The Lucy Show
|The Lucy Show|
The Lucy Show logo used since season 3
|Also known as||The Lucille Ball Show
This Is Lucy
The New Adventures of Lucy
|Created by||Bob Carroll, Jr.
|Directed by||Maury Thompson
Mary Jane Croft
|Narrated by||Roy Rowan|
|Theme music composer||Wilbur Hatch|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||6|
|No. of episodes||156 (List of episodes)|
|Executive producer(s)||Desi Arnaz (1962)
Elliott Lewis (1962-1964)
|Producer(s)||Elliott Lewis (1962)
|Running time||30 minutes|
|Production company(s)||Desilu Productions (1962-1967)
Paramount Television (1967-1968)
|Distributor||CBS Television Distribution|
|Picture format||Black-and-white (1962-1963)
|Original run||October 1, 1962– March 11, 1968|
|Preceded by||The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour|
|Followed by||Here's Lucy|
The Lucy Show is an American sitcom that aired on CBS from 1962–68. It was Lucille Ball's follow-up to I Love Lucy. A significant change in cast and premise for the 1965–66 season divides the program into two distinct eras; aside from Ball, only Gale Gordon, who joined the program for its second season, remained. For the first three seasons, Vivian Vance was the co-star.
The earliest scripts were entitled The Lucille Ball Show, but when this title was declined, producers thought of calling the show This Is Lucy or The New Adventures of Lucy, before deciding on the title The Lucy Show. Ball won consecutive Emmy Awards as Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series for the series' final two seasons, 1966–67 and 1967–68.
In 1962, two years after Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz divorced and the final episode of The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour aired (using the I Love Lucy format), Desilu Studios was struggling. In the spring of 1961, three Desilu-produced situation comedies were canceled - The Ann Sothern Show; Angel, a sitcom starring Marshall Thompson and French actress Annie Farge; and Guestward, Ho! starring Joanne Dru and Mark Miller. After a two-year run, the comedy series, Pete and Gladys starring Harry Morgan and Cara Williams, was canceled in the spring of 1962. The red-headed Williams had been promoted as the next Lucille Ball. At that time, Desilu was left with only one hit series, The Untouchables.
Arnaz, as President of Desilu Studios, offered Ball an opportunity to return to television in a weekly sitcom. At that time, CBS executives were somewhat dubious as to whether Ball could carry a show without Arnaz, and whether she could follow such a landmark series as I Love Lucy. It was "never intended for this program to go beyond a single season." [[[:Template:On pg. 147 in The Lucy Book by Geoffrey Mark Fidelman (Published by Renaissance Books), the author makes this statement.]]] This arrangement was "meant to be a stop-gap measure for the beleaguered studio" and that through the sale of this series, Desilu was able to "force the CBS network to invest in and air other upcoming Desilu products." [[[:Template:On page 147 in The Lucy Book by Geoffrey Mark Fidelman (Published by Renaissance Books), the author makes this statement.]]] It was a strategy that Ball herself would use in the future to take control of The Lucy Show's renewal from CBS. With Arnaz's encouragement and persuasion, Ball agreed to do the show, provided it be shown on Monday nights (the night on which I Love Lucy had aired) and that she would be reunited with Vivian Vance and her writers from I Love Lucy. CBS agreed to a full season of episodes and The Lucy Show premiered on Monday night, October 1, 1962, at 8:30 p.m.
The show began with Lucille Ball as Lucy Carmichael, a widow with two children, Chris (Candy Moore), and Jerry (Jimmy Garrett), living in the fictional city of Danfield, New York, sharing her home with divorced friend Vivian Bagley (Vance) and her son, Sherman (Ralph Hart). In order to get Vance to commit to the series, Arnaz acquiesced to her demands for an increase in salary; co-star billing with Ball; a more attractive wardrobe; and, finally, that her character's name be Vivian. After doing I Love Lucy, she was still being called Ethel by people on the street, much to her unhappiness. Although the book on which the show was based (Irene Kampen's Life Without George) centered on two divorcées living together in the same house raising their children, it was decided early on that the Lucy Carmichael character should instead be a widow. The consensus was that fans would be offended with a Lucy who was divorced, despite the fact that this was a new character. The character of Vivian Bagley became television's first divorced woman.
