Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
|Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church/ Indian Orthodox Church|
|Founder||Apostle St. Thomas in AD 52|
|Primate||Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II|
|Headquarters||Kottayam, Kerala, India|
|Possessions||United Arab Emirates, United States, Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, South Africa, Kuwait, Malaysia, New Zealand, Germany, Switzerland, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Singapore and Australia,|
|Language||Malayalam, English, Hindi, Konkani, Kannada, Syriac|
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, also known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an Autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church centred in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the churches of India's Saint Thomas Christian community, which traces its origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. The church is locally headed by the autonomous Catholicos and its present primate is Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II, Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan.
Historically, the Saint Thomas Christians were following Syriac Christianity, they were united in leadership and liturgy, and were part of the Church of the East centred in Persia. From the 16th century the Portuguese Jesuits attempted to forcefully bring the community fully into the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. Resentment of these measures led the majority of the community to join the archdeacon, Thomas, in swearing never to submit to the Portuguese in the Coonan Cross Oath in 1653. The part of the church that followed Thomas is known as the Malankara Church.
Following the arrival of Bishop Gregorios Abdul Jaleel of Jerusalem, Archdeacon Thomas forged a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church and gradually adopted West Syrian liturgy and practices. Over time, however, relations soured between the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs and the local hierarchy, particularly after Patriarch Ignatius Peter IV (reigned 1872—1894) began demanding registered deeds for the transfer of properties. In 1912, a synod led by the Patriarch Ignatius Abdul Masih II, who had been controversially deposed by the Ottoman government, consecrated Evanios as Catholicos of the East, under the name Baselios Paulose I. The faction that supported Baselios Paulose became what is now the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, while those who supported the Patriarch became the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church. The two groups were briefly reunited between 1958 and 1975, but attempts by church leaders and two Supreme Court decisions were unable to resolve the contention, and the two churches operate independently today.
The church is theologically and traditionally a part of the Oriental Orthodox communion of churches. The Indian Orthodox Church accepts the Alexandrian Christology, as does the Coptic Orthodox Church.
First 17 centuries 
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Thomas the Apostle is credited by tradition for founding the Indian Church in 52 AD. This Nasrani faith had many similarities to ancient Judaism (see also Jewish Christianity), and, owing to the heritage of the Jewish Christian Nasrani people, developed contacts with the Non-Chalcedonian religious authorities of Edessa, Mesopotamia.
The local church maintained its autonomous character under its local leader. When the Portuguese established themselves in India in the 16th century, they founded the Church in Kerala as an administratively independent community. The fall of Constantinople, a bastion of Christianity in Asia Minor, to the Islamic Ottoman Empire in 1453 marked the end of the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire, and severed European trade links by land with Asia.
This massive blow to Christendom spurred the age of discovery as Europeans were seeking alternative routes east by sea along with the goal of forging alliances with pre-existing Christian nations. One such was Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama, who arrived in 1498. The Portuguese came to South India and established their political power there. They brought missionaries to carry out evangelistic work in order to establish churches in communion with Rome under the Portuguese patronage.
These missionaries were eager to bring the Indian Church under the Pope's control. They succeeded in their efforts in 1599 with the Synod of Diamper. The representatives of various parishes who attended the assembly were forced by Portuguese authorities to accept the Papal authority.
Following the synod, the Indian Church was governed by Portuguese prelates. They were generally unwilling to respect the integrity of the local church. This resulted in disaffection which led to a general revolt in 1653 known as The Coonan Cross Oath. Under the leadership of their elder Thomas, Nazranis around Cochin gathered at Mattancherry church on Friday, January 24, 1653 (M.E. 828 Makaram 3) and swore an oath known as the Great Oath of Bent Cross. The following oath was read aloud and repeated by people touching a stone cross: "By the Father, Son and Holy Ghost that henceforth we would not adhere to the Franks, nor accept the faith of the Pope of Rome".
Those who were unable to touch the cross tied ropes to it, which they held as they swore the oath. Because of the weight it is believed by followers that the cross bent a little and so it is known as "Oath of the bent cross (Coonen Kurisu Sathyam)". This demanded administrative autonomy for the local church. Since it had no bishop, it faced serious difficulties.
It appealed to several eastern Christian churches for help. Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem came to India in 1665. He confirmed Marthoma I as the bishop and worked together with him to organize the Church.
Until 1599, it depended on the Assyrian (Persian) Church for prelates to ordain its priests.
Archdeacon or Arkadiakon in Malayalam was “the prince and head of the Christians of Saint Thomas” and had titles such as Archdeacon and Gate of All India, Governor of India. He was the temporal ruler and administrator of the Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala. The Archdeacon was more of a secular ruler, having sanction of local Hindu rulers and he is said to have carried around a small army of few hundred Syrian Christian soldiers.
