The Personal Jewel Collection of Elizabeth II

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The First of May by Winterhalter, 1851, showing Queen Victoria wearing the George III tiara; also pictured are (l-r) the Duke of Wellington, the Prince Consort, and baby Prince Arthur.

The Queen's Jewels (or the King's Jewels, when the monarch is male) are a historic collection of jewels owned personally by the monarch of the Commonwealth realms; currently Queen Elizabeth II. The jewels are separate from the British Crown Jewels. The origin of a royal jewel collection distinct from the official crown jewels is vague, though it is thought that the jewels have their origin somewhere in the sixteenth century. Many of the pieces are from far away lands and were brought back to the United Kingdom as a result of civil war, coups and revolutions, or acquired as gifts to the monarch.[1]

The official Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom are worn only at coronations (St. Edward's Crown being used to crown the monarch) and the State Opening of Parliament (the Imperial State Crown). On other formal occasions tiaras are worn. When the Queen goes abroad, she wears a tiara from her personal collection at formal events.

Value[edit]

There has never been a large-scale valuation of the royal family’s personal collection of jewels. In 1989, Mr Laurence Krashes, for sixteen years the senior assessor to Harry Winston, attempted to make one. Its worth is dubious as he was denied access to any of the jewels and his valuations of their worth are strictly guesswork. The Queen has never allowed any gemological study of her collection. Krashes' assessment was based on the cut, setting and quality of the stones from pictures and records.[citation needed] Sales of jewellery from the estate of the late Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon fetched higher than expected prices due to their royal connection.[2]

History[edit]

General history[edit]

Unlike the British Crown jewels—which mainly date from the accession of King Charles II—the jewels in the Queen's personal collection are not crown regalia, or insignia of state. Most pieces in the collection were designed for female monarchs or consorts, although some male monarchs have also contributed to the collection. Some of the pieces from far away lands were brought back to the United Kingdom as a result of civil war and revolutions. In more recent years the monarch has worn pieces of the collection in her capacity as Queen of Australia, Canada and New Zealand as the removal of the British Crown Jewels from the United Kingdom is prohibited. Queen Elizabeth II can be seen wearing jewels from her personal collection in official portraits for these realms (see external links).[3]

The House of Hanover dispute[edit]

In 1714 when the Stuart line was forced to abandon the Throne, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Hanover both came to be ruled in personal union by the British monarchs of the House of Hanover. Early Hanoverian monarchs were careful to keep the respective heirlooms separate. King George III gave half his British heirlooms to his bride, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, as a wedding present. In her will, Charlotte left the jewels to the 'House of Hanover'. In the meantime the Kingdom of Hanover adopted the Salic Laws, stipulating that succession descended only through males. Thus when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne of the United Kingdom, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, became King of Hanover. King Ernest demanded a portion of the jewelry, not only as the monarch of Hanover but also as the son of Queen Charlotte. Victoria flatly declined, claiming that the jewels had been bought with British money. Ernest's son George V of Hanover continued to press the claim. Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, suggested she make a financial settlement with the Hanoverian monarch to keep the jewels, but the Parliament of the United Kingdom informed the Queen they would neither purchase the jewels nor loan funds for the purpose. A Parliamentary commission was set up to investigate the matter, and in 1857 they found in favour of the House of Hanover. On 28 January 1858 the jewels were handed to the Hanoverian Ambassador, Count Kielmansegge.[4]

Diadems and tiaras[edit]

The King George IV State Diadem[edit]

Queen Alexandra (centre) wearing the George IV State Diadem

The George IV State Diadem (also known as the "Diamond Diadem") was made in 1820 by the Royal Goldsmiths Rundell, Bridge and Rundell for the coronation of George IV. It was designed to encircle the King's velvet Cap of Estate that he wore in the procession to Westminster Abbey. The diadem includes 1333 diamonds weighing 325.75 carats (65.15 g), and 169 pearls along its base.[5] Its design features roses, thistles and shamrocks, the floral symbols of England, Scotland and Ireland respectively.[6]

The diadem was also worn during the coronation procession of Queen Victoria, and later Queen Elizabeth II. It is also worn by Elizabeth II in the procession to the State Opening of Parliament. It has been featured in many portraits of the Queen, including one by Raphael Maklouf. The diadem featured on the world's first postage stamp, the "Penny Black" of 1840.[7] Even now, the diadem can be seen on banknotes and coins throughout the Commonwealth realms. In her will, Queen Victoria left the diadem to the Crown, not only ensuring the diadem would be worn by future monarchs but thereby also making the diadem part of the British Crown Jewels.[6]