In the show's original format, Lucy had been left with a substantial trust fund by her late husband, which was managed during the first season by local banker Mr. Barnsdahl (Charles Lane). Comedian Dick Martin, working solo from his longtime partner Dan Rowan, was cast in ten episodes as Lucy's next-door neighbor, Harry Connors, during the show's first season. Character actor Don Briggs was also featured in six episodes as Viv's beau, Eddie Collins, and Tom Lowell, a young actor seen on various primetime television shows, appeared in three installments as Chris Carmichael's boyfriend, Alan Harper. The first season of The Lucy Show fully utilized the talents of Bob Carroll, Jr., Madelyn Martin, Bob Schiller, and Bob Weiskopf (the original writers of I Love Lucy) in creating the first season's classic thirty episodes, and it also featured Desi Arnaz as executive producer for fifteen of the first season's thirty shows. At the end of its first season, The Lucy Show received rave reviews from the critics and ranked #5 in the Nielsen ratings. Ball was nominated for an Emmy Award as Best Actress in a Series, but lost to Shirley Booth for the NBC comedy hit Hazel. Bolstered by great ratings, the series was renewed for a second year, but many changes were made.
At the beginning of the 1963-1964 season, Desi Arnaz resigned as head of Desilu and as the executive producer of The Lucy Show. Ball took over as President of the studio and Elliott Lewis replaced Arnaz as executive producer of Ball's series. Dick Martin, Don Briggs, Tom Lowell, and Charles Lane left the show. The characters of Harry Connors and Alan Harper were never mentioned again. Briggs would make one more appearance as Eddie Collins in the episode "Lucy Goes Duck Hunting". The Barnsdahl character was replaced by Theodore J. Mooney, played by Gale Gordon, who would remain with the series for the remainder of its run, surviving the format change. In the episode "Lucy Gets Locked in the Vault", Gordon's character is introduced when Lucy discovers that Mr. Barnsdahl has been transferred to another bank and that the management of her trust fund has been taken over by a new banker. The name "Theodore Mooney" had been used earlier by the actor George Cisar, who was cast as a police sergeant on thirty-one episodes of Gordon's other CBS sitcom, Dennis the Menace.
Gordon had worked with Ball as far back as 1938 on the CBS radio program The Wonder Show and later worked with her on another radio show, My Favorite Husband. When CBS retooled My Favorite Husband for television as I Love Lucy, Gordon was offered the role of Fred Mertz, but he was already committed to the radio series Our Miss Brooks (which also was about to move to television) so William Frawley was cast in the part. In 1952, Gordon guest starred on the first season of I Love Lucy as Ricky Ricardo's boss at the Tropicana, Alvin Littlefield. Six years later, Gordon became a regular on the short-lived NBC-TV sitcom Sally which starred actress Joan Caulfield (who inherited Lucille Ball's role as Liz Cooper when My Favorite Husband was directly adapted to television in 1953). In the late fall of 1958, Gordon guest-starred as a judge in the hour-long Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour episode "Lucy Makes Room for Danny". From 1960 to 1962, he had recurring roles on two CBS-TV sitcoms - The Danny Thomas Show and Pete and Gladys. Gordon was to have joined The Lucy Show at its premiere in the fall of 1962, but he was still contractually obligated to Dennis the Menace, in which he had replaced the late Joseph Kearns. It was later revealed that Ball had grown unhappy with Charles Lane because of his difficulty remembering his lines in front of the studio audience and was eager to have Gordon join the cast. Lane then became a semi-regular on the CBS-TV sitcom Petticoat Junction as Homer Bedloe.
