The Bath House and Board Walk, Long Beach, Ca. (1907)
The Pike was an amusement zone in Long Beach, California. The Pike was founded in 1902 along the shoreline south of Ocean Boulevard with several independent arcades, food stands, gift shops, a variety of rides and a grand bath house. It was most noted for the Cyclone Racer (1930–1968), a large wooden dual-track roller coaster, built out on pilings over the water.
The Pike operated under several names. The amusement zone surrounding the Pike, "Silver Spray Pier", was included along with additional parking in the post World War II expansion; it was all renamed Nu-Pike via a contest winner's submission in the late 1950s, then renamed Queen's Park in the late 1960s in homage to the arrival of the Queen Mary ocean liner in Long Beach. 1979 was the year Long Beach city council refused to renew the land leases and demolished all of the structures and attractions it could that weren't trucked away. The Pike museum is located in Looff's Lite-A-Line at 2500 Long Beach Blvd, Long Beach, CA 90806.
- 1 History
- 2 Attractions
- 2.1 Entertainment and shows
- 2.2 Rides
- 2.3 Roller coasters
- 3 In film and television
- 4 Demise of the amusement zone
- 5 After the amusement zone
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The first major attraction to the seashore at Long Beach was recreational bathing, long before trains and cars, when the only roads were dusty rutted paths littered with horse manure. Residents of Southern California escaped the summer heat by crowding the shore and beaches to enjoy the cool ocean breeze and the Pacific Ocean chilled by the Aleutian current. With the surge of health-conscious new residents and the ease of access to a beach near the services of local merchants, Willmore City became a destination. In 1888, Long Beach Land and Water Company bought William E. Willmore's failed platt of Bixby's Rancho Los Cerritos and changed the name to Long Beach in 1892. The amusement zone began in 1902, as a beach and grand bath house resort at the Long Beach terminus of the Red Car interurban commuter electric railroad system Pacific Electric Railway southern expansion from Los Angeles. A grand bath house was constructed at the shore, scheduled to open Independence Day, 1902. The grand opening of the bath house, known later as The Plunge, coincided with the inaugural run of the first "Red Car" from downtown Los Angeles to Long Beach on the morning of July 4, 1902 – which established service connecting communities along the line to offices and shopping in Downtown Los Angeles as well as bringing bathers and families south to Pacific Ocean shoreline recreation.
Long Beach Municipal Pier
Stretching Pine Avenue south from Ocean Avenue into the Pacific Ocean, the Long Beach Municipal Pier had an upper and lower deck to a service building on the end. Sheltered at the mouth of the Los Angeles River, the public pier served a range of purposes, primarily for trade and commerce, servicing freight and passenger shipping, but also served anglers fishing as well as pedestrian strolling. A simple wooden boardwalk was laid directly atop the sand west along the shoreline connecting the pier to the new bathhouse.
Pike, a simple boardwalk
"Pike" was the name of the wooden boardwalk connecting the Pine St. incline of the Long Beach Pier west along the shoreline to The Plunge bath house. It gradually grew in length, was widened again and again and was later poured in concrete and illuminated with strings of electric bulbs as "The Walk of a Thousand Lights", the midway anchoring the widely dispersed attractions and "The Pike" changed context from the original wooden boardwalk to the entire amusement zone. As it grew from a simple beach access made of planks to a midway of concessions, it included The Plunge bathhouse (pictured), Sea Side Studio souvenir photography, the Looff carousel, McGruder salt water taffy, pitch and skill games, pony rides, goat carts, fortune teller, weight guesser and a variety of dark and thrill rides, amusements and attractions large and small.
For a short time, the Long Beach Pier and Rainbow Pier both existed, sharing combined shore access at the Pine street incline. Rainbow Pier was actually a horseshoe (rainbow)-shaped breakwater with a roadway constructed along its crest, connecting Pine St. and the Long Beach Pier eastward to Linden. In the early 1920s, the original Long Beach Municipal Auditorium was constructed on 20 acres (81,000 m2) of tidal zone landfill located south of today's intersection of Ocean and Long Beach Boulevards. After the construction of the auditorium, there were problems created by storms and coastal erosion in the area. In order to protect the auditorium from these problems, the horseshoe (rainbow) shaped breakwater and road was constructed around it. Because of its shape, it was named "Rainbow Pier".
In the late 1940s, the City of Long Beach began filling in the water area enclosed by the Rainbow Pier breakwater, creating Rainbow Lagoon and Wilmore Park [sic. Should have been Willmore, for William E. Willmore, the original developer of the origin of Long Beach - Willmore City] - additional public trust lands upon which a larger, more modern auditorium was constructed. Filling of the shoreline area continued in the late 1950s and early 1960s with the Tidelands Filling Project.