The earliest historical documents that shows the existence of Archdeacons is around the year AD 800. The Nestorian Patriarch Timothy I (780–826) wrote to the Archdeacon (Arken), the Head of the Faithful in India, about the right norms to be followed in the ordination of the priests, bishops, metropolitans and patriarch.
After the arrival of the Portuguese, the records next mention Archdeacons. The following is a list of known Archdeacons in Malankara:
- Nestorian Patriarch Timothy I calls Archdeacon (Arken), head of faithful of India c. 780–826
- Metropolitan Mar John appoints George Pakalomattam (Ittikuriath) as Archdeacon 1502
- Followed by Archdeacons Jacob and Alexander according to tradition (Dates unknown)
- Archdeacon George of Christ (mentioned in 1552 documents onwards) c. 1552–1585
- Archdeacon John c. 1585–1591
- Archdeacon Jacob appointed by Mar Simon c. 1584–1596
- Archdeacon George of the Cross appointed by Archbishop Mar Abraham 1593–1640
- Archdeacon Thomas appointed by elders of Malankara. In 1653, after the Coonan Cross Oath, Archdeacon Thomas was consecrated as Bishop Mar Thoma I, thus the role was changed and his line continued until Mar Thoma VIII in 1815 among the Malankara Orthodox Syrians.
Reign of the Marthoma Metropolitans (1653–1816) 
In 1653, following the Coonen Cross Oath the Malankara Church felt the need to have an indigenous bishop. The parish elders (Idavaka Mooppens) of the church met together and elected Archdeacon Thomas as their leader. This was followed by a general meeting at Allangad on 22 May 1653 where Archdeacon Thomas was elevated to the status of bishop with the title Mar Thoma I by laying on of hands of 12 leading priests of the church.
The other section of Christians under the Roman Catholic Church did not consider Mar Thoma I as a bishop due to the nature of his ordination, and many of those revolting returned to the Roman Catholic Church between 1653 and 1665 as a result of the proselytism of the Carmelite missionaries sent by Rome. To confirm this rank, the Metropolitan and leaders of the Church together wrote letters to the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch to send a higher authority. For twelve years there was no response; eventually Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel, the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem arrived in 1665 and regularised the ordination of Mar Thoma I. This started the reign of the Marthoma Metropolitans of the Pakalomattom family in Malankara.
- Mar Thoma I (1653–1670) – In 1653, Kuravilangad Parampil Thomas of Pakalomattam family was consecrated with the title Marthoma I by the elders of the Malankara church. He was also the Archdeacon of the time, the leader of the entire Saint Thomas Christians. In 1665, his ordination was regularised by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem. Marthoma I survived a number of assassination attempts by those under the control of the church in Rome. He died on 25 April 1670 and was interred in Angamaly Martha Mariam Church.
- Mar Thoma II (1670–1686) – Before his demise in 1670, Mar Thoma I ordained his nephew as Mar Thoma II. According to a local tradition once the people of Niranam were suffering from severe drought and they appealed to Mar Thoma II for his special prayers. They believe that as a result of his prayers the village received plenty of showers. Mar Thoma II led the church for 16 years and died in 1686. His mortal remains were entombed in the St.Marys Orthodox Church, Niranam and every year his memorial day is celebrated on 16 April. During his time Eldho Mor Baselios and Hidayathullah Mar Ivanios from Syria visited Malankara.
- Mar Thoma III (1686–1688) – Consecrated by Mar Ivanios Hidayathullah (from Antioch). He died on 21 April 1688. He was buried at St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral, Kadampanad, Adoor.
- Mar Thoma IV (1688–1728) – Consecrated by Mar Ivanios Hidayathullah. He ruled the Church for four decades. The East Syrian Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylon, hearing of members lost to the Roman Catholics, sent Mar Gabriel to Kerala to try to reclaim them.
It was important for Mar Thoma IV to monitor this bishop doctrinally and administratively. In confronting Mar Gabriel however, Marthoma IV found himself incompetent. He sent several appeals to the West Syrian Patriarch asking for help. But no reply or help came. He died on 24 March 1728 and is entombed at St.Mary's Syrian Orthodox Church, Kandanadu.
- Mar Thoma V (1728–1765) – Consecrated by Marthoma IV. In 1752 when Mar Baselios and Mar Gregorios came to Malankara, they insisted that he should receive their Ordination but he refused to comply fearing Antiochean domination. Not only that, he consecrated his successor Mar Thoma VI without any assistance from foreign bishops, thus severing all allegiance to foreign bishops.Until Mar Thoma V, Malankara Church followed almost entirely East Syriac language, liturgy and practices. He died on 8 May 1765 and was buried at St. Marys Orthodox Church, Niranam.