Under Ball's supervision, episodes were filmed in color beginning with the 1963-64 season, although they would continue to be broadcast in black and white up until September 1965. Ball realized that when the series ended its prime-time run, color episodes would command more money when sold to syndication. CBS was equipped for color but would only use color transmission equipment for feature films. They stated that turning on color equipment was too tough to do for short periods. At the time most color equipment and color TV sets were made by RCA, parent company of rival network NBC. CBS was reported[by whom?] to have felt that using color would be promoting a rival's product and would not be beneficial to CBS. Fewer than 5% of the population owned a color TV set in 1963. The second season proved to be just as popular in the ratings, ranking at #6.
At the end of the second season, a disagreement erupted between Ball and head writers Bob Carroll, Jr. and Madelyn Martin regarding a particular script Ball found inferior. As a result, Carroll, Martin, Weiskopf and Schiller left the series.
In the fall of 1964, CBS began to broadcast sporting events and cartoons in color. They still refused to broadcast The Lucy Show in color. Through that year ownership of color TV sets grew, and other manufacturers began making color equipment and color TV sets.
At the beginning of the 1964-65 season, The Lucy Show went through a significant staff change. Elliott Lewis left the series and was replaced by Jack Donohue, who also served as director. With the absence of Carroll, Martin, Weiskopf, and Schiller, Ball hired veteran comedy writer Milt Josefsberg, who had written for Jack Benny, as script consultant. Under Josefsberg's supervision there were no permanent writers for the series and different writers were employed each week (among them, Garry Marshall). Ball persuaded Weiskopf and Schiller to return and write four installments.
There were further changes to the series. Vance reduced the number of episodes in which she appeared to spend more time on the East Coast with her new husband, literary editor John Dodds. Lucille Ball's friend Ann Sothern made a number of appearances during 1964 and 1965 as the "Countess Framboise" (née Rosie Harrigan) to fill Vance's absence. The Countess, who had been widowed by the death of her husband, "who left her his noble title and all of his noble debts," was always trying to get money to pay off her debts. She also did battle with Mr. Mooney, whom she called "Mr. Money". Because it was known that Vance would be leaving the series, Sothern was proposed as the new co-star, but it was not to be. Sothern wanted to share top billing with Ball. This was not acceptable to Ball and, though Sothern did make three more guest appearances during the following (1965–66) season, the idea of making her a series regular was abandoned.
Even though Candy Moore, Jimmy Garrett, and Ralph Hart were still contracted to the series, they were used minimally during the third year. In the spring of 1965, Vance wanted to quit the show. Ball desperately hoped she would change her mind, but Vance remained adamant and left the sitcom. Moore appeared in fewer than five episodes, relegated to a few lines and usually only one scene. In the season 3 finale, "Lucy the Disc Jockey", Moore appears in the opening scene, has one line of dialogue, then exits. Although the plot involves her character, it is the last scene in which she is seen, and she was subsequently written out in season 4. Dropping Moore was Ball's decision. Because Moore was very popular with teenagers and the subject of dozens of youth-oriented magazines at the time, her departure was originally nixed by CBS but finally accepted when Ball threatened to "retire".
In the first episode of the 4th season, Lucy and Jerry Carmichael and Mr. Mooney moved from Danfield to California, where Lucy began working for Mr. Mooney at the bank, first part-time, and then full-time. Lucy's daughter Chris was said to have gone away to college and was not mentioned again. It was explained that Vance's character (Vivian Bagley) remarried and that she, along with her son Sherman and her new husband, remained in Danfield, although she would return for a few guest appearances towards the end of the series' run. Candy Moore and Ralph Hart were dropped from the cast. Jimmy Garrett would make only two appearances to support the transition before he was phased out of the series.
