The People's Court
|The People's Court|
|Genre||Reality court show|
|Created by||John Masterson|
|Presented by||Doug Llewelyn (1981–1993)
Harvey Levin (1997–present)
|Judges||Joseph Wapner (1981–1993)
Ed Koch (1997–1999)
Jerry Sheindlin (1999–2000)
Marilyn Milian (2001–present)
|Narrated by||Curt Chaplin (1997–present)|
|Theme music composer||Alan Tew (1981–1993)|
|Opening theme||"The Big One" (1981-1993)|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||(first life) 12
(present life) 16
(overall show) 28
|Executive producer(s)||Ralph Edwards
|Running time||22 mins. (1980 pilot, 1981–1993)
44 mins. (1997–present)
|Production company(s)||Ralph Edwards Productions (1981–1987)
Stu Billett Productions (1981–1987)
Ralph Edwards-Stu Billett Productions (1987–1993; 1997–present)
|Distributor||Telepictures Corporation (1981–1986)
Warner Bros. Domestic Television Distribution (1989–1993; 1997–present)
|Original channel||First-run syndication|
|Picture format||SDTV 480i
|Original run||September 14, 1981
– May 21, 1993|
September 8, 1997 – present
The People's Court is an American arbitration-based reality court show, currently presided over by retired Florida State Circuit Court Judge Marilyn Milian, in which small claims disputes are handled.
The People's Court is the first court show to use binding arbitration, introducing the format into the genre in 1981. The system has been duplicated by most of the show's successors in the judicial genre. Moreover, The People's Court is the first popular, long-running reality in the judicial genre. It was preceded only by a few short-lived realities in the genre; these short-lived predecessors were only loosely related to judicial proceedings, except for one: Parole (1959) took footage from real-life courtrooms holding legal proceedings. Prior to The People's Court, the vast majority of TV courtroom shows used actors, and recreated or fictional cases (as did radio before that). Among examples of these types of court shows include Famous Jury Trials and Your Witness.
The People's Court has had two contrasting lives. The show's first life was presided over solely by former Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge Joseph Wapner. His tenure lasted from the show's debut on September 14, 1981, until May 21, 1993, when the show was cancelled due to low ratings. This left the show with a total of 2,484 ½-hour episodes and 12 seasons. The show was taped in Los Angeles during its first life. After being cancelled, reruns aired until September 9, 1994.
On September 8, 1997, after being out of production for four years, The People's Court was revived for a second life in first-run syndication as a 60-minute program. Former lawyer and Mayor of New York Ed Koch was chosen as arbiter, which he maintained for 2 seasons from the 1997–98 season through the 1998–99 season (the present life's 2nd season and overall show's 14th). By the 1999–00 season, husband of Judith Sheindlin (who presides over Judge Judy) and former New York State Supreme Court Judge Jerry Sheindlin succeeded Koch. Sheindlin lasted one and a half seasons as he was replaced towards the end of the 2000–01 season (present life's 4th season and overall show's 17th).
Beginning in spring 2001, Florida judge Marilyn Milian took over The People's Court and has presided over the show ever since. Once Milian completes the 2012–13 season, she will have served as longest arbiter over the series with 12 and a half seasons. As of the present, however, her years on the program tie Wapner at 12 seasons. In the 2009-10 television season, The People's Court's 2nd/present life outlasted its first when it reached 13 seasons. While the show taped in New York City for the first 15 seasons of its second life, it now tapes in Stamford, Connecticut as of the 2012-13 season.
On September 3, 2012, The People's Court's 2nd/present life entered its 16th season (28th overall season). With 28 total seasons, The People's Court ranks as the 2nd longest-running courtroom program behind the ongoing Divorce Court at 33 seasons (from its 3 combined lives).
Show history 
When John Masterson devised the original camera-in-court concept in 1975, he first pitched it to Monty Hall, the producer and host of the game show, Let's Make a Deal, and his partner, producer-writer Stefan Hatos, but the networks did not buy it. It was then pitched for the first run syndication market, and did sell. John Masterson, who many consider a pioneer and originator of "reality TV" also created Bride and Groom and Breakfast in Hollywood. The series was executive produced by Ralph Edwards, who also created and hosted the documentary show This Is Your Life, and Stu Billett, who later went on to create Moral Court.
