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The Palm Jumeirah is an artificial archipelago created using land reclamation by Nakheel, a company owned by the Dubai government in United Arab Emirates and was designed and developed by HHCP architects. It is one of three planned islands called the Palm Islands (Palm Jumeirah, Palm Jebel Ali and Palm Deira) which would have extended into the Persian Gulf, increasing Dubai's shoreline by a total of 520 kilometres (320 mi). The Palm Jumeirah is the smallest and the original of three Palm Islands originally under development by Nakheel. It is located on the Jumeirah coastal area of the emirate of Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Palm Jumeirah is in the shape of a palm tree. It consists of a trunk, a crown with 17 fronds, and a surrounding crescent island that forms an 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) long breakwater. The island is 5 by 5 kilometres (3.1 by 3.1 mi) and its total area is larger than 800 football pitches. The crown is connected to the mainland by a 300-metre (980 ft) bridge and the crescent is connected to the top of the palm by a subsea tunnel. The island doubled the length of the Dubai coastline.
According to the developer's publicity material, the Jumeirah Palm island will feature themed hotels, three types of villas (Signature Villas, Garden Homes and Canal Cove Town Homes), apartment buildings, beaches, marinas, restaurants, and a variety of retail outlets.
On 18 June 2007, the Cunard Line announced that it had sold its former flagship, RMS Queen Elizabeth 2, to Istithmar for use as a floating hotel at The Palm Jumeirah beginning in 2009. In July 2009, it was rumoured that the ship would rather relocate to Cape Town for use in an unrelated Nakheel development. As of 2013, it is still located in Dubai, but the floating hotel plan has not eventuated.
The Palm Jumeirah Monorail is a 5.4 kilometres (3.4 mi) monorail connecting the Atlantis Hotel to the Gateway Towers at the foot of the island, opened on 6 May 2009. located on Palm Jumeirah island in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The monorail connects the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland, with a planned further extension to the Red Line of the Dubai Metro. The line opened on 30 April 2009. It is the first monorail in the Middle East.
Construction began with the Palm Jumeirah island in June 2001 and the developers announced handover of the first residential units in 2006. The island has been created using 94,000,000 cubic metres (3.3×109 cu ft) of sand and 7 million tons of rock. The Palm Jumeirah was created by pouring sand fill onto the 10.5-metre-deep seabed using dredgers. Above sea level, 3 metres of the reclamation were achieved by a dredging technique known as "rainbowing", in which the sand fill was sprayed over the surface of the rising island. Calcareous sand was used for the reclamation. The island includes a curved breakwater using natural rock, intended to encourage the creation of a natural reef and provide habitats for sea life. The land form was reclaimed by the Dutch company Van Oord. Total cost reached US$12.3 billion and maintaining the island is a costly expenditure. Approximately 40,000 workers, mostly from South Asia, have been involved in the construction of the island.
In early October 2007, the Palm Jumeirah had already become the world's largest artificial island. Also at this time, 75% of the properties were ready to hand over, with 500 families already residing on the island. By the end of 2009, 28 hotels were opened on the Crescent.
Hotels and Resorts
The Palm Jumeirah has a number of Hotels, Resorts, and Hotel residences, following are the hotels and resorts on Palm Jumeirah:
- The Fairmont Palm Hotel & Resort
- Kempinski Hotel & Residences,
- Rixos The Palm Dubai
- Atlantis, The Palm
- Royal Club, Dubai
- Oceana, The Palm Jumeirah
- Jumeirah Zabeel Saray
- Oceana Residence, Palm Jumeirah
- Tiara Residence
- One & Only The Palm
- Palm Jumeirah Residences
- Beach Apartments, Palm Jumeirah
- The Residences, Palm Jumeirah
- Waldorf Astoria, Palm Jumeriah
The complexities of the construction were blamed, in part, for the extended delays to the completion of the project, the date of which was pushed back multiple times and was nearly two years late. Further controversy was engendered when it was revealed that after launching the project, Nakheel increased the number of residential units on the island (with a concomitant reduction in the amount of physical space between individual properties) from the originally announced 4,500 (comprising 2,000 villas purchased early in the expectation of greater separation between properties. This increase was attributed to Nakheel miscalculating the actual cost of construction and requiring the raising of additional capital, although Nakheel has never commented publicly on the matter.
The outer break water was designed as a continuous barrier, but by preventing natural tidal movement, the seawater within the Palm was becoming stagnant. The problem was corrected by adding an additional gap in the barrier. As explained in the National Geographic Channel's documentary Impossible Islands, part of its MegaStructures series, the breakwater was subsequently modified to create gaps on either side, allowing tidal movement to oxygenate the water within and prevent it stagnating, albeit less efficiently than would be the case if the breakwater did not exist. This same episode addressed the issue of marine life as well, but stated that the breakwater has actually encouraged marine life and that new marine species are moving into the area.
In a 2009 article describing the collapsing Dubai economy, The New York Times reported that the Palm was sinking and this has been confirmed now by geological surveys, at the moment it is 5 millimetres (0.20 in) per year but this could increase rapidly. Furthermore there are many reported cases where people had bought houses before they were built and are furious about the space available now and the way they seem to be living on top of each other. Nakheel refuted the claims by the New York Times who had quoted one small ground survey firm that the island was sinking. They defended the single claim by saying that there had been no reports of any structural problems on any of the buildings on the island which would be expected if there were any subsidence. Nakheel also outlined that claims suggesting Palm Jumeirah has sunk by 5 mm, as detected by remote sensing (satellite) techniques, are not possible given that NASA's laser altimeter satellites have an accuracy of only + or – 50 millimetres (2.0 in).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Palm Jumeirah.|
- Palm Islands
- The World
- The Universe
- Tourism in Dubai
- Palm Grandeur
- Jumeirah Islands
- The Taj Exotica Hotel & Resort
- Longshore drift
- "The Palm Jumeirah". Nakheel. 2006. Retrieved 11 February 2007.
- Booth, Robert (26 April 2008). "Pitfalls in paradise: why Palm Jumeirah is struggling to live up to the hype". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "The Palm Jumeirah". Nakheel Website. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
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- Nice and Easy, but Fares Not So Fair
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- "Palm Island Dubai FAQ".
- "MegaStructures – National Geographic Channel episode guide".
- Laid-Off Foreigners Flee as Dubai Spirals Down, New York Times, 11 February 2009