This procedure was later explained by Oscar Katz, one of Desilu's vice presidents. According to Katz, "If you go into a network with the same series but a radically changed format, the contracts allow for greater financial renegotiation." Candy Moore adds, "By dropping all of us at once, Desilu was able to get a lot more money out of CBS for the continuation of The Lucy Show."
In the fourth season premiere episode, "Lucy at Marineland", Jerry was quickly shipped off to a military academy. He made one final appearance, in a Christmas-themed episode, near the conclusion of the 1965-66 season. Sothern made three more guest appearances as the Countess, and Joan Blondell guest-starred in two episodes as Lucy's new friend Joan Brenner. However, Ball felt there was no chemistry between her and Blondell.
Finally, Lucy gained a new best friend, Mary Jane Lewis (Mary Jane Croft). Croft had prior experience performing with Ball and was the wife of former producer Elliott Lewis. In 1954, she made her first appearance on I Love Lucy playing Cynthia Harcourt, a rich, haughty friend of Lucy Ricardo in the episode "Lucy Is Envious". In 1956, she returned to the series playing Evelyn Bigsby, a bewildered traveler seated next to Lucy on an airplane in the fifth season finale "Return Home from Europe". During the 1950s, Croft also had occasional roles on I Married Joan and Our Miss Brooks. She was also the voice of Cleo, the basset hound in the sitcom The People's Choice. In 1957, Croft joined the cast of I Love Lucy during its final season playing Lucy Ricardo's new friend and neighbor Betty Ramsey for the program's last thirteen episodes. Croft then portrayed Lucy Carmichael's friend Audrey Simmons during the 1962-64 episodes of The Lucy Show. At this time, Croft had also been a regular for ten years on the long-running ABC-TV sitcom, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, which was in its final year of production in 1965. Even though Croft clearly replaced Vance, she did not get co-star billing; like Roy Roberts, who played Mooney's boss at the bank, she received featured billing despite playing a regular character.
In the fall of 1965, CBS began broadcasting all programming in color, but continued to produce some programming in black & white.
By January 1966, all references to Lucy Carmichael's children, her trust fund, and her former life in Danfield were dropped. Lucy Carmichael was firmly established as a single woman living in Los Angeles. Lucy worked in films disguised as a stunt man "'Iron Man' Carmichael" for three episodes ("Lucy the Stunt Man", "Lucy and the Return of Iron Man", and "Lucy and Bob Crane").
The next two seasons featured many stars making guest appearances as themselves conducting business at Lucy's bank. For the 1966-1967 season, Gale Gordon was nominated for an Emmy Award as Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series, but lost to Don Knotts. After eleven years, Ball was finally awarded an Emmy as "Best Actress in a Comedy Series" (she had previously won two, as "Best Comedienne" in 1953 and as "Best Actress in a Continuing Performance" in 1956 for I Love Lucy).
During the 1967-68 season, Ball's second husband, Gary Morton, became executive producer of The Lucy Show. Lucille Ball sold Desilu Productions to Gulf+Western Industries, abandoning ownership of the series. In the spring of 1968, The Lucy Show won Emmy nominations for Best Comedy Series, Best Actress in a Comedy Series, and Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series (Gordon). This time, Gordon lost the award to Werner Klemperer of Hogan's Heroes, and the show itself lost the Best Comedy Series Award to the NBC sitcom Get Smart. For the second straight year, Ball was awarded the coveted statuette. At the end of its sixth season, The Lucy Show posted its highest Nielsen rating, ranking at #2.
After six seasons, Ball decided to end the series, feeling that the show had enough episodes for syndication. Ball opted to continue on television under the provision that her two children, Lucie Arnaz and Desi Arnaz, Jr., agreed to appear alongside her. Thus, in the fall of 1968, an entirely new series, Here's Lucy, debuted. This series featured herself and her children, as well as Gordon, Croft, and Vance in occasional guest appearances as new characters which were similar to their characters on the former series. Like I Love Lucy and The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy ran on CBS for six seasons.