Delhi Durbar Tiara[edit]

The Delhi Durbar Tiara was made in 1911 by the then Royal Jewellers, Garrard & Co., for Queen-Empress Mary (wife of King-Emperor George V) to wear at the 1911 Delhi Durbar.[8]

This tiara is made of platinum and gold, and set with diamonds. It was part of the Queen Mary's parure of emeralds and diamonds made for the 1911 Durbar, which also included a necklace, stomacher, brooch and earrings. While King George V wore a crown for the Durbar (the newly commissioned Imperial Crown of India), his Consort Queen Mary did not wear a crown for the occasion; instead, Queen Mary wore the Durbar Tiara, together with the other items of the Delhi Durbar parure.

The Dehli Durbar Tiara takes the form of a tall circlet of lyres and S-scrolls, linked by festoons of rose and brilliant-cut diamonds. The upper border was originally set with ten of the Cambridge emeralds, acquired by Queen Mary in 1910 and originally owned by her grandmother the Duchess of Cambridge, but these were removed by 1922 for use elsewhere. In the year following the Delhi Durbar, the tiara was altered to take either or both of the two Lesser Stars of Africa – Cullinan III and IV; the drop-shaped stone was held at the top of the jewel and the cushion-shaped stone hung in the oval aperture below.[8]

In 1946, Queen Mary lent the tiara to the then Queen Consort Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) for the 1947 South African Tour and it remained with her until her death in 2002, when it passed to Queen Elizabeth II. In 2005, it was lent by the Queen to Camilla, the Duchess of Cornwall.[8]

The George III Fringe Tiara[edit]

The George III tiara is a circlet incorporating brilliant diamonds that were formerly owned by George III. Originally commissioned in 1830, the tiara has since been worn by many Queens Consort. Originally it could be worn as a collar or necklace or mounted on a wire to form the tiara. Victoria first wore it as a tiara during a visit to the Royal Opera in 1839. In Franz Xaver Winterhalter's painting 'The First of May', made in 1851, Victoria can be seen wearing it as she holds Prince Arthur, the future Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. In a delicate veiled reference to the adoration of the Magi, The Duke of Wellington can be seen presenting the young prince with a gift, while Prince Albert looks on.[9]

Queen Mary Fringe Tiara[edit]

This tiara (which can also be worn as a necklace) was made for Queen Mary in 1919. It is not, as has sometimes been claimed, made with diamonds that had belonged to George III but re-uses diamonds taken from a necklace/tiara purchased by Queen Victoria from Collingwood & Co as a wedding present for the then-Princess Mary in 1893. In August 1936, Queen Mary gave the tiara to Queen Elizabeth.[10]

When Queen Elizabeth, consort of King George VI, first wore the tiara, Sir Henry "Chips" Channon called it 'an ugly spiked tiara'. The Queen later lent it to her daughter, Princess Elizabeth, as "something borrowed" for her wedding in 1947.[10] As Princess Elizabeth was getting dressed at Buckingham Palace before leaving for Westminster Abbey the tiara snapped. Luckily, the court jeweller was standing by in case of emergency, and was rushed to his work room by a police escort. The Queen reassured her daughter that it would be fixed in time, and it was. Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother later also lent it to her granddaughter, Princess Anne, for her marriage to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973.[9] It was put on show with a number of other royal tiaras in 2001.[11]

The Vladimir Tiara[edit]

Portrait of Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1854-1920) wearing the Vladimir Tiara, now in the British royal collection.

The Vladimir Tiara, sometimes referred to as the Diamond and Pearl Tiara, was purchased in 1921 by Queen Mary, who bought it from Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. The tiara was sold to Queen Mary along with a diamond riviere for a price of £28,000[12] (£984,200).[13] Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna, after her marriage to Prince Nicholas of Greece, known always as Princess Nicholas of Greece, had inherited it from her mother Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna. The tiara had been smuggled out of Russia by a British diplomat during the 1917 revolution.[14] Over the years Princess Nicholas of Greece sold various pieces of jewellery from her personal collection; as a refugee, she had to sell the pieces to support her family and various charities.[15]