- Mar Thoma VI (1765–1808) – (1765–1808) Consecrated by Marthoma V. On June 1770, to avoid a split in the church, he accepted re-consecration and the title Dionysius from Antiochan bishops. He also agreed with Mar Ivanios the visiting West Syrian bishop to follow in his Church certain traditions of the West Syrian Church along with the prevalent East Syrian traditions. The invasions of Tippu Sultan and devastation of many Christians and churches from Koodungallur to Kunnamkulam and forced conversions of Thomas Christians to Islam happened in this period.
Mar Dionysius (Marthoma VI) was captured by Thachil Matthoo Tharakan a prominent Roman Catholic St. Thomas Christian and forced to conduct a Latin Catholic mass. But he escaped because of a Hindu revolt led by Velu Thampi Dalawa. Died on 8 April 1808 and interred at St. Mary’s Orthodox Cathedral, Puthencavu.
- Mar Thoma VII (1808–1809) – Consecrated by Marthoma VI in 1796. He had a very short term as metropolitan. The only events worth recording are the deposit of the Trust Fund money with the East India Company and withdrawal of the interest thereon for the first time. Marthoma died on 4 July 1809 and was interred at St. Peter's and St. Paul's Orthodox Church, Kolencherry.
- Mar Thoma VIII (1809–1816) – Consecrated on 2 July 1809 by Marthoma VII. During his time Orthodox Pazhaya Seminary or "Old Syrian Seminary" was opened and modern education began in Kerala. Marthoma died on 26 January 1816 and was interred at St. Mary’s Orthodox Cathedral, Puthencavu . The establishment of Seminary and the rise of Pulikootil Joseph Ramban who was in charge of it weakened the prestige and power of the Mar Thoma considerably.
- Mar Thoma IX (1816–1817) – Consecrated by Marthoma VIII without the consent of the people. So he retired to Kadamattom Church and spent the rest of his days there.
Until Marthoma IX, all Metropolitans came from the Pakalomattom family. The rise of Pulikottil Joseph Ramban changed this and the people identified him as their new leader. With him the tradition of Marthoma Metrans from Pakalomattom family came to an end.
- Mar Thoma X (Malankara Metropolitan) (1816–1816) – Also known as Pulikottil, Joseph Mar Dionysius was consecrated by Mar Philoxenos II of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyoor Sabha). He died on 25 November 1816 and was buried at Seminary Church.
The new bishops after Marthoma IX came from different families and they came to be known more popularly with the title Malankara Metropolitans rather than as Mar Thoma. Malankara Metropolitans started to be recognised by the secular rulers of Travancore and Cochin kingdoms, by a Royal Proclamation. Nevertheless the title Marthoma continues to be used by the Catholicos of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church.
19th century 
In 1795 the British captured Malabar, Kerala. In 1806 Claudius Buchanan, an Anglican priest, visited the ancient Church of St.Thomas in India. In March 1815 Malankara Church opened a Seminary at Kottayam, and in the next year Anglican missionaries arrived to join it. However, in 1835 the missionaries began to impose Protestant doctrines on the seminarians. As a result the Malankara church discontinued their association with the Anglicans.
The London Missionary Service was active in India. Bishop Norton inaugurated the first Anglican Church in Kerala at Thalavady in the house of one Itty Matthan Panickar. This church was later known as Christian Missionary Service and after Indian Independence it became the Church of South India. Lore says that Bishop Norton was tutored in Malayalam by Itty Matthan Panickar. Later the same person tutored Bishop Benjamin Bailey in Sanskrit & Malayalam, and was presented the chair on which the Bishop sat as a gift. Later in the 19th century, exposure to the doctrines of the Church of England inspired a reform movement led by Abraham Malpan. This led to the formation of the Mar Thoma Church.
This eventually gave rise to the division of the community into three bodies.
- A group of people of the Malankara Church opted to join with the missionaries and be absorbed into the Anglican Church, and they became CSI (Church of South India) by the union of many churches.
- One of them set out to bring about major reforms in the liturgy and practices of the Church, including independence from foreign control. After a final litigation outcome in 1889 which was not in their favour, they formed what later became known as the Mar Thoma Church .
- A large majority of the community continued in the Malankara Orthodox Church without accepting the reforms.
20th century 
In 1912, the Catholicate of the East was revived in India. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church wanted to retain its autocephalous nature. It appealed to Patriarch Ignatius Abded Masiha of the Syriac Orthodox Church, who ordained Murimattathil Paulose Mar Ivanios as Baselios Paulose I, as Catholicos of the East on the Apostolic throne of St. Thomas. The ceremony was held at St. Mary's Church, Niranam on September 15, 1912.
