The Mysterious Affair at Styles
|The Mysterious Affair at Styles|
Dustjacket illustration of the first edition in both the UK and the US
|Cover artist||Alfred James Dewey|
|Publication date||October 1920|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|Pages||296 pp (first edition, hardback)|
|Followed by||The Secret Adversary|
The Mysterious Affair at Styles is a detective novel by Agatha Christie. It was written in the middle of World War I, in 1916, and first published by John Lane in the United States in October 1920 and in the United Kingdom by The Bodley Head (John Lane's UK company) on 21 January 1921. The US edition retailed at US$2.00 and the UK edition at seven shillings and sixpence (7/6).
Styles was Christie's first published novel, introducing Hercule Poirot, Inspector (later, Chief Inspector) Japp, and Arthur Hastings (Lieutenant and later, Captain). Poirot, a Belgian refugee of the Great War, is settling in England near the home of Emily Cavendish, who helped him to his new life. His friend Hastings arrives as a guest at her home. When the woman is killed, Poirot uses his detective skills to solve the mystery.
The book includes maps of the house, the murder scene, and a drawing of a fragment of a will.
- 1 Plot summary
- 2 Characters
- 3 Dedication
- 4 Literary significance and reception
- 5 Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
- 6 Publication history
- 7 International titles
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Hastings comes to Styles Court, home of his long-time friends, while recovering from a war wound. He meets his old friend Poirot, now residing in the village Styles St. Mary, with other Belgian refugees, next to Styles Court. His visit begins pleasantly, as he absorbs the changes to his friends since he last saw them.
Emily Cavendish, stepmother to John and Lawrence, inherited her husband's fortune, as well as the family estate in Styles Court, a country manor located in Essex. Mrs. Cavendish became Mrs. Inglethorp upon her recent remarriage to a younger man, Alfred Inglethorp. John's wife Mary and Cynthia Murdoch also live at Styles. The elder son John will inherit Styles upon his stepmother's decease. Hastings and Lawrence Cavendish visit the hospital where Cynthia Murdoch, a protégé of Mrs. Inglethorp, shows them the pharmacy where she works and its poison cabinet.
The residents of Styles are awakened by Emily Inglethorp's strangled cries: she is dying painfully from an obvious case of strychnine poisoning. A maid is sent to get Doctor Wilkins. Dr. Bauerstein is driving past the house when the maid runs out. Amidst Emily's last cries, Dr. Bauerstein attempts to save her, unsuccessfully. Alfred is not to be found. Hastings enlists the help of his friend Hercule Poirot.
Poirot finds at the scene of the crime: all doors to the victim's room were bolted from the inside; a cup of cocoa and rum; green threads caught in a latch; candle wax spilled on the floor; remnants of a will burned in the fireplace; a locked box; and a note on Mr. Inglethorp's desk (handwritten several times checking the spelling of 'I am possessed'). Poirot interviews those present. On the day she was killed, Emily Inglethorp was overheard arguing with someone, either her husband Alfred, or her stepson John. Afterwards, she seemed quite distressed and, apparently, made a new will, witnessed by Mr. Gardener, which no one can find. She ate little at dinner and retired early to her room with her document case and a cup of cocoa. Someone later forced open that case and a document was removed. Alfred Inglethorp left Styles earlier in the evening and stayed overnight in the nearby village, so was not present when the poisoning occurred. Nobody can explain how or when the strychnine was administered to Mrs. Inglethorp. Poirot notes that it was 80 degrees on the day of her murder; also, that Alfred Inglethorp wore peculiar clothes, had a black beard, and used glasses, giving him an appearance easy to imitate.