In 1954 there were 218 amusements in the park, but during that time the zone began to face stiff competition from Knott's Berry Farm and then Disneyland (both less than 20 miles (32 km) away) and the rough "free-for-all" reputation of The Pike may have discouraged some families from attending. In the 1950s, the area underwent another face-lift. Advertising with coupons appealing to families appeared in local newspapers. A Kiddieland collection of carnival flat rides, a 'Bud' Hurlbut miniature train and petting zoo were installed on the silted-in new sand and public restrooms were built of concrete and cinder-block near a new picnic area, giving it a post-World War II modern look, and the park was renamed "Nu-Pike" as result of a write-in naming contest.
In 1969, the name changed again to "Queen's Park", to coincide with the public opening of the historical ocean liner RMS Queen Mary, which the city had purchased as a combination tourist attraction and hotel. The park retained this name until closing and demolition (1979–1980). Most locals continued calling it "The Pike".
Entertainment and shows
A grand bath house was constructed at the shore scheduled to open Independence Day, 1902 the first day the Pacific Electric Railroad established service connecting communities along the line to offices and shopping in Downtown Los Angeles and bringing bathers and families south to shoreline recreation. The indoor freshwater pool and change rooms behind a colonnade and sundeck charged admission to its clear 'vacuumed' pool and waterslide. An interior balcony surrounding the pool and an outdoor one facing the beach offered people watching on reclining lounges. The name was later changed to "The Plunge". When it closed, it was converted to the Strand Theater.
Until 1902, primary access to bathing was over unpaved roads by horse and buggy. A large livery and stables had been built to care for the animals of the bathers. Opening the Pacific Electric Big Red Car line to Long Beach diminished the importance of the livery, which closed as the automotive culture of Southern California developed. It was converted into skating rink in 1906 then a dance hall by 1911, "The Majestic" featuring big bands, and in the 1950s it changed hands and was renamed "The Lido Ballroom".
Live and motion picture theaters
Long Beach downtown featured several theaters, many of which were along the "Walk of 1000 Lights". Starting East of Pine Street with access at Ocean Bl. and The Pike was Lowes, known for first-run major releases. Several small shop-front theaters, exhibiting side-shows and independent films, came and went along the Walk of a Thousand Lights, but one big (and very tall) one, the Virginia, was later converted into the dark ride "Whispering River". The Strand Theater offered a double feature, after being converted to a picture house when The Plunge closed.
A Pike attraction from 1909–1930 was the "Wall of Death" – Reckless Ross Millman, among America's first motorcycle daredevils, built a motordrome near the Jack Rabbit Racer.
The Long Beach Municipal Band played most Sundays and holidays. The band was led by Herbert L. Clarke, who had been a member of John Philip Sousa's Band.
Beginning at the entrance to the "Walk of a Thousand Lights" through the arcade (architecture) archway entrance of the last surviving building associated with The Pike, and unique, Ocean Center Building containing Hollywood on the Pike cabaret and an amusement arcade. One could stroll west along the midway past storefront games, such as ball-pitch and shooting galleries, as well as outdoor amusement machines such as fortune predicting weight-scales, and several large indoor collections of coin-operated Electro-mechanical amusements - pinball, skill-prize merchandisers, penny-pitch, nickelodeon viewers, love and strength testers, fortune tellers, the House of Mirrors and more. Among the most popular coin operated amusement machines and devices were the redemption games which dispensed tickets, such as skee-ball.
Proximity to the Naval Shipyards and its many sailors on extended leave during retrofitting supported an ink economy. The dense collection of tattoo shops made next-door and cross-street neighbors of many minor and world-renowned artists.
Drinking and dining
From low-brow seedy dives like Rudy's (cocktails) and open front liquor stores to upscale cabarets featuring suggestive girly-shows like Hollywood on the Pike, many an opportunity existed for visiting sailors and locals to get drunk - which they did, often in excess. A side effect of mass inebriation and intoxication was that every pocket and corner of the entertainment zone had on it at one time any number of bodily fluids.
A variety of eating establishments ranged from snack stands with corn-dogs, cotton candy, popcorn and hot nuts, or one could sit at soda-pop fountains and counter service restaurants like Lee's Barbecue with menus of chicken, ribs and fish meals, to a secluded booth with table service on linen.
- Laff in the Dark, Dark ride featuring three animated ballyhoo characters over the facade center, a Laffing Sal, Laffing Sam and Blackie the Barker, which was the first to deteriorate from weathering.