Hierarchy, distribution and doctrine 
The spiritual regional head of the church is the Catholicos of the East and the temporal head over church assets is the Malankara Metropolitan. Since 1934 both the titles vest in one person. The official title of the head of the Church is the "Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan". as of 2013[update] Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II, who was enthroned on 1 November 2010, at Parumala Church by the Holy Synod), held this post. Paulose II is the 91st Catholicos of the East in the lineage of Apostle Thomas, and eighth Catholicos after its reinstatement in India and 20th Malankara Metropolitan.
The church primarily uses the liturgy of Saint James, as does its sister church, the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch. The Church in India was connected to the Church of East through the Catholicos of the East, existed in Edessa, Selucia, Tigris and Mosul at various times. Today the Church conducts liturgy in West Syriac, Malayalam, Hindi, and English.
The church has theological seminaries at Kottayam and Nagpur,and dioceses and churches in most parts of India, the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Western Europe, Africa, Persian Gulf nations, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand.
The name Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church refers to St. Thomas Christians of India that come under the Catholicate of the East whose supreme head is the Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan, with its headquarters at Devalokam, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
Since the 17th century, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church uses the Syrian Orthodox Liturgy, which belongs to the Antiochene liturgical tradition. The East Syrian (Persian), Byzantine, Armenian, Georgian, Maronite liturgies also belong to the same liturgical family. In the first half of the 5th century, the Antiochene Church adopted the anaphora of Jerusalem, known under the name of St James, the disciple. In the 4th and 5th centuries, the liturgical language of Jerusalem and Antioch was Greek. Therefore, the original form of St James liturgy was composed in Greek.
Following the Council of Chalcedon (451), the Eastern Church was divided into two, one group accepting the council and the other opposing it. Both groups continued to use the Greek version of St James. The Byzantine emperor Justin (518–527) expelled the non-Chalcedonians from Antioch and they took refuge in the Syriac speaking Mesopotamia on the Roman-Persian Border (modern Eastern Syria, Iraq and South East Turkey). Gradually, the Antiochene liturgical rites were translated into Syriac. New elements such as Syriac hymns were introduced into it.
Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem came to Malankara in 1665 and introduced Syriac Orthodox liturgical rites. The most striking characteristic of the Antiochene liturgy is the large number of anaphoras (Order of the celebration of the Eucharist). About 80 are known and about a dozen are used in India. All of them have been composed following the model of Liturgy of St James.
The word "Catholicos" means "The General Head". It can be considered as equivalent to "Universal Bishop". There were only three ranks of priesthood in the early Church: Episcopos (Bishop), Priest, and Deacon. By the end of the 3rd century certain bishops of certain important cities in the Roman empire gained pre-eminence over other bishops and they came to be known as Metropolitans. The Ecumenical councils of the 4th century recognized the supreme authority of these Metropolitans. By the fifth century the Bishops in major cities such as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch etc. gained control over the churches in the surrounding cities. Gradually they became the heads of each independent regional church and were called Patriarch which means common father. The same rank in the Churches outside the Roman Empire was called Catholicos. There were three ancient Catholicates in the Church before the 5th century. They were the Catholicate of the East, the Catholicate of Armenia and the Catholicate of Georgia. None of these ranks and titles are the monopoly of any church. Any Apostolic and national church has the authority to declare and call its head, Catholicos, Pope, or Patriarch.
St.Thomas established the church in India and is recognized as its first Head or Catholicos.
The reign of the Archdeacons started from the 4th century and lasted until the 16th century. The third stage started when the archdeacon was elevated to the position of a Bishop by the community with the name Marthoma I in 1653. Since then the head of the community was the Marthoma Metrans and later the position was developed to Malankara Metropolitan with more recognition.
In 1912, the Catholicate of the East was relocated to India, and Baselios Paulose I was seated on the Honorary Apostolic Throne of St.Thomas as the Catholicos of the East.
The Headquarters of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, named Devalokam, is located at Kottayam, in Kerala. It is the official headquarters of the Catholicos Of The East who reigns on the Supreme Throne of St. Thomas, the Apostle, and was established on 31 December 1951.
The new Aramana which was built in 1961 was inaugurated by the visiting Armenian Catholicos Vazgen I.
A portion of the holy relics of St. Thomas, the Apostle of India and Founder of the Church, is kept in the Catholicate Chapel. The mortal remains of Baselious Geevarghese II, Baselious Augen I, Baselious Marthoma Mathews I, and Thomas Mar Makarios Metropolitan are entombed in this Chapel.