- Lucille Ball – Lucille Carmichael
- Gale Gordon – Theodore J. Mooney
- Vivian Vance – Vivian Bagley
- Mary Jane Croft – Mary Jane Lewis
- Candy Moore – Chris Carmichael
- Jimmy Garrett – Jerry Carmichael
- Ralph Hart – Sherman Bagley
- Dick Martin – Harry Connors
From the 1965-66 season onward, with the change in format, a number of celebrities guest starred on The Lucy Show, usually playing themselves under the premise that the Lucy Carmichael character, now living in Hollywood, crossed paths with them, either in her day-to-day life, or through her job at the bank. These included Jack Benny, Bob Hope, Carol Burnett, George Burns, Joan Crawford, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Dean Martin, Frankie Avalon, Wayne Newton, Robert Stack, Mel Tormé, John Vivyan, Jack Cassidy, Clint Walker, and Milton Berle. Many lesser-known actors also guest starred, such as Patrick McVey.
Other Desilu productions were sometimes brought into the show. In the episode, Lucy and John Wayne, a photograph of Bob Crane as Colonel Hogan from Hogan's Heroes can be seen as guest star Wayne is exiting the scene.
The episode featuring Joan Crawford, "Lucy and the Lost Star", caused much celebrity fodder given Ball and Crawford's very public feud during the filming. According to Ball, Crawford was often drunk on the set and could not remember her lines. Ball was said to have requested several times to replace Crawford with Gloria Swanson, who was supposed to have filled the role originally but bowed out due to health reasons. Crawford was so upset that at one point, she wouldn't leave her dressing room. According to Ball's friend, singer-comedienne Kaye Ballard, it was Vanda Barra, a featured actress frequently used on The Lucy Show, who finally persuaded Crawford to continue with the show by giving her a much needed pep talk. As a result, Crawford sailed through the filming with nary a flaw.
The February 14, 1966 episode featuring Dean Martin (in which Lucy Carmichael accepted a blind date with Dean Martin's lookalike stunt double "Eddie Feldman," but when he could not make it, the real Dean Martin took his place on the date with Lucy) was described by Ball as her favorite episode of the series.
Lucie Arnaz, Ball’s daughter, appeared in several episodes of the show during its run: she was an extra in the first season’s third episode, "Lucy Is a Referee," the teenage best friend of Chris in "Lucy Is a Soda Jerk" and "Lucy Is a Chaperone" (though she was only 11 at the time), and later as one of her mother’s friends in the 1967 "Lucy and Robert Goulet" (although she was only 16). She was also seen briefly as a teen walking past Lucy and Mr. Mooney in the episode "Lucy and the Ring a Ding Ring. She was also seen playing a student named Patty in the episode "Lucy Gets Her Diploma".
A different opening sequences was created for each season:
- Season 1 (1962–63): animated stick figures of Ball and Vance were used (similar to the ones used in the original opening sequences of I Love Lucy and of the subsequent 13 hour-long specials later syndicated in reruns as The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour).
- Season 2 (1963-1964): stills from previous
- Season 3 (1964-1965): Clips appear from previous episodes
- Season 4 (1965-1966): Clips appear from previous episodes appear viewed from a kaleidoscope
- Season 5 (1966-1967): an additional opening was created at the beginning of the season that featured Lucille Ball as an animated "jack-in-the-box". Ball reportedly hated it, and it was only used in a handful of episodes at the start of the season before being replaced by a slightly revamped version of the kaleidoscope opening. However, because of poor editing, the theme music to this opening was retained while the kaleidoscope opening played for several of the early 1966 fall episodes.
- Season 6 (1967-1968): the kaleidoscope opening was used once again, but the theme music was reorchestrated. Also the "Glamor Shot" of Ball at the end of the opening is a different clip than season five. For the episodes in which Gale Gordon did not appear, the "Co-Starring: Gale Gordon" voiceover was omitted from the audio track.