- River Ride, [dark ride] ride in cars. Spooks, converted to walk thru attraction. Voodoo Hut, walk thru attraction.
- Round Up, a Frank Hrubetz Co. 30 passenger tire drive single trailer model 18-18.5 RPM, 45° tilt, with chain restraints.
- Rotor trailer model with previewing platform. Sold to Magic Mountain as Spin-Out in 1979.
- Wilde Maus aka Wild Bobs
- Loop-O-Plane by aka Hammer
- Loop Trainer, aka Looper
- Looff Hippodrome (1911–2005) with Carousel (1911–1943) see below.
- Carousel (1944–1979), three course, open air.
- Niagara Barrel (?-?), a wooden spiral slide (often mis-captioned as Bisby's Spiral Airship.)
- Horse Race, a W.F. Mengels Galloping Carrousel, two course, rocking style carousel.
- Space Capsule, observation crane, also known as Moon Rocket and Kiddie-land Hi-Ride.
- Crazie Maize, storefront House of mirrors.
- Skooter, indoor Bumper car.
- Dodgem, Reverchon flat ride bumper car.
- Fun House, storefront walk-through of challenging paths.
- Tilt-A-Whirl by Sellner, later renamed Tilt.
- Super Trooper, umbrella ride.
- Sharks Alive, diving bell, submersible shark tank view.
- Sky Ride, Watkins chairlift.
- Kiddie Land - a collection of several carnival style children sized flat rides and truck rides, such as "hot walker" style miniature boats and sport vehicles.
- Sky Wheel, double Ferris wheel: Built by Allan Herschell Company of New York. Two wheels of eight cars each were connected with an armature. The armature would allow loading/unloading of the lower wheel while the upper one revolved, then top and bottom wheels would swap and when both were loaded and spinning, several turns of the armature provided serious thrills.
- Davy Jones Locker- dark ride, ride on cars.
The Looff Carousel Hippodrome
Charles I. D. Looff is considered[by whom?] to be the first of the great American carousel master carvers, having installed the first successful carousel at Coney Island, and developing amusements, carousels and roller coasters around the U.S.; examples of his carousels at Santa Monica Pier Looff Hippodrome (1922) and Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk with brass ring feature (1911) still stand. In 1911, Charles I. D. Looff installed a carousel at the Pike in Long Beach, and he took up residence with his son, Arthur Looff and the rest of his family in the second story above the shops in the carousel hippodrome building that would later become home to Light-a-Line. The horses of the original Long Beach Looff Carousel carved in 1911 were destroyed by fire in 1943, a new outdoor carousel was constructed nearby, and then the building was used as a gaming hall for “Lite-A-Line” bingo/pinball game and for many years was the last remaining building to survive the Pike demolition that began in 1979. The roof structure and cupola had been saved in the parking lot west of Pine Ave and the Ocean Center Building on Seaside Way was awaiting preservation by Mike Cincola, who married into the Looff family and has preserved much of the history of the Pike, some of which can be seen on display at his relocated "Lite-a-Line". The cupola was removed with its crest of popcorn lighted orb and saved intact by Cincola in 2010, but the roof was dismantled, it remains the last surviving original structure of The Pike.
According to its misnamed "Queens Pike" entry in the Roller Coaster DataBase, The Pike had the following roller coasters:
- Bisby's Spiral Airship (steel) (1902-?)
- Comet Jr. (1949–1959)
- Cyclone (4 trailer Galaxi, steel) (9/1969–1979)
- Cyclone Racer wooden twin (5/30/1930-9/15/1968)
- Figure 8 Roller Coaster, wooden twin racer, replaced by larger Jack Rabbit Racer (6/1907-1914)
- Jack Rabbit Racer wooden twin racer, replaced by larger Cyclone Racer (5/1 1915–1930)
- Wilde Maus/Swiss Bobs (wood) (1959–1979)
Bisby’s Spiral Airship
Bisby's Spiral Airship, built in 1902, had cars that were suspended beneath a steel monorail track and could swing freely. The cars traveled up an inclined lift track to the top of an expanding, spiral cone-shaped, steel tower. As they began their spiral descent, centrifugal force caused them to swing outward before returning to the station. This is commonly acknowledged as the first suspended roller coaster type ride. This tall steel tower figures prominently in early postcards of Long Beach Pier  (Pine Ave., later to join the west side of Rainbow Pier.)
Often confused – Many photos and postcards seen on the web are mis-captioned Bisby's Spiral Airship. If the structure has one long thin approach of steel to the top of a cylinder and camel-back return, that's Bisby's Spiral Airship. If the structure pictured is a thick wooden cone spiral slide, the entrance next-door east of Lee's Barbeque with a switchback stairway to a shack on top, the caption should read "Niagara Barrel".