List of Catholicos 
The Catholicos lineage starts from the Apostle Thomas, continuing with the bishops of Edessa and Archbishops in Selucia-Ctesiphon. In 410 AD Isaac first used the title Catholicos. Since then, the Catholicos has claimed jurisdiction over all Christians of the East outside the Roman Empire.
This Catholicate resided in Persia until the end of the 19th century. In 1912 the senior Patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch relocated the Catholicate to India. Catholicos Didymos I is the 111th Catholicos sitting on the throne of Saint Thomas. The Orthodox Catholicos is known also known as Maphrian to distinguish this church from the schismatic lineage formed in the latter half of the 5th century due to Nestorian influence.
To see the lineage of Catholicos: List of Catholicos of the East
|List of Catholicos of the East|
|From||Until||Catholicos of the East||Notes|
|1912||1913||Baselios Paulose I||Catholicos of the East|
|1925||1928||Baselios Geevarghese I||Catholicos of the East|
|1929||1964||Baselios Geevarghese II||Catholicos of the East, 1929–1964 & Malankara Metropolitan, 1934–1964|
|1964||1975||Baselios Augen I||Catholicos of the East & Malankara Metropolitan|
|1975||1991||Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews I||Catholicos of the East & Malankara Metropolitan|
|1991||2005||Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II||Catholicos of the East & Malankara Metropolitan|
|2005||2010||Baselios Mar Thoma Didymos I||Catholicos of the East & Malankara Metropolitan|
|2010||Present||Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II||Catholicos of the East & Malankara Metropolitan|
Saints of the Church 
- Parumala Thirumeni (Gheevarghese Mor Gregorious) (Declared by the Holy Synod, in 1947, by Catholicos Baselios Gheevarghese II)
- Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril (Declared by the Holy Synod, in 2003 by Catholicos Baselios Marthoma Mathews II)
Current Metropolitans 
- Baselios Marthoma Didymus I (Valiya Bava) [Retired]
- Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II (Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan)
- Thomas Mar Athanasius
- Geevarghese Mar Coorilos
- Kuriakose Mar Cleemis
- Zachariah Mar Anthonios
- Mathews Mar Severios
- Yakoob Mar Irenaeus
- Yuhanon Mar Meletius
- Thomas Mar Athanasius
- Zachariah Mar Nicholovos
- Gabriel Mar Gregorios
- Zachariah Mar Theophilos
- Yuhanon Mar Chrysostomos
- Yuhanon Mar Policarpos
- Mathews Mar Theodosius
- Joseph Mar Dionysius
- Abraham Mar Ephiphanios
- Mathews Mar Thimothios
- Alexios Mar Eusebios
- Yuhanon Mar Dioscoros
- Youhanon Mar Dimitrios
- Yuhanon Mar Theodoros
- Yakob Mar Elias
- Joshua Mar Nicodimos
- Zacharias Mar Aprem
- Geevarghese Mar Julius
- Abraham Mar Seraphim
List of Bishops 
- Mar Thoma I
- Mar Thoma II
- Mar Thoma III
- Mar Thoma IV
- Mar Thoma V
- Mar Thoma VI
- Mar Thoma VII
- Mar Thoma VIII
- Mar Thoma IX
- Mar Thoma X
Theological seminaries 
- Orthodox Theological Seminary (Old Syrian Seminary or Pazhaya Seminary), Kottayam
- Nagpur St. Thomas Orthodox Theological Seminary (St.Thomas Theological Seminary, Nagpur)
Ecumenical relations 
Various theologians were involved in negotiations between the Oriental Orthodox and the Byzantine churches. The Indian Orthodox Church participated in the Ecumenical Council of Oriental Orthodox Churches held in Addis Ababa, in 1965.
Other organizations to which the church belongs are
- Faith and Order Commission
- Christian Conference of Asia.