Inspector Japp of Scotland Yard focuses on Alfred as the prime suspect. Dr. Bauerstein, a toxicologist, also draws Japp's attention. Evelyn Howard, Emily's companion, seems to hate Alfred most of all. Alfred's behaviour is suspicious. The inquest declares death by strychnine. The source has not yet been found; no traces were present in the 8 pm coffee or the cocoa. Mary Cavendish says that she heard something heavy fall at 4:30 am: probably the table. She overheard the quarrel but will not admit to having understood it. The local chemist sold strychnine to Mr. Inglethorp on the day before the murder. Alfred denies buying the drug, cannot remember where he was at that time, and denies killing his wife. The verdict is murder by a person unknown.
Before Japp can arrest Alfred, Poirot prevails on him to discuss the case at Styles. Poirot absolves Alfred by confirming the latter's alibi for Monday night: he was walking with Mrs. Raikes, so someone else bought the strychnine. Poirot says he lacks the last link in the evidence. Japp and Poirot continue to explore. Japp arrests John Cavendish, because of his inheritance, together with evidence to suggest he had obtained poison. Japp arrests Dr. Bauerstein for war-related espionage. The servant Dorcas finds the receipt for a wig, bought by Lawrence Cavendish, John's younger brother. She tells them about Mrs. Inglethorp's call bell being broken on Monday, and repaired on Tuesday morning. Mary Cavendish tells Hastings she will leave John and Styles, because she is unhappy. Hastings proposes marriage to Cynthia and is turned down. Poirot finds Lawrence's finger marks on a vial of strychnine at the hospital. Poirot takes something Hastings says as a clue, and so finds the final link.
Poirot brings everyone together for the denouement. Poirot clears John Cavendish by proving it was Alfred Inglethorp who committed the crime, assisted by Evelyn Howard. She is his close cousin, not his enemy. Evelyn disguised herself to look like Alfred when purchasing the garden strychnine, one bit of false evidence. Poirot became suspicious when he realised that Alfred wanted to be arrested. They poisoned Emily by adding bromide to her regular evening medicine; this caused its normally innocuous strychnine constituents to sink to the bottom of the bottle so that she eventually consumed them all in a single, lethal dose. Their plan had been for Alfred Inglethorp to incriminate himself with false evidence, which could then be refuted at his trial. Under the principle of double jeopardy, he could not be tried for the crime a second time. But Japp did not arrest Inglethorp on the false evidence, so the prosecution will now succeed. Mary and John are reconciled, and peace returns to Styles Court.
- Arthur Hastings, the narrator, on sick leave from the Western Front
- Hercule Poirot, a famous Belgian detective displaced by the war to England; Hastings' old friend; "a dear little man", "an extraordinary looking little man" and a "quaint dandyfied little man".
- Inspector Japp of Scotland Yard
- Emily Inglethorp, mistress of Styles, a wealthy old woman
- Alfred Inglethorp, her much younger new husband, thought to be a spoiled fortune-hunter
- John Cavendish, her elder stepson and remainderman to Styles
- Mary Cavendish, John's wife
- Lawrence Cavendish, John's younger brother
- Evelyn Howard, Mrs. Inglethorp's companion
- Cynthia Murdoch, the beautiful, orphaned daughter of a friend of the family
- Dr Bauerstein, a suspicious toxicologist
- Dorcas, a maid at Styles
The book's dedication reads: "To my Mother". Christie's mother, Clarissa ("Clara") Boehmer Miller (1854–1926), was a strong influence on her life and someone to whom Christie was extremely close, especially after the death of her father in 1901. It was while Christie was ill (circa 1908) that her mother suggested she write a story. The result was The House of Beauty, now a lost work but one which hesitantly started her writing career. Christie later revised this story as The House of Dreams, and it was published in issue 74 of The Sovereign Magazine in January 1926 and, many years later, in 1997, in book form in While the Light Lasts and Other Stories. Christie also dedicated her debut novel as Mary Westmacott, Giant's Bread (1930), to her mother who, by that time, had died.
