The Long Winter (novel)
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|Author||Laura Ingalls Wilder|
|Genre||Historical fiction, Junior fiction|
|Publisher||Harper & Brothers|
|ISBN||0-06-026461-6 (lib. bdg.); 0060264608|
|Preceded by||By the Shores of Silver Lake|
|Followed by||Little Town on the Prairie|
The Long Winter is a Newbery Honor novel by Laura Ingalls Wilder, first published in 1940. The story is set in South Dakota during the severe winter of 1880–1881, when Laura turned fourteen. It is the sixth book in the Little House series.
On a hot August day in the 1880s, at the Ingalls homestead in Dakota Territory, Laura offers to help stack hay to feed their stock in the winter. As they work, Laura notices a muskrat den in the nearby Big Slough. Upon inspecting the den, Pa notes that the walls are the thickest he has ever seen, and fears the upcoming winter will be a hard one.
In mid-October, the Ingallses wake to an unusually early blizzard howling around their poorly insulated claim shanty. Soon afterward, Pa receives another warning from an unexpected source: an old Native American man comes to the general store in town to warn the white settlers that there will be seven months of blizzards. Pa decides to move the family into his store building in town for the winter.
In town, Laura attends school with her younger sister, Carrie, until the weather becomes too unpredictable to permit them to walk to and from the school building, and coal too scarce to keep the school heated. Blizzard after blizzard sweeps through the town over the next few months. Food and fuel become scarce and expensive, as the town depends on trains to bring supplies but the frequent blizzards prevent the trains from getting through. Eventually, the railroad company suspends all efforts to dig out the trains that are snowed in at Tracy, stranding the town until spring.
With no more coal or wood, the family learns to use twisted hay for fuel. For weeks, the Ingallses subsist on potatoes and coarse brown bread made from wheat ground in their coffee mill. As even this meager food runs out, Laura's future husband Almanzo Wilder and his friend Cap Garland hear rumors that a settler raised wheat at a claim twenty miles from town. They risk their lives to bring sixty bushels of wheat to the starving townspeople – enough to last the rest of the winter.
As predicted, the blizzards continue for seven months. Finally, the spring thaw comes and trains begin running again, bringing the Ingallses their long-delayed Christmas barrel from Reverend Alden, containing clothes, presents, and a Christmas turkey. With the long winter finally over, the family enjoys their long-delayed Christmas celebration in May.
Allusions/references to actual history, geography and current science
Wilder was, by her own admission, a writer of historical fiction. Most of the people, places and events she describes are actually from her own life, but she sometimes juxtaposed events and compressed characters in the interest of good storytelling. The Long Winter, however, contains far less fiction than her other books; it is, for the most part, an accurate description of that winter in De Smet. The Long Winter runs from the fall of 1880 to the spring of 1881, a season of such frequent blizzards that it went down in history as "The Snow Winter". Accurate details in Wilder's novel include the names of the townspeople (with only minor exceptions), the blizzards' frequency and the deep cold, the Chicago and North Western Railway stopping trains until the spring thaw when the snow made the tracks impassable, the near-starvation of the townspeople, and the courage of Almanzo Wilder and Cap Garland, who ventured out on the open prairie in search of a cache of wheat that no one was even sure existed.
The fictionalized material includes the "Indian warning" in an early chapter and the duration and frequency of blizzards. While historical records indicate a larger than usual number of blizzards that winter, Laura's description of storms lasting on average three days each, with only two to two-and-a-half days separation, from late October until early April, would imply about 35 separate blizzards during that time frame, which may be dramatic license. Local oral history and research by Ingalls' biographers also indicate that Wilder and Garland traveled about 12 miles south of De Smet to find the wheat, not 20 as she states in the book. Almanzo Wilder is portrayed as being roughly six years older than Laura, when he was in fact ten years older. Aside from these minor variations, however, the book is an accurate portrayal of that legendary winter in Dakota Territory.
Editing of the novel
Laura's editor for her Little House books was her daughter Rose Wilder Lane, well-known author and journalist and a prolific ghost writer. John E. Miller, in his biography Becoming Laura Ingalls Wilder, discusses extensive correspondence between Laura and Rose during the editing process, and includes facsimiles of that correspondence.
- Laskin, David The Children's Blizzard. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. pp. 56-7; Potter, Constance 'Genealogy Notes: De Smet, Dakota Territory, Little Town in the National Archives, Part 2 Prologue Winter 2003, Vol. 35, No. 4; Robinson, Doane History of South Dakota (1904) Vol. I Chapter III pp.306-309