- Global Christian Forum
Monasteries of the Church 
|Monasteries of the Church|
|St. Thomas Dayara, Vettikkal, Mulanthuruthy||1125||Establishment of one of the crosses of Mulanthuruthy Church marked the beginning of today's Dayara|
|Vallikkattu Dayara, Vakathanam||1868||Established by Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II. Tomb of Baselios Geevarghese I, Augen Mar Dionysius|
|Mar Kuriakose Dayara, Pampady||1909||Established by HG Kuriakose Mar Gregorios|
|Bethany Ashram, Perunad, Ranny||1918||Established by Geevarghese Mar Ivanios and Alexios Mar Theodosius. Tomb ofPaulose Mar Pachomios|
|Mount Tabore Ashram, Pathanapuram||1929||Established by Thoma Mar Dionysius|
|CS Ashram, Thadagam, Coimbatore||1936||Established by Herbert Pakenham Walsh and Mrs. Clare Pakenham Walsh|
|Mar Kuriakose Ashram, Mylapra||1937||Established by Ramban P I Mathews|
|Mar Basil Dayara, Pathanamthitta||1938||Established by Puthencavu Geevarghese Mar Philexinos|
|St. George Dayara, Othara, Thiruvalla||1944||Established on the land donated by Thottapurath T. K. Alexander|
|St.Pauls Ashram, Puthuppady, Kozhikode||1958||Established by Geevarghese Mar Osthathios|
|Bethlehem Ashram, Chengamanad, Kottarakkara||1960||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos (Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II)|
|St. Gregorios Mount Ashram, Kottarakkara||1964||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos. Branch of Bethlehem Ashram, Kottarakkara|
|St. George Mount Ashram, Chayalode, Pathanamthitta||1968||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos|
|Holy Trinity Ashram, Ranny||1970||Established by Geevarghese Mar Dioscoros|
|Mar Baselios Ashram, Njaliakuzhy, Kottayam||1971||Established by Mathews Mar Athanasios|
|St.Thomas Dayara, Bhilai||1973||Established by Stephanos Mar Thevodosios|
|Calvary Ashram, Pattazhi||1976||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos . Branch of Bethlehem Ashram, Kottarakkara|
|Bethel Ashram, Kuttikonam, Kottarakkara||1976||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos. Branch of Bethlehem Ashram, Kottarakkara|
|St.Thomas Ashram, Sooranad||1978||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos|
|Mount Carmel Ashram, Kallada||1978||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos|
|Mount Horeb Ashram, Sasthamcotta||1978||Established by Mathews Mar Coorilos|
|MGD Ashram & Balabhavan, Karunagiri, Karukachal||1979||Established by Geevarghese Mar Ostasthios|
|St.Thomas Ashram, Attappadi, Palakkad||1994||Established by Thomas Mar Timotheos (Baselios Mar Thoma Didymos I)|
|St. Thomas Karunya Ashram, Thiruvanathapuram||1998||Established by HG Dr. Geevarghese Mar Osthathios|
Pilgrim sites 
Founded by St. Thomas 
|Founded by St. Thomas|
|St. Mary's Orthodox Church, Arthat, Kunnamkulam||Palayur Pally||Believed to have been established by St. Thomas in AD 52|||
|St. Mary's Orthodox Church, Niranam||Niranam Valiya Pally||Believed to have been established by St. Thomas in AD 54|||
|St. Mary's Orthodox Church, Thiruvithamcode||Arappally||Believed to have been established by St. Thomas in AD 63|||
Tomb churches 
|St.Peter's & St.Paul's Orthodox Church, Parumala||Parumala Pally||Tomb of : Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios|||
|Orthodox Pazhaya Seminary Chapel, Kottayam||Pazhaya Seminary||Tomb of : Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril|||
|St. Mary's Orthodox Church, Niranam||Niranam Valiya Pally||Tomb of : Mar Thoma II, Mar Thoma V|||
|Mar Kuriakkose Dayara, Pampady||Pampady Dayara||Tomb of : Kuriakkose Mar Gregorios, Mathews Mar Evanios Paret|||
|Martha Mariam Orthodox Church, Thevalakkara||Mar Abo Pilgrim Centre||Tomb of : Mar Abo of Nineveh|||
|St. Mary's Orthodox Church, Kallada||Kallada Valiya Pally||Tomb of : Anthrayos (Kallada Muthappan)|||
|St. Marys Orthodox Church, Panaji, Goa||Relics of : Alvares Mar Julius|||
|St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Puthencavu||Tomb of : Mar Thoma VI, Mar Thoma VIII, H.G. Geevarghese Mar Philexinos|||
|St.Thomas Orthodox Cathedral, Kadampanad||Kadampanad Valiya Pally||Tomb of : Mar Thoma III|||
|St. George Orthodox Church, Cheppad||Cheppad Valiya Pally||Tomb of : Cheppad Philipose Mar Dionysius (Mar Thoma XII)|||
|St. Peter's & St. Paul's Syrian Orthodox Church, Kolenchery||Kolenchery Pally||Tomb of : Mar Thoma VII|||
|St. George Syrian Orthodox Church, Kadamattom||Kadamattom Pally||Tomb of : Mar Thoma IX|||