The People's Court's first life: Wapner era 
The People's Court pilot episode was taped on October 23, 1980, with a second pilot episode taped on January 13, 1981. It debuted in syndication on September 14, 1981.
The judge from the show's original twelve years (including the 1980 pilot), was Joseph Wapner. Rusty Burrell was his bailiff, Jack Harrell was the announcer, and Doug Llewelyn was the host and court reporter, who would announce the matter of the dispute at the beginning of each trial. He would also interview the plaintiff and the defendant after the court ruling, to gauge their responses to the verdict. Llewelyn would often end each episode with a jaunty "If you have a problem, try to resolve it yourself. But if you find yourselves at loggerheads, don't take the law into your own hands: you take 'em to court", which became something of a 1980s catchphrase. If a case ended with a verdict for the defendant, however, Llewelyn would instead end the episode by saying, "If someone files a lawsuit against you and yet you're convinced you've done nothing wrong, don't be intimidated. Just be sure to stand up for your rights: go to court".
The cases often had pun-related names, such as "The Case of the Overdone Underthings" and "A Head with a Beer on It".
Judge Wapner would greet his litigants by saying, "I know you've been sworn. I've read your complaint..."
Occasionally, if an episode wrapped up a few minutes early, Judge Wapner would field questions from the courtroom observers, or there would be commentary from the legal consultant explaining the legal reasons behind Judge Wapner's decisions.
The People's Court deals in small claims matters. When the show premiered in 1981, litigants could not sue for more than US$1,500, which was the limit for small claims court at the time in California. As the laws in California changed, so did this amount. By the end of the show's first life in 1993, litigants could sue for up to US$5,000, which is now the law in most states.
Researchers for the show would examine small claims filings in Southern California and approach the plaintiff and defendant in interesting cases. The producers would offer to have Judge Wapner arbitrate the dispute if they would agree to dismiss their action and be bound by Judge Wapner's decision. Through this approach, the show could get real people with real cases. However, even though the show is decorated and run like a real courtroom, it is not a real court or part of any judicial system, but instead a form of binding arbitration.
The losing party does not actually need to pay the judgment, as such. Instead (as is stated in the disclaimer at the end of each show), both parties are paid from a fund (set up by Ralph Edwards-Stu Billett Productions). This fund was based on the amount of the lawsuit claim, but an exact formula was not stated. The fund was to be first divided equally, then any monetary judgment ordered was subtracted from the loser's half (and presumably both halves in the case of cross judgments). Each litigant received at least what remained of their half in shows concluding with that disclaimer.
The disclaimer did not call this fund an "appearance fee", a term which appeared later in connection with The People's Court and other court shows. There may have been a later period when The People's Court paid the judgment, plus expenses and only a modest appearance fee to each litigant.
Ending of the show's first life 
After twelve seasons on The People's Court, it was announced that Wapner was not invited back to the court show in 1993. The producers of The People's Court wished to revamp the series but did not notify Wapner of this decision. Wapner learned of the decision from his brother, who read it in The San Francisco Chronicle. Wapner has expressed holding great resentment and bitterness at the court show's producers for finding out this way, and additional resentment over being let go when, according to him, the show was doing well. However, although the show had a good run ratings-wise, the ratings had dropped to an all-time low at around the time The People's Court was cancelled.
Wapner has stated that he was told years later that the producers did not want to hurt his feelings; however, he has stated that this is exactly what the producers did. Wapner has also stated that he was not notified when the producers decided to revamp the series. He has stated that he holds no opinions on The People's Court judges who succeeded him as he never watches the program. He did, however, note that the following two People's Court judges who succeeded him (Ed Koch and Jerry Sheindlin) only lasted two seasons whereas he lasted twelve seasons. He also emphasized that judges need to be respectful of litigants.
The People's Court's second/present life 
Small claims court deals with matters up to US$7,500 (depending on the statutory maximum in the claimant's state), although the show did have a case where all four plaintiffs each sued the defendant for US$5,000 each; this case was dismissed. Another case during the Koch run (the second-season premiere) featured a US$15,000 lawsuit based upon the laws of the state of Florida. One case during the Marilyn Milian era featured a case where the plaintiff had four separate lawsuits against the defendant for a total of US$20,000.
