The Pajama Game
|The Pajama Game|
Original Broadway Windowcard, illustrated by Peter Arno
|Basis||Novel 7-1/2 Cents by
1973 Broadway Revival
2006 Broadway Revival
|Awards||Tony Award for Best Musical
Tony Award for Best Revival
The Pajama Game is a musical based on the novel 7½ Cents by Richard Bissell. It features a score by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross. The story deals with labor troubles in a pajama factory, where worker demands for a seven-and-a-half cents raise are going unheeded. In the midst of this ordeal, love blossoms between Babe, the grievance committee head, and Sid, the new factory superintendent.
The original Broadway production opened on May 13, 1954, and ran for 1,063 performances. It was revived in 1973, and again in 2006 by The Roundabout Theatre Company. The original production won a Tony for Best Musical, and the 2006 Broadway revival won a Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical. The musical is a popular choice for community and school group productions.
The original London West End production opened at the London Coliseum on October 13 1955 where it ran for 588 performances. Max Wall played Hines, Elizabeth (Liz) Seal played Gladys, Frank Lawless played Prez, Edmund Hockridge played Sid Sorokin and Joy Nichols played Babe Williams.
- Sid Sorokin, the handsome new factory superintendent who falls in love with Babe, despite their being on opposite sides of the labor dispute central to the plot.
- Catherine "Babe" Williams, the leader of the Union Grievance Committee, who in turn falls in love with Sid.
- Myron "Old Man" Hasler, the strict head of the pajama factory who keeps a secret.
- Gladys Hotchkiss, Hasler's attractive, quick-witted secretary, who dates Hines and is chased by Prez.
- Vernon Hines, the factory timekeeper, who thinks Gladys flirts too much and, as a result is always jealous.
- Prez, the head of the union and a skirt chaser, despite being a married man.
- Mabel, the mother hen of the factory and Sid's secretary.
- Mae, a loud-mouthed member of the Grievance Committee, who accepts Prez's advances, much to his surprise.
- Pop, Babe's kind and agreeable father.
- Max, A salesman.
- Charley, a worker in the factory and the handyman.
- Joe, a factory worker and Prez's right-hand man.
- Brenda, A member of the Grievance Committee.
- Virginia, a factory girl and union activist.
- Poopsie, a factory girl and union activist.
- Gus, an unhappy factory helper who Sid shoves.
A strike is imminent at the Sleep-Tite Pajama Factory, where the workers churn out pajamas at a backbreaking pace ("Racing with the Clock"). In the middle of this, a new superintendent, Sid Sorokin, has come from out of town to work in the factory ("A New Town Is a Blue Town"). The union, led by Prez, is seeking a wage raise of seven and a half cents an hour. Sid and Babe are in opposite camps, yet romantic interest is sparked at their first encounter. Despite cajoling from her fellow garment workers, Babe appears to reject Sid ("I'm Not At All in Love"). Meanwhile, Hines, the popular efficiency expert, is in love with Gladys, the company president's secretary, but is pushing her away with his jealous behavior. After witnessing a fight between the couple, Sid's secretary, Mabel, tries to help Hines break from his jealous ways ("I'll Never Be Jealous Again"). Meanwhile, Sid, rejected again by Babe, is forced to confide his feelings to a dictaphone ("Hey There").
During the annual company picnic, kicked off with the official Sleep-Tite Company Anthem, Prez chases after Gladys, who rejects his advances ("Her Is"), a drunken Hines demonstrates his knife throwing act (these knives are thrown at Babe), and Babe warms up to Sid ("Once a Year Day"). As the picnic-goers head home, Prez turns his attentions to Mae, who responds in the positive far more quickly and aggressively than he'd expected ("Her Is (Reprise)"). At Babe's home, Sid's romantic overtures are deflected by Babe, who makes casual conversation on tangential subjects ("Small Talk"). Eventually the walls come down between the two, who admit their love for one another ("There Once Was a Man"), but their estrangement is reinforced when they return to the factory. A slow-down is staged by the union, strongly supported by Babe ("Racing with the Clock (Reprise)"). Sid, as factory superintendent, demands an "honest day's work" and threatens to fire slackers. Babe, however, is still determined to fight for their cause, and kicks her foot into the machinery, causes a general breakdown and Sid reluctantly fires her. As she leaves, he begins to wonder again whether a romance with her is a mistake ("Hey There (Reprise)").
At the Union meeting, Gladys (Mae in the 2006 revival) performs for the rest of the union, with "the boys from the cutting room floor" ("Steam Heat"). After the main meeting, the Grievance Committee meets at Babe's house, to discuss further tactics, such as mismatching sizes of pajamas and sewing the fly-buttons onto the bottoms such that they are likely to come off and leave their wearer pants-less. At the meeting, as Prez and Mae's relationship is waning, Sid arrives and tries to smooth things over with Babe. Despite her feelings for Sid, she pushes him away ("Hey There (Reprise)").
Back at the factory, the girls reassure Hines, who is personally offended by the slow down ("Think of the Time I Save"). Sid, now convinced that Babe's championship of the union is justified, takes Gladys out for the evening to a night club, "Hernando's Hideaway," where he wheedles the key to the company's books from her. Hines and Babe each discover the pair and assume they are becoming romantically involved. Babe storms out, and Hines believes his jealous imaginings have come true ("I'll Never Be Jealous Again Ballet").
Using Gladys' key, Sid accesses the firm's books and discovers that the boss, Hasler, has already tacked on the extra seven and one-half cents to the production cost, but has kept all the extra profits for himself.
