, concluding that the reason for the film's failure was the misleading advertising campaign in which it was promoted as a "detective story" and spent $40,000 [16] on a new release campaign, which included a poster by Mad magazine artist Jack Davis.[17]

The Long Goodbye was re-released and in his review for The New York Times, Vincent Canby wrote, "it's an original work, complex without being obscure, visually breathtaking without seeming to be inappropriately fancy".[18] Roger Ebert gave the film three out of four stars and praised Elliott Gould's "good performance, particularly the virtuoso ten-minute stretch at the beginning of the movie when he goes out to buy food for his cat. Gould has enough of the paranoid in his acting style to really put over Altman's revised view of the private eye".[19] Pauline Kael's lengthy review in "The New Yorker" ("Movieland-The Bums' Paradise," October 22, 1973), called the film "a high-flying rap on Chandler and the movies," hailed Elliot Gould's performance as "his best yet," and praised Altman for achieving "a self-mocking fairy-tale poetry."

Despite Kael's effusive endorsement and its influence among younger critics,The Long Goodbye remained unpopular, and earned poorly in the rest of the U.S.; nevertheless, The New York Times listed The Long Goodbye in its "Ten Best List" for film for that year,[17] while Vilmos Zsigmond was awarded the National Society of Film Critics' prize as Best Cinematographer.[20] Ebert later ranked it among his "Great Movies" collection and wrote, "Most of its effect comes from the way it pushes against the genre, and the way Altman undermines the premise of all private eye movies, which is that the hero can walk down mean streets, see clearly, and tell right from wrong".[19]


  1. ^ O'Brien, Daniel. "Robert Altman: Hollywood Survivor."
  2. ^ The Long Goodbye, Houghton Mifflin, p. 28
  3. ^ Rip Van Marlowe, Director Greg Carson, 2002.
  4. ^ a b c McGilligan 1989, p. 360.
  5. ^ McGilligan 1989, p. 361.
  6. ^ a b McGilligan 1989, p. 363.
  7. ^ a b Thompson 2005, p. 75.
  8. ^ Thompson 2005, p. 76.
  9. ^ a b c d McGilligan 1989, p. 364.
  10. ^ a b c d e McGilligan 1989, p. 365.
  11. ^ a b Thompson 2005, p. 77.
  12. ^ Thompson 2005, p. 78.
  13. ^ Thompson 2005, p. 80.
  14. ^ "The Long Goodbye: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack". Quartet Records. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  15. ^ Cocks, Jay (April 9, 1973). "A Curious Spectacle". Time. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  16. ^ Gardner, Paul (November 8, 1973). "Long Goodbye Proves a Big Sleeper Here". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ a b McGilligan 1989, p. 367.
  18. ^ Canby, Vincent (November 18, 1973). "For The Long Goodbye A Warm Hello". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (March 7, 1973). "The Long Goodbye". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  20. ^ McGilligan 1989, p. 362.
  • McGilligan, Patrick. Robert Altman: Jumping off the Cliff. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
  • Thompson, David. Altman on Altman. London: Faber and Faber. 2005.

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