National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
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|National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine|
|Formation||November 27, 1918|
|Chairman||Borys Yevhenovych Paton|
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny, abbr: NAN Ukraine) is the highest research body in Ukraine as a self-governing state-funded organization. It is the main research institution along with the five other academies specialized in various scientific disciplines. NAS Ukraine follows all Laws of Ukraine and its statute and consists of numerous departments, sections, research institutes, scientific centers and various other supporting scientific organizations. The Academy reports on the annual basis to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
The presidium of the academy is located at the following address vulytsia Volodymyrska, 57, across the street from the Building of Pedagogical Museum where used to preside the Central Council during the independence period of 1917-18.
|Names for the Academy|
|Ukrainian Academy of Sciences||1918—1921|
|All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences||1921—1936|
|Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR||1936—1991|
|Academy of Sciences of Ukraine||1991—1993|
|National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine||since 1994|
Over the course of its history, the NAS Ukraine has had 5 different names. From 1918 to 1921, it was known as the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS). From 1921 until 1936, it was known as the All-Ukrainian Academy of Science. From 1936 to 1991, it was known as the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. From 1991 to 1993, it was known as the Academy of Science of Ukraine. Since 1994, it has been known by its current name, National Academy of Science of Ukraine.
|Presidents of the Academy|
|Volodymyr Ivanovych Vernadsky||1918 — 1919|
|Orest Ivanovych Levytsky||1919 — 1921|
|Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko||1921 — 1922|
|Orest Ivanovych Levytsky||1922|
|Volodymyr Ipolytovych Lypsky||1922 — 1928|
|Danylo Kyrylovych Zabolotny||1928 — 1929|
|Oleksandr Oleksandrovych Bohomolets||1930 — 1946|
|Oleksandr Volodymyrovych Palladin||1946 — 1962|
|Borys Yevhenovych Paton||1962 — present|
Establishment of the Academy 
The initiative to create such an institution came from the Ukrainian Science Society in April of 1917 soon after the February Revolution. However it was finally materialized during the time of the Ukrainian State, when on the proposal of the Minister of Education and Arts Mykola Vasylenko a special commission was formed, which from July 9 - September 17, 1918 composed a legal document for the creation of the Academy. That document was approved by the Council of Ministers and signed by the Hetman of Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadsky on November 14, 1918. At this point it was called the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS).
According to its original statute the Academy consisted of three research departments in history and philology, physics and mathematics, as well as social studies. All publishing of academy was to be printed in the Ukrainian language. Its statute emphasized the all-Ukrainian nature: the members could be not only citizens of the Ukrainian State, but also the Ukrainian scientists of the West Ukraine (at that time citizens of Austria-Hungary). Foreigners could become academicians as well, but on the resolution of the 2/3 of the active members' composition.
The presidium and its first academicians (three to each department) appointed the government, while the future members were elected by those academicians (active members). The first academicians were appointed historians academician Dmytro Bahaliy and Orest Levytsky, economists Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky and V.Kosynsky, eastern studies Ahathanhel Krymsky and Mykola Petrov, linguist Stepan Smal-Stotsky, goelogists academician Volodymyr Vernadsky and Pavlo Tutkovsky, biologist Mykola Kashchenko, mechanic Stepan Tymoshenko, law studies Fedir Taranovsky. For the President of the Academy, the Hetman of Ukraine invited Mykhailo Hrushevsky, but he declined. The Constituent Assembly that took place on November 27, 1918 elected the President academician Volodymyr Vernadsky, while the permanent secretary became Ahathanhel Krymsky.
The government of Ukraine provided funding to create research departments, institutes, and others. In its first year the Academy consisted of three departments within three institutes, 15 commissions, and the National Library.
Establishment of the Soviet Ukraine 
After overtaking Kiev on February 11, 1919 Bolsheviks issued a decree about structure and financing of the Academy. In the Soviet times that date was considered the establishment of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. After several change of powers and withdrawal of the Denikin's forces in December of 1919 the Bolsheviks permanently established themselves in Kiev. With the second arrival of Bolsheviks Vernadsky resigned. For the next couple of years the President of the Academy was elected Orest Levytsky. In 1921 Levytsky was replaced by a newly elected Mykola Vasylenko, however he was not approved by the authorities and soon was replaced with Levytsky. Vasylenko after that was arrested in 1923 and convicted (later released on amnesty). During that time the Academy moved to the boarding house of the countess Levashova.
On June 14, 1921 the Council of People's Commissars of Ukrainian SSR adopted a decree "Resolution on the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences", according to which the Academy was recognized as the highest scientific state institution and subordinated to the Narkom of Education. The Academy was renamed from UAS to VUAN (Ukrainian: ВУАН) as the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences underlining its meaning for the Ukrainian territories under Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and declaring its intentions to unite within one organization the scientific intelligentsiya of all Ukrainian lands. The relationship between the members of VUAN and the Soviet authorities soured, while the relationships with the Ukrainian scientists abroad had completely diminished. After the historian Orest Levytsky the President of the Academy became the botanist Volodymyr Ipolytyovych Lypsky. Between 1919-1930 to the Academy were elected 103 academicians. In 1924-5, the Academy held its first election for foreign members. However, none of the candidates were approved by the Narkom of Education.