During later television airings, including 1970s and 80s psyndicated runs, as well as Nick at Nite's 1990s reruns of the series, the later "kaleidoscope" opening was used in nearly all episodes (with a "costarring Vivian Vance" voiceover edited in for episodes from the first three seasons).
There were several scripts written that were never filmed. "Lucy & Viv Fight Over Harry" was set to be produced as the 11th episode in the first season, but there were too many "production problems" and the episode was canceled. In an interview with Jimmy Garrett, he said the audience barely laughed at rehearsals, and Desi Arnaz cancelled the episode with Lucille Ball's permission. During season 2, both "Lucy is a Girl Friday" and "Lucy Plays Basketball" were canceled before filming began as well. The details of these "lost" episodes can be found on the official DVD sets for the first two seasons.
While filming the 1963 episode "Lucy and Viv Put In A Shower", in which the leading ladies attempted to install a shower stall (but become trapped inside, unable to shut the water off), Ball nearly drowned while performing in the tank of water. She was unable to bring herself back to the surface, and it was Vance who realized there was a problem and pulled her co-star to safety; Vance went on to ad lib until Ball could catch her breath to resume speaking her lines (all the while, cameras continued to film). Neither the film crew nor the live studio audience realized there was a problem.
In her autobiography Love Lucy, Lucy talks of this episode:
- ...I found I had no room to manoeuvre. I couldn't get back to the surface again. What's more I swallowed a lot of water and was actually drowning right there in front of three hundred people who were splitting their sides laughing. Vivian (Vance), realising in cold terror what had happened, never changed expression. She reached down, pulled me safely to the surface by the roots of my hair and then calmly spoke both sides of our dialogue, putting my lines in the form of questions. Whatta girl! And whatta night.
An episode from the 1966-1967 season called "Lucy Flies to London" served as the basis for a standalone one-hour special called Lucy in London, which featured Ball with guest stars Anthony Newley and the Dave Clark Five. Much of the "Lucy Flies to London" episode, which centered around Lucy’s lack of experience in air travel, was based on an unsold pilot written and shot in 1960.
The two special episodes to feature Ethel Merman ("Lucy Teaches Ethel Merman to Sing" and "Ethel Merman and the Boy Scout Show") were originally just one episode, "Lucy Teaches Ethel Merman to Sing". This installment was a consolation prize to Merman after her Desilu-produced pilot, Maggie Brown, was rejected as a regular series by CBS. The plot was much as it remains today with Lucy and Viv trying to pass off Agnes Schmidlap as Ethel Merman, not knowing that it really is Ethel Merman, and Lucy attempts to teach her how to sing. In the original version, Lucy's voice lesson scene with Merman (which was lifted from the previous season's episode "Lucy's Barbershop Quartet" in which Hans Conried was the instructor and Lucy the pupil) was much shorter than it is today and that episode ended with the Boy Scout show, with Jerry Carmichael hosting, Sherman Bagley dancing, and Lucy joining Ethel for a brand new version of Merman's great hit "Anything You Can Do, I Can Do Better". But then, Desilu Productions thought that maybe too much had been crammed into one half hour and since Ball and Vance (who both were great friends of Merman) were having such a marvelous time working with the legendary Broadway belter, they decided to expand it into two episodes, thereby taking advantage of Merman's formidable talents. So, a second filming was scheduled. In Part 1, Ethel was to be the houseguest of Lucy and Viv for a few weeks, and then in Part 2, a full blown episode was created that included scenes of Lucy once again, trying to get into the act. An all new Boy Scout Show was filmed also, with Jerry once again hosting, Sherman dancing, and Lucy, Viv, and Ethel, this time joined by Mr. Mooney, singing and dancing through a history of show business.