Queen Mary had the tiara adapted to accommodate the attachment of fifteen of the Cambridge cabochon emeralds. The original Teardrop pearls, originally in the Vladimir Tiara, could be replaced easily as an alternative to the emeralds. Queen Elizabeth II inherited the piece directly from her grandmother. The Diamond and Pearl Tiara is almost exclusively worn with the Cambridge and Delhi Durbar Parure, which also features large emeralds. Elizabeth II wore this tiara for her official photograph as Queen of Canada, as none of the Commonwealth realms besides the United Kingdom has its own crown jewels.[15]

The Burmese Ruby Tiara[edit]

The Burmese Ruby Tiara was ordered by Elizabeth II in 1973. The design is in the form of a wreath of red roses and like many other pieces in the collection, made by Garrard & Co. Clusters of rubies and gold form the centre of each flower while diamonds and silver form the petals. A total of 96 diamonds are set into the tiara. Both the rubies and the diamonds came from Elizabeth's private collection. The rubies were a wedding present by the Burmese people, after whom the tiara was named. The number of rubies represent the number of diseases that the people of Burma believe can affect the human body. They credit the rubies with having the ability to protect their owner from sickness and evil. The diamonds were also a wedding present by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar who at the time also possessed a vast jewellery collection.[16]

The Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara[edit]

Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland tiara

The Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara was a gift from the girls of Great Britain and Ireland to the future Queen Mary in 1893. The diamond tiara was purchased from Garrard, the London jeweller, by a committee organised by Lady Eve Greville. In 1947, Mary gave the tiara to her granddaughter, the future Elizabeth II, as a wedding present.[17]

The tiara was described by Leslie Field as "a diamond festoon-and-scroll design surmounted by nine large oriental pearls on diamond spikes and set on a bandeau base of alternate round and lozenge collets between two plain bands of diamonds". Elizabeth II has usually worn the tiara without the base or pearls, but in recent years the base has been seen to have been reattached.[17][18]

Over the years this tiara has become one of the most familiar of Queen Elizabeth II’s tiaras through its appearance on British banknotes and coinage.[19]

The Russian Kokoshnik Tiara[edit]

Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Kokoshnik Tiara during a dance with US President Gerald Ford

The Russian Kokoshnik Tiara was presented to Princess Alexandra, Princess of Wales, in 1888 by Lady Salisbury on behalf of 365 peeresses of the United Kingdom. Alexandra had requested that the tiara be in the fashionable design of a Russian girl's headdress, a kokoshnik. She knew the design well from a similar tiara belonging to her sister Marie Feodorovna, the Empress of Russia. The tiara was made by Garrard Jewellers and supervised by Lady Salisbury. It is made up of 61 platinum bars and encrusted with 488 diamonds, the largest of which being 3.25 carats (0.650 g) each. Princess Alexandra wrote to her aunt, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz "The presents are quite magnificent. The ladies of society gave a lovely diamond spiked tiara".[20]

Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara[edit]

Garrard was commissioned by Queen Mary in 1914 to create a copy of a tiara owned by her maternal grandmother Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel. The design for the tiara was changed by Queen Mary slightly. The tiara was made using diamonds and pearls already in the Queen's possession. Extremely French in its neo-classical design, the tiara consists of 19 openwork diamond frames each with a large oriental pearl drop. Each arch is below a lovers knot bow each centred with a large brilliant. The design is based on the tiara owned by Mary's grandmother, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, who married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (the seventh son of George III). In her will Queen Mary left the tiara to her granddaughter Elizabeth II. The Queen later gave it to Diana, Princess of Wales as a wedding present. She wore it often during her marriage however on her divorce from HRH The Prince of Wales, it was returned to HM The Queen.[21]

Princess Andrew of Greece's Meander Tiara[edit]

This tiara was a wedding gift to then Princess Elizabeth from her mother-in-law Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (born Princess Alice of Battenberg). The Meander Tiara is in the classical Greek 'key pattern' featuring a large brilliant cut diamond in the centre surrounded by a diamond wreath. It also incorporates a central wreath of leaves and scrolls on either side. The Queen has never worn this item in public and it was given to Princess Anne around 1972. Princess Anne has frequently worn the tiara in public, notably during her engagement to Mark Phillips[22] and for an official portrait marking her 50th birthday. In July 2011 the Princess Royal lent the Meander Tiara to her daughter Zara Philips for her wedding to Mike Tindall.[23]

1936 Cartier Halo Tiara[edit]

This tiara was purchased by the Duke of York (later King George VI) for his wife (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) three weeks before they became king and queen. It is a rolling cascade of scrolls that converge in a central ornament surmounted by a brilliant diamond. The tiara was then presented the future Queen Elizabeth II on the occasion of her 18th birthday.