Literary significance and reception
The Times Literary Supplement (3 February 1921) gave the book an enthusiastic, if short, review, which stated: "The only fault this story has is that it is almost too ingenious." It went on to describe the basic set-up of the plot and concluded: "It is said to be the author's first book, and the result of a bet about the possibility of writing a detective story in which the reader would not be able to spot the criminal. Every reader must admit that the bet was won."
Though this may be the first published book of Miss Agatha Christie, she betrays the cunning of an old hand ... You must wait for the last-but-one chapter in the book for the last link in the chain of evidence that enabled Mr Poirot to unravel the whole complicated plot and lay the guilt where it really belonged. And you may safely make a wager with yourself that until you have heard M. Poirot's final word on the mysterious affair at Styles, you will be kept guessing at its solution and will most certainly never lay down this most entertaining book.
The novel's review in The Sunday Times of 20 February, 1921, quoted the publisher's promotional blurb concerning Christie writing the book as the result of a bet that she would not be able to do so without the reader being able to guess the murderer, then said, "Personally we did not find the "spotting" so very difficult, but we are free to admit that the story is, especially for a first adventure in fiction, very well contrived, and that the solution of the mystery is the result of logical deduction. The story, moreover, has no lack of movement, and the several characters are well drawn."
The contributor who wrote his column under the pseudonym of "A Man of Kent" in the 10 February 1921 issue of the Christian newspaper The British Weekly praised the novel but was overly generous in giving away the identity of the murderers. To wit,
It will rejoice the heart of all who truly relish detective stories, from Mr McKenna[who?] downwards. I have heard that this is Miss Christie's first book, and that she wrote it in response to a challenge. If so, the feat was amazing, for the book is put together so deftly that I can remember no recent book of the kind, which approaches it in merit. It is well written, well proportioned, and full of surprises. When does the reader first suspect the murderer? For my part, I made up my mind from the beginning that the middle-aged husband of the old lady was in every way qualified to murder her, and I refused to surrender this conviction when suspicion of him is scattered for a moment. But I was not in the least degree prepared to find that his accomplice was the woman who pretended to be a friend. I ought to say, however, that an expert in detective stories with whom I discussed it, said he was convinced from the beginning that the true culprit was the woman whom the victim in her lifetime believed to be her staunchest friend. I hope I have not revealed too much of the plot. Lovers of good detective stories will, without exception, rejoice in this book.
The Bodley Head quoted excerpts from this review in future books by Christie but, understandably, did not use those passages which gave away the identity of the culprits.
"Introducing Hercule Poirot, the brilliant – and eccentric – detective who, at a friend's request, steps out of retirement – and into the shadows of a classic mystery on the outskirts of Essex. The victim is the wealthy mistress of Styles Court, found in her locked bedroom with the name of her late husband on her dying lips. Poirot has a few questions for her fortune-hunting new spouse, her aimless stepsons, her private doctor, and her hired companion. The answers are positively poisonous. Who's responsible, and why, can only be revealed by the master detective himself." (Book jacket, Berkley Book edition April 1984)
In his book, A Talent to Deceive – An Appreciation of Agatha Christie, writer/critic Robert Barnard wrote:
Christie's debut novel, from which she made £25 and John Lane made goodness knows how much. The Big House in wartime, with privations, war work and rumours of spies. Her hand was over-liberal with clues and red herrings, but it was a highly cunning hand, even at this stage
In general The Mysterious Affair at Styles is a considerable achievement for a first-off author. The country-house-party murder is a stereotype in the detective-story genre, which Christie makes no great use of. Not her sort of occasion, at least later in life, and perhaps not really her class. The family party is much more in her line, and this is what we have here. This is one of the few Christies anchored in time and space: we are in Essex, during the First World War. The family is kept together under one roof by the exigencies of war and of a matriarch demanding rather than tyrannical – not one of her later splendid monsters, but a sympathetic and lightly shaded characterisation. If the lifestyle of the family still seems to us lavish, even wasteful, nevertheless we have the half sense that we are witnessing the beginning of the end of the Edwardian summer, that the era of country-house living has entered its final phase. Christie takes advantage of this end-of-an-era feeling in several ways: while she uses the full range of servants and their testimony, a sense of decline, of break-up is evident; feudal attitudes exist, but they crack easily. The marriage of the matriarch with a mysterious nobody is the central out-of-joint event in an intricate web of subtle changes. The family is lightly but effectively characterised, and on the outskirts of the story are the villagers, the small businessmen, and the surrounding farmers – the nucleus of Mayhem Parva. It is, too, a very clever story, with clues and red herrings falling thick and fast. We are entering the age when plans of the house were an indispensable aid to the aspirant solver of detective stories, and when cleverness was more important than suspense. But here we come to a problem that Agatha Christie has not yet solved, for cleverness over the long length easily becomes exhausting, and too many clues tend to cancel each other out, as far as reader interest is concerned. These were problems which Conan Doyle never satisfactorily overcame, but which Christie would.".