When the new People's Court premiered in 1997, former New York newscaster Carol Martin of WCBS-TV hosted from a studio with Harvey Levin, who was involved with the prior edition of the series as a legal consultant, serving as a co-host in the field taking questions and opinions from people at the Manhattan Mall, then returning to the studio at the end of the show for a wrap-up. Curt Chaplin was hired to serve as the show's announcer and court reporter, which he still does to this day.
Several months into the run Martin departed the series for reasons that were never explained and Levin became the series' sole host. The studio segments were done away with and Levin hosted the entire episodes from the viewing area, which eventually moved from the Manhattan Mall to the Times Square visitors' center. Since Levin is now based in Los Angeles with TMZ, the viewing area has moved to the Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica, California while production of The People's Court remains in New York. The opening outlines of the taped cases are shown to people in the outdoor viewing area on a monitor. Their responses are edited into the program.
The show's second life has been headed by three judges since its debut.
Ed Koch and Jerry Sheindlin eras 
Former New York City mayor Ed Koch presided over the court from September 8, 1997 to June 25, 1999 (with reruns airing until September 10). Judge Jerry Sheindlin (husband of former New York Family Court Judge Judith Sheindlin, the presiding "judge" over the court show Judge Judy) sat on the bench from September 13, 1999 to December 8, 2000 (with reruns airing until March 9, 2001), and ratings on the show lagged. Less gruff than his wife, Jerry Sheindlin displayed more humor and was straightforward, often registering mock indignation whenever litigants referred to him (as they sometimes did) as "Judge Judy's husband." The bailiff for both of these judges' tenures was Josephine Ann Longobardi.
Marilyn Milian era 
On March 12, 2001, Marilyn Milian replaced Sheindlin as the judge and ratings improved significantly. For the remainder of the 2000-01 season, Davey Jones took over the role as bailiff, replacing Longobardi. However, in September 2001, Jones was replaced by Douglas McIntosh, who has been there ever since.
As the show's youngest and first female arbitrator, Marilyn Milian is lively and animated. Milian has often departed from the bench to understand the matters better or interact more powerfully with the litigants. Beyond this, she's effected many other unconventional moves so as to create a more riveting atmosphere. Charming and empathetic, Milian gets to the heart of each case to determine the underlying issues and uncover the truth, showing understanding and at times developing chemistries with certain litigants brought by her sense of humor. Milian has sometimes resorted to "a little rough justice”, in which she takes to saucy and sassy entertainment. Moreover, she has acrimonious and raging sides that manifest themselves upon perceived disrespectfulness or extreme guiltiness in litigants. Characterized as dialectic and logical, Judge Milian goes to great lengths to understand her litigants and resolves cases from a sound, legal-oriented perspective, usually combining sensible explanations to her judgements.
In 2008, The People's Court, under Judge Milian's reign, was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award under a new Courtroom/Legal Show category created by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. In 2009 and 2010, the show was nominated again for the Daytime Emmy Award under the same category, but did not win. On May 1, 2013, it was reported that The People's Court had again been nominated for a "Outstanding Legal/Courtroom Program" Daytime Emmy Award. The winner will be announced on June 16, 2013.
On November 16, 2009, The People's Court, under Milian's reign, welcomed back Judge Joseph A. Wapner to preside over a case for his 90th birthday.
By September 10, 2012, Milian reached her twelfth season presiding over the program, equaling that of Joseph Wapner and making her one-half of the longest reigning judges to preside over The People's Court.
Series overview 
Opening monologue 
When the original People's Court first hit the air, The monologue was as follows:
What you are about to witness is real. The participants are not actors. They are the actual people who have already either filed suit or been served a summons to appear in a California municipal court. Both parties in the suit have agreed to dismiss their court cases and have their disputes settled here, in our forum: The People's Court.
Later, the show opened with:
What you are witnessing is real. The participants are not actors. They are actual litigants with a case pending in a California municipal court. Both parties have agreed to dismiss their court cases and have their disputes settled here, in our forum: The People's Court.
In the 1997 revival, the line was:
What you are witnessing is real. The participants are not actors. They are actual litigants with a case pending in a New York metropolitan area court/civil court. Both parties/sides have agreed to drop their claims and have their disputes settled here, in our/Judge Jerry Sheindlin's forum (the latter from the period when Jerry Sheindlin was the presiding judge): The People's Court.