|St.Thomas Aramana Chapel, at St.Thomas ashram, Kailash Nagar, Bhilai||Tomb of : H.G Dr. Stephanos Mar Theodosius|||
|Holy Trinity Ashram, Ranny||Tomb of : Geevarghese Mar Dioscoros||Geevarghese Mar Dioscoros|
|Kunnakumkulam St. Mary’s Simhasana Church||Tomb of : Paulos Mor Severios|||
|Angamaly St. Mary’s Church||Tomb of : Geevarghese Mor Kurillos Ambattu, Mar Thoma I|||
|Aluva Thrikkunnathu St. Mary’s Church||Tomb of : Paulose Mor Athanasius Kadavil, Geevarghese Mor Gregorios Vayaliparambil, Paulose Mor Athanasius|||
|St.Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church, Panampady||Panampady Church||Tomb of : Paulose Mor Koorilose Kochuparambil, Michael Mor Divansious|||
|Mor Aphrem church at the St. John's Dayro, Chingavanam||Tomb of : Abraham Mar Clemis|||
|Kottayam St. Mary’s Knanaya Valiya Pally||Kottayam Valiya Pall||Tomb of : Geevarghese Mor Severios|||
|St.Mary’s Cathedral of Kandanad||Kandanad Marth Mariam Church||Tomb of : Mar Thoma IV|||
|St. Thomas Church, Pambakuda.||Pambakuda Cheria Pally||Tomb of : Moran Mar Baselios Paulose I|
|Mount Horeb Chapel,Sasthamkotta .||Tomb of : Moran Mar Baselios Marthoma Mathews II||Moran Mar Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II|
|Valikattu Dayara, Vakathanam||Tomb of : Baselios Geevargheese I, Augen Mar Dionysius|||
|St.George Orthodox Church Karmelkunnu, Mulakulam||||Tomb of : Joseph Mar Pachomios|||
|Carmel Dayara, Kandanad, Ernakulam||Tomb of : Petros Mar Osthathis|||
|St. Peter's and St. Paul's Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Valayanchirangara, Perumbavoor||Tomb of : Mathews Mar Barnabas||Mathews Mar Barnabas|
|Mount Tabore Diara, Pathanapuram||Tomb of : Thoma Mar Dionysius, Zachariah Mar Dionysius, Job Mar Philexinos|||
|Basil Aramana Pathanamthitta||||Tomb of : H.G.Daniel Mar Philoxenos, H.G. Philipos Mar Eusebius|||
Churches with historical importance 
- Kottoor Church, Kolenchery
- Mulanthuruthy Marthoman Cathedral
- Kottayam Cheriapally
- St.Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Thumpamon.(Thumpamon Valiya Pally)
- Pampakuda Cheriapally (St.Thomas Church)
- Kallooppara St. Marys Orthodox Church
- Vakathanam Vallikkattu Dayra
- Paliyekkara Palli, Thiruvalla
- Kadeesa Syrian Church, Kollam
- Kadamattom Church
- Puthupally Palli
- Coonan Cross Oath Memorial Holy Cross, St. George Orthodox Church, Mattancherry
- Marthamariyam Orthodox Church & Mar Abo Pilgrim Centre, Thevelakara
- Pazhanji Palli
- St.Mary's Orthodox Church, Kandanad (Kandanad Martha Mariam Pally)
- St. George Orthodox Church, Chandanapally
- St. Thomas Orthodox Cathedral, Kadampanadu (Marthoman pilgrim center, Kadampanadu, Adoor)
- St.Mary's Orthodox Church, West Kallada.(Kallada Valiya Pally)
- St.Mary's Orthodox Church, kundara.(Kundara Valiya Pally)
- St.Mary's Orthodox Cathedral. Puthiyakavu, Mavelikara
- St.George's orthodox valyapally, Cheppad(Cheppad Valya Pally)
- St. John's Orthodox Church, Kadammanitta. (Kadammanittapally)
Malankara Association 
Malankara Association is the elected body consisting of members from parishes to manage and control the religious and social concerns of the church. The Association is believed to have established in 1873 by Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II by convening a meeting of the parish representatives in Parumala. In 1876 Mulanthuruthy Synod, an elected body in the name of Malankara Association took in charge. Church constitution details the powers and responsibilities of the Association.
The Malankara metropolitan is the president and the Diocesan Metropolitans shall be vice-presidents of the association. The Association elects the Malankara metropolitan, Catholicos, Metropolitans, priest trustee, lay trustee, Association Secretary and Managing Committee Members. Each parish is represented in the Association by a priest and lay people elected by the parish general body based on the number of parish members.
See also 
- "Sunderland Indian Orthodox Church". Sunderlandorthodoxchurch.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Frykenberg, p. 93.
- Wilmshurst, EOCE, 343
- Vadakkekara, p. 95.
- Tamcke, p. 214.
- Page 618, Sabha Vijnanakosham (Church Encyclopaedia)
- Page 55, Malankara Nasranikalude Jathiaulkrishtiyavum Rajyasevanathalparathayum
- Page 121, Ibn at- Taiyib II
- The list given in ” The Archdeacon of All India” by Dr. Jacob Kollaparambil.
