The Madwoman in the Attic
|Genre||Feminist literary criticism|
The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination, published in 1979, examines Victorian literature from a feminist perspective. Authors Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar draw their title from Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, in which Rochester's wife Bertha Mason is kept locked in the attic by her husband.
In the work, Gilbert and Gubar examine the notion that women writers of the 19th Century were confined in their writing to make their female characters either embody the "angel" or the "monster." This struggle stemmed from male writers' tendencies to categorize female characters as either pure, angelic women or rebellious, unkempt madwomen. In their argument, Gilbert and Gubar point to Virginia Woolf who says women writers must "kill the aesthetic ideal through which they themselves have been 'killed' into art". While it may be easy to construe that feminist writers embody the "madwoman" or "monster," Gilbert and Gubar stress the importance of killing off both figures because neither are accurate representations of women or of women writers. Instead, Gilbert and Gubar claimed that female writers should strive for definition beyond this dichotomy, whose options are limited by a patriarchal point of view.
Over 700 pages long, the work is a landmark in Feminist literary criticism. While some would argue that it has become outdated, or that the metaphoric framework outlined by Gilbert and Gubar is limiting, it remains an important and influential, if not foundational feminist work.
Originally published in 1979, the book is now in its second edition (2000), the first from Yale University and second from Yale Nota Bene press.
- The Madwoman in the Attic by Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar
- Woolf, Virginia. "Professions for Women," The Death of the Moth and Other Essays. Harcourt, 1942, pp. 236-8.
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