The tiara was borrowed by Princess Margaret, before she was given the Persian Turquoise Tiara for her 21st birthday in 1951. Princess Margaret wore the Halo Scroll Tiara to the 1953 coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.[24]

Queen Elizabeth II later lent the tiara to her daughter Princess Anne before giving her the Greek Meander Tiara in 1972.

The Halo Scroll tiara was lent to Catherine Middleton to wear at her wedding to Prince William on 29 April 2011.[25][26]

Earrings[edit]

Queen Victoria's Stud Earrings[edit]

A pair of large, perfectly matched brilliant cut diamonds which Queen Victoria had set as ear studs. [27]

Diamond Pear Drop Earrings[edit]

A set of gold and diamond earrings consisting of two large brilliant diamonds as the studs, below a smaller brilliant followed by a large pear shaped diamond drop. The diamonds were family stones. Diana, Princess of Wales borrowed them from Queen Elizabeth[which?] in 1983 during her first official visit to Australia. At a banquet she wore the earrings along with a tiara of her family's collection.[28]

The King George VI Chandelier Earrings[edit]

These earrings are long chandelier earrings consisting of every cut of diamond. The earrings end in three large drops displaying every known modern cut of diamond. They were a wedding present in 1947 to Princess Elizabeth from her father and mother, the King and Queen. Elizabeth was not able to wear them until she had her ears pierced. When it was noticed that she had had her ears pierced doctors and jewellers found themselves inundated with women anxious to have their ears pierced too.[29]

Necklaces[edit]

Festoon Necklace[edit]

Elizabeth II wearing the Girls of Great Britain Tiara and the Festoon Necklace

In 1947, George VI commissioned a three strand diamond necklace containing over 150 brilliant cut diamonds to get rid of some of the loose diamonds he had inherited. The necklace consists of three small rows of diamonds with a triangle motif. The minimum weight of this necklace is 170 carats (34 g).[29]

The Queen Mother's Collet Necklace[edit]

For the coronation of her husband, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother wore Queen Victoria's collet necklace along with a much larger one. The necklace's carat weight has never been disclosed, but it is clear from photos that it contains approximately 45 large diamond collets.

King Faisal of Saudi Arabia Necklace[edit]

Given to the Queen in 1967 by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, the necklace is a fringe necklace in design and is set with brilliant and baguette diamonds. Made by Harry Winston, King Faisal bought the necklace and presented it to her on a state visit to the United Kingdom in 1967. The Queen wore this necklace when King Faisal gave a banquet in honour of Elizabeth in the Dorchester hotel before his departure. The Queen also lent this necklace to Diana, Princess of Wales during a state visit to Australia in 1983.[30]

The King Khalid of Saudi Arabia Necklace[edit]

Another gift from Saudi Arabia this necklace was given to the Queen by King Khalid of Saudi Arabia in 1979, the necklace is of the sunray design and contains round and pear shaped diamonds. The necklace was also made by Harry Winston and often lent to Diana, Princess of Wales by the Queen.[31]

The Queen Anne and Queen Caroline Pearl Necklaces[edit]

HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother wearing the Queen Anne and Queen Caroline pearls.

The pearls together are estimated at over £4,000,000 for the pair. Both necklaces consist of a single row of large graduated pearls with pearl clasps. The Queen Anne necklace is said to have belonged to Queen Anne, the last British monarch of the Stuart dynasty. Horace Walpole wrote in his diary: "Queen Anne had but few jewels and those indifferent, except one pearl necklace given to her by Prince George". Queen Caroline on the other hand had a great deal of valuable jewellery, including no less than four fine pearl necklaces. She wore all of her pearl necklaces to her coronation but afterwards had the fifty finest selected to make one larger necklace. In 1947 both necklaces were given to then-Princess Elizabeth by her father as a wedding present.