- Page 657, Sabha Vijnanakosham (encyclopaedia)
- "After 1653 as an independent Church". Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- MOSC Sabhavijnanakosham
- "The Fathers who led the Sabha". indianchristianity.org. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Page 657, Sabha Vijnana Kosham
- "History". kottayamcheriapally.com. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Mar Thoma Metropolitans - Niranam Valiapally". Niranamchurch.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- [dead link]
- "Official Website - St.Mary's Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Cathedral Kandanad - Kizhakkinte Yerusalem". Stmaryschurchkandanad.org. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Malankara Orthodox Church - After 1653 as an independent Church". Malankaraorthodoxchurch.in. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Sankunny Menon, P. (1878) A History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, (Thiruvithancore Charitram).Page 246.
- "Malankara Orthodox Church - HH Baselios Marthoma Didymus I". Malankaraorthodoxchurch.in. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- Cheriyan, Dr. C.V. Orthodox Christianity in India.2003. p. 235, 238.
- N. M. Mathew, Malankara Marthoma Church History. (Malayalam) Vol I, 2006). P.241.
- Dr. Samuel Nellimukal, ‘’Social Changes in Kerala’’ (Malayalam), p. 104. Pub: K.C.S. Books, Kottayam. 2003.
- See verdict of Royal Court in 1899, all churches except 3 were vested with the Malankara Church. Also see discussion under "total population" title on the talkpage of Marthoma Church
- "About the church". Niranam St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Church. 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Malankara Orthodox Church - Holy Qurbana". Malankaraorthodoxchurch.in. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Existing Patriarch was deposed uncanonically by a muslim ruler. This led to two Patriarchs in the same period". Stmarysbronx.org. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity by FAHLBUSCH, Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley page 285
- Shibu Podiyan says:. "Paulose Mar Pachomios of Mavelikara Diocese laid to rest | Indian Orthodox Herald - Breaking Church Catholicate News And Doctrinal Information". Orthodoxherald.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Christa Sishya Ashram". Csashram.org. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Dr. Geevarghese Mar Osthathios Metropolitan". Geevarghesemarosthathios.org. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "St. Thomas Tradition and Arthat Church | Arthat Cathedral Church | Arthat, Church, Present, Palayur". Arthatcathedral.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Niranam Valiyapally - St. Mary's Orthodox Syrian Church, Niranam". Niranamchurch.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Kerala / Thiruvananthapuram News : Thiruvithamcode church to be global pilgrim centre". The Hindu. 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- [dead link]
- "Pilgrim center of St. Mary (St.Mary's Orthodox Church Kallooppara)". Kalloopparachurch.com. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Puthuppally Pally - Welcome to official website of St.George Orthodox Church, Puthuppally". Puthuppallypally.in. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "St. John's Orthodox Church, Kadammanitta". Kadammanittapally.com. 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
- "Malankara Association". malankaraorthodoxchurch.in. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Fahlbusch, Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley (198), The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008, ISBN 0-8028-2417-X,9780802824172 Check
- Frykenberg, Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.
- Tamcke, Martin (2009). Die Christen vom tur Abdin: Hinführung zur Syrisch-orthodoxen Kirche. Verlag Otto Lembeck. 3874765806.
- Rev.Dr. Joseph Cheeran, et al.(2002) Tradition and History of Indian Orthodox Church, p. 300-423
- Menachery, George (1973). The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India Vol. II.
- Menachery, George (1998). The Indian Church History Classics: The Nazranies.
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a historiographical critique. Media House Delhi.
- Van der Ploeg, J. P. M. (1983). The Christians of St. Thomas in South India and their Syriac Manuscripts. Dharmaram Publications.
- Wilmshurst, D. J., The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913 (Louvain, 2000)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church|
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (October 2012)|
- Official website of the Indian (Malankara) Orthodox Church
- Official website of the H.H. Moran Mar Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II – Catholicose of the East
- Official Malankara Orthodox Church News (Catholicate News – Formerly Gregorian News)
- Official Malankara Orthodox Church Radio (Gregorian Radio)
- Official Malankara Orthodox Church TV (Gregorian TV)
- Malankara Orthodox Videos Portal (Gregorian Videos)
- Malankara Orthodox Audios Portal (Gregorian Audios)
- Gregorian Voice
- Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Online Community
- Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church E-radio
- Indian Orthodox Herald – Breaking Church News And Doctrinal Information
- Dr. Thomas Makarios' website
- Augen Dionysius' website
- ICON (Indian Christian Orthodox Network)
- Indian Orthodox Diaspora Secretariat website
- The Saint of Parumala