When Marilyn Milian replaced Sheindlin in 2001, the previous intro was revised:
What you are witnessing is real. The participants are not actors. They are actual litigants with real cases. They will settle their disputes here, in Judge Marilyn Milian's forum: The People's Court.
Later, Milian's intro was revised:
There's a new judge in town, the honorable Marilyn Milian. She will be hearing real cases presented by real litigants who have agreed to have their disputes settled here in our forum: The People's Court.
Then the opening was changed to:
The whole country's talking about the honorable Marilyn Milian... [soundbite of Judge Milian saying, "Judge here!"]... the hottest judge on television. [Soundbite of Judge saying, "It's my ruling!"] She'll hear real cases from real litigants. Here, in our forum: The People's Court.
After a few months the soundbites of Judge Milian's voice were dropped from the opening, and the wording of Curt Chaplin's introduction was slightly changed:
Everybody's talking about the honorable Marilyn Milian, the hottest judge on television. Real cases, real litigants. Here, in our forum: The People's Court.
In September 2009, the new opening was revealed when the new season premiered:
What you are about to witness is real. The participants are not actors. They are actual litigants with a case pending in civil court. Both parties have agreed to drop their claims and have their cases settled here, before Judge Marilyn Milian, in our forum: The People's Court.
Litigant compensation 
At the end of each show, the following disclaimer appears:
Both the plaintiff and the defendant have been paid from a fund for their appearance. The amount, if any, awarded in the case, is deducted from this fund, and the remainder is divided equally between both litigants. The amount of the fund is dependent on the size of the judgment.
No information is given as to what relation the amount of the fund bears to the size of the judgment, nor the amount of the fund if a verdict for the defense is rendered.
In a talk show appearance, Judge Wapner gave a few more specifics as to how compensation was typically calculated. In his words, if the plaintiff won, the show would pay his/her judgment and give the defendant $50 for his time, whereas if the defendant won, the parties would "split $500."
In 1989, a litigant sued the producers, claiming, "I was only willing to appear because they guaranteed me $1,500. I never would have appeared on that show and made a fool out of myself for a chintzy $250." (In response, an associate producer said that before going on the show, participants are given a packet of information "where everything is clearly outlined to the nth degree.")
The New York Post reported on some of the details surrounding compensation for a lawsuit filed by Claudia Evart. "The show pays all damages awarded to defendants and plaintiffs, as well as a $250 appearance fee."
Production notes 
The 1981–93 life of the show was initially taped at Golden West Broadcasters and, later, Metromedia in Los Angeles, before moving to The Production Group. In New York City, The People's Court first taped episodes at the NEP/Image studios in the former Grand Ballroom of the Hotel Pennsylvania, which was also the studio for the talk show Maury. In 1998, the show began taping at the MTI Studios on the 8th Floor at 401 Fifth Avenue, where the courtroom received a makeover. In 2006, the MTI Studios was sold to NEP/Image. At the end credits of some episodes, it says the show is taped at the NEP/Image studios. The former MTI studios are officially part of NEP Broadcasting's NEP Penn Studios.[dead link] As of 2012, the show has moved to the Connecticut Film Center in Stamford, Connecticut . The aired episodes are sometimes spliced together in a different order from which they are taped. This is why the judge's blouse color may change and why there may be fewer courtroom observers during the second half of the show than there are during the first half.
For the 2012 season the show started broadcasting in widescreen standard definition.
The People's Court is "A Ralph Edwards-Stu Billett Production". in association with Telepictures Productions and distributed by Warner Bros. Domestic Television Distribution. Telepictures Corporation was the original distributor of the series. Through the latter acquisition of Lorimar-Telepictures, the distribution rights to The People's Court now rest with Warner Bros. Television Distribution.
Theme music 
The theme music has been sampled by many artists including Nelly. It has also been featured in several films and television shows including SpongeBob SquarePants, "Blue Harvest", the sixth season premiere episode of Family Guy, WWE Raw, Malibu High, Boy Meets World, as well as Popular.
British version 
A British version of the show was produced by STV Productions (then known as "SMG TV Productions") to replace Trisha Goddard's talk show on ITV in 2005. The court reporter was Carol Smillie, the male judge was Jerome Lynch and the female judge was Rhonda Anderson. The show failed and was not re-commissioned.