Golden Age of Detective Fiction
The story is told in the first person by Hastings, and features many of the elements that have become icons of the Golden Age of Detective Fiction, largely due to Christie's influence. It is set in a large, isolated country manor. There are a half-dozen suspects, most of whom are hiding facts about themselves. The plot includes a number of red herrings and surprise twists.
Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
The Mysterious Affair at Styles was adapted as a 103-minute drama and transmitted on ITV in the UK on Sunday, 16 September, 1990, as a special episode in their series Agatha Christie's Poirot to celebrate the centenary of the author's birth.
The adaptation was generally faithful to the novel, although Dr Bauerstein and some minor characters were left out. Adaptor: Clive Exton
Director: Ross Devenish
David Suchet as Hercule Poirot
Hugh Fraser as Lieutenant Arthur Hastings
Philip Jackson as Inspector James Japp
Gillian Barge as Emily Inglethorp
Michael Cronin as Alfred Inglethorp
David Rintoul as John Cavendish
Anthony Calf as Lawrence Cavendish
Beatie Edney as Mrs Mary Cavendish
Joanna McCallum as Miss Evelyn Howard
Allie Byrne as Miss Cynthia Murdoch
Tim Munro as Edwin Mace
Donald Pelmear as Judge
Morris Perry as Wells
Tim Preece as Phillips, KC
David Savile as Superintendent Summerhaye
Robert Vowles as Driver of Hired Car
Michael D. Roberts as Tindermans
Michael Godley as Dr Wilkins
Penelope Beaumont as Mrs Raikes
Lala Lloyd as Dorcas
Bryan Coleman as a Vicar
This adaption, along with Curtain: Poirot's Last Case, was filmed at Chavenage House, Gloucestershire.
BBC Radio 4 Adaptation
The novel was adapted as a five-part serial for BBC Radio 4 in 2005. John Moffatt reprised his role of Poirot. The serial was broadcast weekly from Monday, 5 September to Monday, 3 October, from 11.30 am to 12.00 noon. All five episodes were recorded on Monday, 4 April 2005, at Bush House. This version retained the first-person narration by the character of Hastings.
Adaptor: Michael Bakewell
Producer: Enyd Williams
John Moffatt as Hercule Poirot
Simon Williams as Arthur Hastings
Philip Jackson as Inspector James Japp
Jill Balcon as Emily Inglethorp
Hugh Dickson as Alfred Inglethorp
Susan Jameson as Mary Cavendish
Nicholas Boulton as Lawrence Cavendish
Hilda Schroder as Dorcas
Annabelle Dowler as Cynthia Murdoch and Annie
Nichola McAuliffe as Evelyn Howard
Sean Arnold as John Cavendish
Richard Syms as Mr Wells
Ioan Meredith as Mr Phillips
Michael Mears as Sir Ernest Heavyweather
Harry Myers as Mr Mace
Peter Howell as the Coroner
Robert Portal as Dr Bauerstein
Great Lakes Theater Touring Stage Adaptation
On 14 February 2012, Great Lakes Theater debuted a 65-minute stage adaptation as part of their educational programming. Adapted by David Hansen, this production is performed by a cast of five (3 M, 2 W) with most performers playing more than one role. Cleveland.com called this stage adaptation, "charming, funny and smart ... a quick-paced gem, and a thrill for any detective aficionado."