On 20 November 1947, the day the then-Princess Elizabeth was to wed Prince Philip, she realised she had left her pearls at St James's Palace. Elizabeth particularly wished to wear the pearls and asked her Private Secretary, Jock Colville, to travel there to retrieve them. Colville ended up in the quadrangle, where he commandeered King Haakon VII of Norway's big Daimler limousine. Traffic that morning had stopped, so even the King of Norway's car with its royal flag flying could not get anywhere. Colville continued his journey to the palace on foot. When he arrived there he had to explain his odd story to the guards who were protecting the Princess's over 2,660 wedding presents. After finding the Private Secretary's name on a wedding programme, they admitted him, and Colville was able to get the pearls to the Princess in time for her portrait in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace.[32]

Brooches[edit]

"Granny's Chips" - Cullinan III & IV[edit]

Known as "Granny's Chips", the Cullinan III and Cullinan IV were two of several stones cut from the Cullinan Diamond in 1905. The large diamond found in South Africa was presented to Edward VII on his birthday. Two of the stones cut from the diamond were the 94.4-carat (18.88 g) Cullinan III, a clear pear shaped stone. The other a 63.6-carat (12.72 g) cushion shaped stone. Queen Mary had these stones made into a brooch with the Cullinan III hanging from the IV. Elizabeth II inherited the piece from her grandmother in 1953. The brooch is the most valuable brooch in the world with a value of over £50,000,000.

George V and Queen Mary 1914. Queen Mary wearing the State Diadem, The complete set of Queen Victoria's Bow Brooches (down the front of her dress), The Cullinan III & IV (pendant from necklace) several diamond collet necklaces and a pearl and diamond bracelet now frequently worn by the Queen.

Queen Victoria's Bow Brooches[edit]

Commissioned by Queen Victoria in 1858, Garrards made a set of three large bow brooches containing more than 506 diamonds. There is no record or picture of Queen Victoria ever wearing them; Queen Alexandra, Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and the Queen were seen wearing them frequently. The brooches are often adjusted to contain a large pearl or emerald diamond drop. Queen Mary was pictured on more than one occasion with the Lesser-Cullinan diamonds as the drops. Estimated at £75,000 each by Mr Krashes in 1989, resulting in an approximate value for the set of £225,000.

The Prince Albert Sapphire Brooch[edit]

Queen Mary wearing the Prince Albert sapphire brooch and the Caroline and Anne pearls.

The Prince Albert sapphire brooch was given by Prince Albert to Queen Victoria at Buckingham Palace on 9 February 1840. It was the day before their wedding and Queen Victoria wrote in her diary that Albert came to her sitting room and gave her 'a beautiful sapphire and diamond brooch. The centre stone is a large oblong perfect blue sapphire surrounded by twelve round diamonds.

It passed from Queen Victoria to the queen consorts, Alexandra of Denmark, Mary of Teck and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, then came to the current Queen on her accession to the throne in 1952.[33]

The carat weight of the Sapphire has never been disclosed but by the size it is estimated to be around 20-30 carats. The current price per carat of a unique sapphire is about £120,000; this results in a price range of around £4 million, not taking into account its royal provenance, which would no doubt add much more to the value of the piece.

Parures[edit]

Brazil Parure[edit]

Elizabeth II wearing the Aquamarine Tiara with the Brazil necklace and bracelet

The Brazil Parure is one of the most modern jewels in the collection. In 1953 the President and people of Brazil presented Elizabeth II with the coronation gift of a necklace and matching pendant earrings of aquamarines and diamonds.[34] It had taken an entire year to collect the perfectly matched stones. The necklace consists of nine large oblong aquamarines with an even bigger aquamarine pendant drop. The Queen has since had the drop set in a more decorative diamond cluster and it is now detachable. Her Majesty was so delighted with the gift that in 1957 she had a matching tiara made.[34] The tiara is surmounted by three vertically set aquamarines. In August 1958 the Brazilian Government added to their gift by presenting the Queen with a bracelet of seven oblong aquamarines set in a cluster of diamonds and a square aquamarine and diamond brooch to match.[35]

The George VI Victorian Suite[edit]

The George VI Victorian Suite was originally a wedding present by George VI to his daughter Princess Elizabeth in 1947. The suite consists of a long necklace of oblong sapphires surrounded by diamonds and a pair of matching square sapphire earrings also bordered with diamonds. The suite was originally made in 1850. The colour of the stones exactly matched the colour of the robes of the Order of the Garter, although this may have been a coincidence on George's part. In 1952 Elizabeth had the largest sapphire of the necklace removed in order to shorten it. In 1959 she had a new pendant made using the removed stone. When Noël Coward saw the Queen wearing the suite at the Royal Command Performance in 1954 he wrote: "After the show we were lined up and presented to the Queen, Prince Philip and Princess Margaret. The Queen looked luminously lovely and was wearing the largest sapphires I have ever seen".