In 1929 two of its members (Serhiy Yefremov and Mykhailo Slabchenko) and 24 corresponding agents (such as Osip Hermaize, Hryhoriy Holoskevych, Andriy Nikovsky, and others) were arrested in accusation to belonging to the non-existing (as later it was established) Union for the Freedom of Ukraine. None of the arrested have ever been released.
Like many other academies, it has a two-tier membership: academicians, and corresponding members. There is also an additional membership category for foreign members. It operates many research institutions, primarily in the fundamental sciences but also in the humanities. The Academy has "state-agency" status, but is self-governing in decisions relating to its own activities. The NASU is responsible for over 90% of all discoveries made in Ukraine, including the transmutation of lithium into helium, the production of heavy water, and the development of a 3-D radar that operates in the decimeter range.
Notable members 
Through its history, various new departments have been founded by prominent scientists. The following list gives some of the scientist who founded new departments.
- O. M. Dynnik and M. O. Lavrentiev
- Biology and Medicine
The NASU has had only eight (8) different presidents:
- V. I. Vernadsky (1918–1921)
- M. P. Vasylenko (1921–1922)
- O. I. Levitsky (1922)
- V. I. Lipsky (1922–1928)
- D. K. Zabolotny (1928–1929)
- O. O. Bohomolets (1930–1946)
- O. V. Palladin (1946–1962)
- B. E. Paton (1962–present)
Current status 
On 2006, the NASU has 3 sections and 14 departments within them, 6 regional science centers, 173 research institutions, with 43,613 employees including 16,813 researchers; among them, 2,493 with degree of Doktor Nauk (D.Sc.) and 7,996 with degree of Kandidat Nauk (Ph.D.). Currently, the sections and departments are:
- Section of Physical-Technical and Mathematical Sciences
- Department of Mathematics
- Department of Computer Science
- Department of Mechanics
- Department of Physics and Astronomy
- Department of Earth Sciences
- Department of Physical and Technical Problems of Materials Science
- Department of Physical and Technical Problems of Power Engineering
- Department of Nuclear Physics and Power Engineering
- Section of Chemical and Biological Sciences
- Department of Chemistry
- Department of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Biology
- Department of General Biology
- Section of Social Sciences ad Humanities
- Department of Economics
- Department of History, Philosophy and Law
- Department of Philological Studies, Art Criticism, Ethnology
Regional Centers 
Regional science centers (SCs) are:
- Donetsk SC (center in Donetsk) - 9 research institutes;
- Western SC (Lviv) - 18 institutes;
- Southern SC (Odessa) - 7 institutes;
- North-East SC (Kharkiv) led by Volodymyr Semynozhenko since 25.11.1992 - 17 institutes;
- Dnieper SC (Dnipropetrovsk) - 7 institutes;
- Crimea SC (Simferopol) - 8 institutes.
The most of institutions of the Academy (212) are placed in the city of Kiev, following by Kharkiv (39) and Lviv (27). The Academy is represented at least by one institution in most of the oblasts in Ukraine, except Volyn, Rivne, Ternopil, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia, and Kirovohrad.
Libraries of Academy 
There are 2 national libraries affiliated with the NASU:
- The V. I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine with 10 million books, manuscripts
- The V. Stefanyk National Library in Lviv.
The NASU has two publishing houses:
- «Наукова думка» (roughly "Scientific Thought" or "Naukova dumka") and
- «Академперіодика» (roughly "Academic Periodical" or "Akademperiodyka")
The NASU has made major contributions to most of the major fields of science.
Today, the General Meetings of the NASU consist of 512 academicians and corresponding members along with 130 foreign members.
Since 2004 the Academy awards its Vernadsky Golden Medal to the most distinguished academicians.
- 2004 Borys Paton
- 2005 P. Kostiuk
- 2006 V. Skopenko
- 2007 Y. Mytropolsky
See also 
- Ukrainian Science Society (1907-1921), a predecessor of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
State-funded research institutions 
- National Academy of Arts of Ukraine
- National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
- National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine
- National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine
- National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine
- Minor Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Public-funded research institutions 
- Academy of Mining Sciences of Ukraine
- Academy of Economic Sciences of Ukraine
- Academy of Higher Education of Ukraine
- Shevchenko Scientific Society
- Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences of Canada (Winnipeg)
- Ukrainian Academy of Art and Sciences in the US (New York)
- Statute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (2002)
- Закон про заснування Української Академії наук в м. Києві (Law about creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in the city of Kiev). Law of Ukraine #710. November 14, 1918. (official document)