- 1920, John Lane (New York), October 1920, Hardcover, 296 pp
- 1920, National Book Company, Hardcover, 296 pp
- 1921, John Lane (The Bodley Head), 21 January 1921, Hardcover, 296 pp
- 1926, John Lane (The Bodley Head), June 1926, Hardcover (Cheap edition – two shillings) 319 pp
- 1931, John Lane (The Bodley Head), February 1931 (As part of the Agatha Christie Omnibus along with The Murder on the Links and Poirot Investigates), Hardcover, Priced at seven shillings and sixpence; a cheaper edition at five shillings was published in October 1932
- 1932, John Lane (The Bodley Head), July 1932, Paperback (ninepence)
- 1935, Penguin Books, 30 July 1935, Paperback (sixpence), 255 pp
- 1945, Avon Books (New York), Avon number 75, Paperback, 226 pp
- 1954, Pan Books, Paperback (Pan number 310), 189 pp
- 1959, Pan Books, Paperback (Great Pan G112)
- 1961, Bantam Books (New York), Paperback, 154 pp
- 1965, Longman (London), Paperback, 181 pp
- 1976, Dodd, Mead and Company, (Commemorative Edition following Christie's death), Hardback, 239 pp; ISBN 0-396-07224-0
- 1984, Berkley Books (New York,Division of Penguin Putnam), Paperback, 198 pp; ISBN 0-425-12961-6
- 1988, Fontana Books (Imprint of HarperCollins), Paperback, 208 pp; ISBN 0-00-617474-4
- 1989, Ulverscroft Large Print Edition, Hardcover; ISBN 0-7089-1955-3
- 2007, Facsimile of 1921 UK first edition (HarperCollins), 5 November 2007, Hardcover, 296 pp; ISBN 0-00-726513-1
Additional editions are listed at Fantastic Fiction, including
- 29 Hardcover editions from 1958 to September 2010 (ISBN 116928986X / 9781169289864 Publisher: Kessinger Publishing)
- 107 Paperback editions from 1970 to September 2013 (ISBN 0007527497 / 9780007527496 (UK edition) Publisher: Harper)
- 30 Audio editions from September 1994 to June 2013 (ISBN 1470887711 / 9781470887711 Publisher: Blackstone Audiobooks)
- 96 Kindle editions from December 2001 to November 2013 (ISBN B008BIGEHG).
The novel received its first true publication as an eighteen-part serialisation in The Times newspaper's Colonial Edition (aka The Weekly Times) from 27 February (Issue 2252) to 26 June 1920 (Issue 2269). This version of the novel mirrored the published version with no textual differences and included the maps and illustrations of handwriting examples used in the novel. At the end of the serialisation an advertisement appeared in the newspaper, which announced, "This is a brilliant mystery novel, which has had the unique distinction for a first novel of being serialised in The Times Weekly Edition. Mr John Lane[who?] is now preparing a large edition in volume form, which will be ready immediately." Although another line of the advertisement stated that the book would be ready in August, it was first published by John Lane in the United States in October 1920 and was not published in the UK by The Bodley Head until the following year. Some sources state that the exact date of the UK publication was 26 January 1921, others[who?] state 1 February. However, the English Catalogue of Books confirms the latter month of release.
The Mysterious Affair at Styles later made publishing history by being one of the first ten books to be published by Penguin Books when they were launched on 30 July 1935. The book was Penguin Number 6.