In 1963 a new sapphire and diamond tiara and bracelet were made to match the original pieces. The tiara was made out of a necklace that had belonged to Princess Louise of Belgium, daughter of King Leopold II of the Belgians. Louise had to sell off her jewelry after her father disowned her following her divorce in 1906. In 1969, the Queen wore the complete parure when she and the Duke of Edinburgh attended a charity concert.[36]

Queen Victoria's Collet Necklace and Earrings[edit]

Queen Victoria photographed for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897, wearing the diamond collet necklace, earrings and her large diamond bracelet.

Commissioned by Queen Victoria in 1858 from the diamonds from an old Garter badge, this necklace and earrings were first seen in her Winterhalter portrait[which?]. The necklace consists of twenty-nine collet diamonds adding up to a weight of over 160 carats (32 g) of diamonds. The necklace contains a famous stone as the pendant named the Lahore Diamond which weights 22.48 carats (4.496 g). The earrings are of typical design, large brilliant followed by a smaller one, with a large pear shaped drop.

The Coronation Coronets[edit]

For the 1937 coronation of their parents, it was decided that the princesses Elizabeth and Margaret should receive coronets to wear during the event. Elaborate coronets of gold lined with crimson and edged with ermine were designed by the crown jeweller and brought to the royal couple for inspection. The king and queen decided the coronets were too cumbersome and too ornate to be appropriate. Queen Mary suggested the coronets be simple circlets of silver gilt in a mediaeval style. The king agreed, and the two coronets were designed with Maltese crosses and fleur-de-lys. After the coronation Queen Mary wrote, "Lilibet [Elizabeth] and Margaret looked too sweet in their lace dresses and robes, especially when they put on their coronets."[37]

Queen Mary's Turquoise Parures[edit]

Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester wears the turquoise tiara given to her by Queen Mary in August of 1935.

There were two turquoise parures assembled by Queen Mary; one was worn by Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and the other was given to the late Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.[38]

The current Queen does not own the parures and they will continue to be passed down to subsequent family members or, like Princess Margaret's set, be sold at an auction.

The Gloucester Turquoise Parure[edit]

The Queen Mary turquoise parure was given to the young Princess Mary of Teck (Queen Mary) by her parents the Duke and Duchess of Teck when she became engaged to the future George V in 1893. The parure, later given to the Duchess of Gloucester, consisted of three 1850 turquoise brooches, a tiara, a necklace, and earrings.[38] Over the years another drop necklace was added and the Teck earrings worn as detachable pendant drops on the oval cluster earrings.[38]

The three brooches had been a gift to Mary's mother, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, upon her confirmation in December 1850.[38] Princess Mary of Cambridge wore the two brooches as part of a headdress, with the corsage brooch pinned to her bodice, when she attended her first debutante ball at Buckingham Palace.[38]

The collection known as the “Gloucester Jewels” is mainly the collection of jewels given to Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester upon her marriage to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, son of King George V and Queen Mary, in 1935.[38] During the beginning of the 20th century turquoise was a very fashionable stone and Queen Mary was aware of the Duchess's fondness of them. The turquoise parure from Queen Mary consists of the tiara, a long chained necklace of twenty-six turquoise and diamond oval clusters, matching cluster earrings and ring, two bow brooches, a bow-shaped corsage brooch with a tassel, a bangle bracelet, and two four row turquoise bead bracelets.[38]

The tiara of turquoise and diamonds was arranged in rococo scrolls and a sunburst. The centre of the tiara contains the largest turquoise in the piece surrounded by a “burst” of diamonds and turquoise pear shaped stones, quite similar to the famous Persian tiaras of Empress Farah of Iran. Apparently Queen Mary found the composition too high, and it was lowered by E. Wolff & Co. in August 1912.

On 29 October 2004, after the death of Princess Alice, the collection was passed to the current Duchess of Gloucester, wife of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Her Royal Highness has worn every piece in the parure known to have been given to her late mother-in-law Princess Alice.

Not much is known about other pieces given to the Duchess of Gloucester; most likely they are pieces commissioned by her husband:[citation needed]

The Princess Margaret Turquoise Parure[edit]

Princess Margaret wearing a brooch from the turquoise suite.