In Gladys' office, Hines, still jealous out of his mind, flings knives past Gladys (deliberately missing, he claims), narrowly missing an increasingly paranoid Mr. Hasler. After detaining Hines, Sid then brings about Hasler's consent to a pay raise and rushes to bring the news to the Union Rally, already in progress ("7½ Cents"). This news brings peace to the factory and to his love life ("There Once Was a Man (Reprise)"). Everyone goes out to celebrate—at Hernando's Hideaway ("Pajama Game").
Musical numbers 
Notes on the music 
The music is generally played by a big band, the music being a jazzy, upbeat type of music.
Two of the songs, 'There Once Was a Man' and 'A New Town Is a Blue Town,' were actually written by Frank Loesser, although they were uncredited. 
"Hernando's Hideaway" 
For the 2006 revival, Harry Connick, Jr., played the piano, when Gladys (Megan Lawrence), Sid, and Company were on stage for "Hernando's Hideaway". "The length and form of the song remain steady," Kathleen Marshall said, "but he can improvise within it."
"Steam Heat" 
In the original production, and in the film version, the famed dance number "Steam Heat" was danced by Gladys. In the 2006 revival, the number was made with Mae (Joyce Chittick), instead of Gladys. Kathleen Marshall explains: "Hines accuses Gladys of being a flirt, and she's not. So does it make sense that she'd go and strut her stuff in front of the whole union? Hines would say, 'Aha, you floozy, I caught you!' Also, she's the boss's secretary, so why would she be at a union meeting? I think it's much more fun that Gladys doesn't really let go until she goes out with Sid, gets real drunk, and throws caution to the wind."
New songs for the 2006 revival 
"The Three of Us (Me, Myself and I)" 
Words & music by Richard Adler; in 2006, Hines (Michael McKean) performed the new number, "The Three of Us" at show's end with Gladys (Megan Lawrence). At the time of the revival, Adler was quoted as saying that he wrote the song for Jimmy Durante in 1964. "It was written for Jimmy Durante," says McKean, "and Durante used to do it in his act, but he never recorded it, so it’s kind of an orphan." The song was actually featured in the 1966 television musical, Olympus 7-000, part of the ABC Stage 67 series which also produced Stephen Sondheim's Evening Primrose. Eddie Foy, Jr. (who had played Hines in the original Broadway and movie versions of The Pajama Game) introduced the song in Olympus 7-000 and can be heard singing it on the Command Records soundtrack album. Donald O'Connor, Larry Blyden and Phyllis Newman also starred in the TV special with Foy.
"The World Around Us" 
"The World Around Us" was part of the 1954 Broadway previews and opening, but was dropped during the first week of the Broadway run, replaced by Babe's reprise of "Hey There". This would leave Sid with no songs in the second act, aside from the "There Once was a Man" reprise. The number was restored for the 2006 Broadway revival, allowing star Harry Connick, Jr., to have a second-act song.
"If You Win, You Lose" 
Words & music by Richard Adler; for the 1973 revival, in place of the second-act "Hey There" reprise, there was a new song, "Watch Your Heart". Retitled "If You Win, You Lose", the song has been heard in recent productions of the show and was heard in the 2006 Broadway production.
Production history 
Original Broadway 
The original Broadway production opened on May 13, 1954, and closed on November 24, 1956, after 1,063 performances. It was directed by George Abbott and Jerome Robbins and featured choreography by Bob Fosse. The original cast included John Raitt, Janis Paige, Eddie Foy, Jr., Carol Haney, and Stanley Prager.
This production is noted for starting the career of Shirley MacLaine. A relative unknown at the time, she was selected to understudy Carol Haney's role. MacLaine filled the role for several months, as Haney was out of commission with a broken ankle. Director/producer Hal B. Wallis was an audience member at one of MacLaine's performances, and signed her as a contract player for Paramount Pictures.
Film, 1957 
Broadway revival, 1973 
A Broadway revival opened on December 9, 1973, at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, but it closed on February 3, 1974, after just 65 performances. Directed by one of the two directors of the original production in 1954, George Abbott, with choreography by Zoya Leporska. The cast included Hal Linden, Barbara McNair, and Cab Calloway as Hines.
Broadway, 2006 
The Roundabout Theatre Company revival, produced by special arrangement with Jeffrey Richards, James Fuld, Jr. and Scott Landis, opened on February 23, 2006 and closed on June 17, 2006, after 129 performances (and 41 previews). Kathleen Marshall was choreographer and director, with a cast starring Harry Connick, Jr., making his Broadway acting debut as Sid, Kelli O'Hara as Babe, Michael McKean as Hines and Megan Lawrence as Gladys. The revival included three added songs, by Richard Adler. The original book by George Abbott and Richard Bissell was revised by Peter Ackerman (screenwriter Ice Age).
Awards and nominations 
Original Broadway production 
|1955||Tony Award||Best Musical||Won|
|Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical||Carol Haney||Won|
|Best Choreography||Bob Fosse||Won|
2006 Broadway revival 
- The 1954 cast recording, originally issued by Columbia Records and currently available on Sony Masterworks.
- The 1957 film soundtrack recording, originally issued by Columbia Records and currently available on Collectables Records.
- The cast recording for the 2006 revival is a two-disc set: The first disc contains the Broadway cast recording from The Pajama Game; and as a suggestion from the Sony record company, there is a second disc, which contains new recordings of songs from Harry Connick, Jr.'s, compositions for the 2001 musical Thou Shalt Not, performed by Harry Connick, Jr., and Kelli O'Hara. The double album is produced by Tracey Freeman and Harry Connick, Jr.
- Pajama Game at the Guide to Musical Theatre
- The Pajama Game at the Internet Broadway Database
- The Pajama Game (2006) at broadway.com
- The Pajama Game (2006) Reviews
- Video feature: Opening Night: The Pajama Game (2006)
- The Pajama Game (1957) at the Internet Movie Database
- Show history at Music Theatre International
- Review of recording
- Phoenix Entertainment Tour