The blurb on the inside flap of the dustwrapper of the first edition reads:
This novel was originally written as the result of a bet, that the author, who had previously never written a book, could not compose a detective novel in which the reader would not be able to "spot" the murderer, although having access to the same clues as the detective. The author has certainly won her bet, and in addition to a most ingenious plot of the best detective type she has introduced a new type of detective in the shape of a Belgian. This novel has had the unique distinction for a first book of being accepted by the Times as a serial for its weekly edition.
- Arabic: القضية الغامضة في ستايلز (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Czech: Záhada na zámku Styles (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Danish: De låsede døre (The Locked Doors)
- Dutch: De Zaak Styles (The Affair-Styles)
- Estonian: Salapärane juhtum Stylesis (The Mysterious Affair at Styles), Saladuslik juhtum Stylesis (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Croatian: Misteriozna Afera u Stylesu (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- French: La Mystérieuse Affaire de Styles (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- German: Das fehlende Glied in der Kette (The missing link in the chain), first edition in 1929: Das geheimnisvolle Verbrechen in Styles (The Mysterious Crime at Styles)
- Hebrew: הרצח המסתורי בסטאייל (The Mysterious Murder at Styles)
- Hungarian: A titokzatos stylesi eset (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Italian: Poirot a Styles Court (Poirot in Styles Court), Poirot e il mistero di Styles Court (Poirot and the Styles Court Mystery)
- Japanese: スタイルズ荘の怪事件 (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Norwegian: Stylesmysteriet (The Styles Mystery)
- Polish: Tajemnicza historia w Styles (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Portuguese: A Primeira Investigação de Poirot (Poirot's First Investigation) and O Misterioso Caso de Styles (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Russian: Таинственное происшествие в Стайлз (=Tainstvennoe proisshestvie v Staylz, The Mysterious Affairs at Styles), Загадочное происшествие в Стайлзе (=Zagadochnoe proisshestvie v Staylze, The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Serbian: Мистериозна афера у Стајлсу (=Misteriozna afera u Stajlsu, The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- Spanish: El misterioso Caso de Styles (The mysterious Case at Styles)
- Swedish: En dos stryknin (A dose of strychnine)
- Turkish: Ölüm sessiz geldi (Death came silently)
- Chinese: "斯泰尔斯庄园奇案“ (The Mysterious Affair at Styles)
- "American Tribute to Agatha Christie". Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Curran, John. Agatha Christie's Secret Notebooks (p. 33). HarperCollins, 2009. ISBN 978-0-00-731056-2
- Neither Hastings' first name nor rank are given in this novel
- Berkley Books, Chapter 2, p19
- Morgan, Janet. Agatha Christie, A Biography. (pp. 48–49) Collins, 1984; ISBN 0-00-216330-6
- The Times Literary Supplement, 3 February 1921 (p. 78)
- The New York Times Book Review, 26 December 1920 (p. 49)
- The Sunday Times, 20 February 1921 (p. 7)
- The British Weekly, 10 February 1921 – Vol LXIX No 1789 (p. 411)
- Barnard, Robert. A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie – Revised edition (p. 200). Fontana Books, 1990; ISBN 0-00-637474-3
- Barnard. pp. 22–23
- The Mysterious Affair at Styles at the Internet Movie Database
- "The Mysterious Affair at Styles". AgatheChristie.com. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- Sun News Review', 23 February 2012
- "The Mysterious Affair at Styles". Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Holdings at the British Library (Newspapers – Colindale). Shelfmark: NPL LON LD77
- Penguin history website
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
It is one of two of Christie's books that are in the public domain in the US (the other being The Secret Adversary). The copyright on the book will not expire in some Western countries before 2047.
- The Mysterious Affair at Styles at Project Gutenberg (without the illustrations)
- The Mysterious Affair at Styles at the official Agatha Christie website
- The Mysterious Affair at Styles (1990) at the Internet Movie Database