As a baby, Princess Margaret was given a string of turquoise and pearl beads.[38] In August 1951, upon her 21st birthday, Princess Margaret was given the antique parure of Persian turquoises set in diamonds.[38] The parure had been given to her mother upon her marriage in 1923 to the Duke of York, later George VI.[38] This parure consisted of a long necklace with a number of graduated pendant drops, matching pendant earrings, hair ornaments, a large square brooch, and a high oval tiara.[38] A bow brooch and ring were added to the set.[38]

The string of turquoise and pearl beads given to Margaret at birth were eventually given to her daughter, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Menkes, Suzy (1990). The Royal Jewels. Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-4315-6. 
  2. ^ Paul Harris (June 14, 2006). "Princess Margaret's jewellery sells for a hundred times its value". Daily Mail. 
  3. ^ Fields, p. 9.
  4. ^ Fields, pp. 9–10.
  5. ^ "Royal Insight". British Monarchy. January 2003. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  6. ^ a b Fields, pp. 163–165.
  7. ^ "Great Britain: Wednesday, May 6, 1840". First Issues Collectors Club. 2003-11-03. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  8. ^ a b c http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/exhibitions/diamonds-a-jubilee-celebration/delhi-durbar-tiara
  9. ^ a b Fields, pp. 41–43.
  10. ^ a b The Royal Collection © 2008, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II RCIN 200184 Queen Mary Fringe Tiara
  11. ^ "Queen and Sir Elton put tiaras on show". London: The Telegraph. 2001-12-24. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  12. ^ "The Royal Order of Sartorial Splendor: Readers' Top 15 Tiaras: #6. The Grand Duchess Vladimir Tiara". Orderofsplendor.blogspot.com. 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2012-05-01. 
  13. ^ "Historic inflation calculator: how the value of money has changed since 1900". This is Money. Retrieved 2012-05-01. 
  14. ^ "Dress for the Occasion". Royal Collection. 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  15. ^ a b Fields, pp. 89–91.
  16. ^ Fields, p. 69.
  17. ^ a b Fields, pp. 38–40.
  18. ^ "A Royal Wedding 1947". Royal Collection. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  19. ^ http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/exhibitions/diamonds-a-jubilee-celebration/queen-marys-girls-of-great-britain-and-ireland-tiara
  20. ^ Fields, pp. 44–45.
  21. ^ Fields, pp. 113–115.
  22. ^ Fields, p. 47.
  23. ^ "Zara's something borrowed... great-grandmother's tiara". Daily Mail. August 1, 2011. 
  24. ^ Coronation guests and their jewels http://orderofsplendor.blogspot.com/2012/03/flashback-friday-coronation-guests-and.html
  25. ^ "The Wedding Dress, Bridesmaids' Dresses and Pages' Uniforms". Official Royal Wedding Website. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  26. ^ "Wedding highlights Watch highlights of the royal wedding ceremony Wedding in pictures The dress, the kiss, the ceremony and much more Royal wedding video The balcony kiss between William and Kate As it unfolded Coverage of the royal wedding as it happened. Royal wedding: Kate Middleton wears Queen's tiara". The Telegraph (London: The Telegraph). 2011-04-29. Retrieved 30 April 2011. 
  27. ^ Fields, pp. 50–51.
  28. ^ Fields, p. 52.
  29. ^ a b Fields, p. 53.
  30. ^ Fields, pp. 56–57.
  31. ^ Fields, p. 57.
  32. ^ Fields, pp. 104–105.
  33. ^ "The Royal Order of Sartorial Splendor: Sunday Brooch: Prince Albert's Sapphire". Orderofsplendor.blogspot.com. 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2012-05-01. 
  34. ^ a b "Dress for the Occasion". Royal Collection. 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  35. ^ Fields, p. 21.
  36. ^ Fields, pp. 148–149
  37. ^ Fields, p. 179.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Leslie Field. The Queen's Jewels, Henry N. Abrams, Times Mirror Books, 1987. pg 158.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fields, Leslie (2002). The Queen's Jewels: The Personal Collection of Elizabeth II. London: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-8109-8172-6. 
  • Chopra, Jarat. "Tanganyika Diamond Presented to Princess Elizabeth," Old Africa, No. 21 (February–March 2009) 16-17.

External links[edit]