In popular culture 
The original version of the show was referenced repeatedly in the 1988 film Rain Man. In the movie, autistic savant Raymond Babbit (Dustin Hoffman) compulsively watches the show, recites the entire opening monologue, records the judgement amounts in a dedicated notebook, and frequently refers to the show as "Wapner", in reference to the show's presiding judge. In one scene, his brother Charlie (Tom Cruise) awkwardly convinces a stranger to let Raymond watch the show in her house, since he was about to have a panic attack for nearly missing an episode. Charlie later buys him a portable television so he will never miss an episode again.
In 1995, Judge Wapner appeared on the Fox network's science fiction show Sliders as himself in the parallel world version of this program where, as a Soviet judge, he sentences Rembrandt Brown to 15 years in the Alaskan gulag for being a subversive. The parody show's logo uses a faux Cyrillic "Я" in place of the "R" in "Court".
The show's opening, where the announcer introduces the litigants in a dramatic fashion, is commonly imitated. Judge Milian's mannerisms and catchphrases have also been the subjects of comedy sketches on shows such as MADtv.
The December 21, 2009 edition of WWE Raw in Tampa, Florida featured a parody skit called the "Little People's Court", in which Degeneration X members Triple H and Shawn Michaels had to appear before a mock makeshift court of dwarves to testify about their continued mistreating of Hornswoggle. The videos that were shown during the "trial" even used the litigant introduction music of the original People's Court theme.
In the show SpongeBob SquarePants, whenever a character has to go to court, the same opening music is played and the trial is conducted in a form similar to The People's Court.
See also 
- Troutman, Andrew. "Judge Joseph Wapner". latimes.com. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "TV: 'People's Court', 'Reality' in the Morning", New York Times, September 8, 1981
- "People's Court Free TV Show Tickets in New York City". nytix.com. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- The Intelligencer – September 9, 1994
- Rusty Burrell (1925–2002) was a sheriff's department court bailiff in several famous Los Angeles trials, the Manson murders, The Onion Field murder, the Patty Hearst/SLA bank robbery, and the Caryl Chessman "Red Light Bandit". Burrell had previously appeared on TV in the 1950s Divorce Court, and it was also his job at that show to find real attorneys to appear on camera. One of those regular Divorce Court attorneys was Judge Joseph Wapner's father. 'People's Court' Bailiff Dies 2002-04-21, zap2it.com; Inside Judge Wapner's wallet by Ken Kurson, 2000-08-04, Green magazine at Salon.com.
- 'People's Court' Finds Itself Before the Dock – NYT June 15, 1989]
- "Joseph A. Wapner Interview". emmytvlegends.org. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- The People's Court: His Honor JERRY SHEINDLIN (Judge)
- Jerry and Judy Sheindlin Discuss Laying Down the Law on TV "KING: ... she's tough." – CNN Larry King Live transcript, aired September 12, 2000
- NYT 2008-01-31 " 'Judge Judy,' the longest-running and highest-rated courtroom show in syndication..."
- Lovell Banks, Taunya. "27". Judging the Judges-Daytime Television's Integrated Reality Court Bench. p. 311.
- New Judge For 'People's Court' – 2000-12-21, Zap2it.com.
- "The People's Court | Judge Milian". Peoplescourt.warnerbros.com. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "Daytime Entertainment Emmy Awards - 40th Annual Daytime Entertainment Emmy Awards Nominations". Emmyonline.org. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
- Richardson, Lynda (2001-03-27). "From a Courtroom on Camera, Justice With Style". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- Albiniak, Paige (2012-11-07). "Syndication Ratings: Syndies Steady Headed Into November Sweeps". broadcastingcable.com. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Court shows top syndie circuit". broadcastingcable.com. 2001-08-09. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "NEP Broadcasting". guardian.nepinc.com. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- The Intelligencer – October 16, 1995
- The Post Standard – June 6, 1997
- The People's Court UK web.archive.org, 2006
- Official website
- People's Court Raw
- 'People's Court': the Show the Networks Spurned (includes photo of Stu Billett)
- Certain Cases on 'People's Court' Come Readily to Wapner's Mind (includes photos of the show with Judge Wapner)
- 'People's Court' Returns to the Air but Without Wapner (includes photo of former NYC Mayor 'Judge' Ed Koch)
- Judge Wapner vs. Judge Judy: What A Match That Would Have Been