Unlike most sitcoms of the era, The Lucy Show was filmed before a live audience; standard practice at the time was to film an episode on a closed set and add a laugh track during post-production. However, a laugh track was still used to fill any gaps in audience reactions or missed punchlines. The live format was used for all of the I Love Lucy episodes, for all but a few Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour's and in The Lucy Show (by its Executive Director Desi Arnaz). Arnaz (and Ball) felt Ball performed better in front of a live studio audience. Carole Cook, Lucy's long-time friend and protégée in a radio show "Great Lives" based on Lucille Ball said that three cameras were used so to capture everything in one go, and the best angles would be used. While Lucy would ad-lib in the rehearsals and ask if it was OK, when it came to the actual show, she followed the script.
- 1) 1962–1963: #4
- 2) 1963–1964: #6
- 3) 1964–1965: #8
- 4) 1965–1966: #3
- 5) 1966–1967: #4
- 6) 1967–1968: #2
Before July 2009, there were only 30 episodes available on DVD and/or VHS (2 episodes from the first season, 21 from the fifth season, and 7 from the sixth season). These episodes have been released by unauthorized companies like Vintage Home Entertainment, Alpha Video, Digiview, Front Row Entertainment, Diamond Entertainment, Madacy Entertainment and Echo Bridge Home Entertainment.
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released all six seasons on DVD in Region 1, as of October 9, 2012. CBS announced that all the episodes have been remastered using the original 35mm negatives.
The first three official DVD releases allow viewers to view the original openings, closings, and cast commercials directly in the episode, while the fourth, fifth and sixth season DVD releases do not have this function.
|DVD Name||Ep #||Release date||Bonus Features|
|The Official First Season||30||July 21, 2009||
|The Official Second Season||28||July 13, 2010||
|The Official Third Season||26||November 30, 2010||
|The Official Fourth Season||26||April 26, 2011||
|The Official Fifth Season||22||December 6, 2011||
|The Official Sixth Season||24||October 9, 2012||
- Phil Hall (April 7, 2006). "The Bootleg Files: The Lucy Show". Film Threat. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- Kathleen Brady (2001). Lucille. Billboard Books. p. 306. ISBN 0-8230-8913-4.
- "Lucy: The Wonder Show". We Love Lucy. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- The Lucy Book by Geoffrey Mark Fidelman -Renaissance Books, published in 1999 - writer Bob Schiller talks about Charles Lane on p. 156
- from The Lucy Book -Renaissance Books, - on pages 178-179, author Geoffrey Mark Fidelman, as well as Bob Schiller and Bob Weiskopf describe this incident.
- The Lucy Book by Geoffrey Mark Fidelman -Renaissance Books, published in 1999 - director Maury Thompson talks about Ann Sothern on p. 200
- Alexander Doty (1993). Making Things Perfectly Queer: Interpreting Mass Culture. University of Minnesota Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-8166-2245-0.
- Interview with Lucie Arnaz. The Archive of American Television (December 9, 2011).
- Ballard, Kaye; Hesselman, Jim (2006). How I Lost 10 Pounds in 53 Years: A Memoir. Back Stage Books. p. 139. ISBN 0-8230-8478-7.
- Barry Monush (October 9, 2008). "Lucie Arnaz: The Lucy Years". The Paley Center for Media. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- Frank Castelluccio & Alvin Walker (1998). The Other Side of Ethel Mertz. Knowledge, Ideas & Trends. p. 270. ISBN 1-879198-26-6.
- Love Lucy by Lucille Ball with Betty Hannah Hoffman, Berkley Publishing Group, 1997, page 230 ISBN 978-0-425-17731-0
- Fidelman, Geoffrey Mark. “The Lucy Book: A Complete Guide to Her Five Decades on Television,” 1999. Renaissance Books. ISBN 1-58063-051-0
- Hobson, Dick (July 9, 1966). "Help! I'm a Prisoner in a Laff Box". TV Guide.
- "The Lucy Show - 'The Official 6th And Final Season' on DVD: Package Art, Extras and Street Date". Retrieved 2012-07-24.
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