The Pike's first more traditional wooden roller coaster opened for business in June 1907. It was built by Fred Ingersoll and named the Figure 8 after the shape of the tracks. It was built on pilings that reached out over the water.
According to a 1966 editorial in the High Tide, the newspaper of Redondo Union High School, a rider met tragedy when he disobeyed a sign instructing riders not to stand up: "He apparently thought this would spoil his fun, so he proceeded to stand up. Unfortunately, his head was knocked off."
Figure 8 was closed in 1914 and demolished to clear the way for new development.
Jack Rabbit Racer
In 1914, the Pike Amusement Zone undertook several upgrades and a new roller coaster named the Jack Rabbit Racer was opened in May 1915, becoming the second largest racing coaster in the country. It was again designed by Fred Ingersoll, this time with the help of John Miller. It was part of the Silver Spray Pier which included several new rides and concessions. One could look down through the tracks and see the water. In the mid twenties, several expansions were made to the area and the Jack Rabbit Racer was remodeled, raising the ride's dips to a greater height and steepness. An elevated band shell was built into the coaster with track running right over it. Jack Rabbit Racer was removed in 1930.
One of the best-known historic coasters, the Cyclone Racer was built in 1930 to replace the Jack Rabbit Racer. The Cyclone Racer was a dual-track (two trains could launch side-by-side at the same time), racing wooden roller coaster, the brain child of Fred Church and built by Harry Traver.
To increase thrill, the new coaster was built on pilings over the ocean, several hundred feet beyond the shore. Eventually the entire pier stood over sandy beach, not water, because of the sand deposition due the slowing of water caused by the new harbor expansion and breakwater. Over 30 million riders rode on the Cyclone before it closed in 1968.
It was removed to clear space for a Shoreline Drive cloverleaf to the Magnolia Bridge in anticipation of the RMS Queen Mary's imminent arrival (a connecting road which was later demolished when found unneeded, proving the Cyclone Racer was removed unnecessarily.) The Cyclone Racer was the last remaining seaside dual-track roller coaster of its kind in the United States until it was disassembled and cataloged in September 1968 with the promise to Long Beach citizens that it would be rebuilt elsewhere.
Enthusiasts seeking to re-create this roller coaster have made a three-dimensional model and are looking to perhaps have it rebuilt in Southern California. The last remaining Cyclone Racer roller coaster car is located in the Pike Museum at 2500 Long Beach Blvd, Long Beach CA 90806.
In film and television
- Sugar Daddies (1927) Laurel and Hardy see a girl about a funhouse.
- Fish Hooky (1933), Our Gang short in which a truant officer chases Wheezer, Dickie, Uh-huh, and Stymie through the amusement zone.
- Life Hesitates at 40 (1935) Watch for Carl 'Alfalfa' Switzer as the Boy at Soda Fountain.
- Strike Me Pink (1936) The Pike doubles for an amusement park beset with mobsters.
- I Wake Up Screaming (1941)
- Abbott and Costello in Hollywood (1945) Bud Abbott and Lou Costello Lou rides the famous Cyclone Racer Roller Coaster for the films comic climax.
- Fun on a Weekend (1947) a motion picture starring Eddie Bracken was filmed at the Pike with scenes of The Walk of 1000 lights, arcades, marquees and various rides. The background shots of the Villa Riviera (still standing) and Pacific Coast Club (torn down in the late 1980s) shows the beach area as well which, in the movie is portrayed as a Seaside Resort Town somewhere in Florida.
- He Ran All the Way (1951) In an attempt to blend in and "follow the crowd" The Plunge bathng procedure and interiors are documented in the first 20 minutes after a paranoid hoodlum kills a policeman in a bungled payroll robbery,
- Half Angel (1951)
- The Sniper (1952) The Pike substitutes for San Francisco's Playland as Eddie Miller(Arthur Franz) nails the shooting gallery, then walks past Laff-in-the-Dark to dunk a touting blonde.
- The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (1953) featured The Cyclone Racer in the climax, when the stop-motion beast destroys a model of the coaster in split-screen with live action intercut with live action scenes from the coaster parking lot, entrance ramp and loading platform. A "sequel" to King Kong by the same cinematographers, improvements in visual effects were stunning for 1953.
- Gorilla at Large (1954) the Pike doubles for the "Garden of Evil."
- Jeanne Eagels (film) (1957) Waitress Jeanne Eagels (Kim Novak) joins the carnival in a desperate attempt to achieve fame in this biopic. The Pike stands in for Luna Park, Coney Island, NY as "Satori Park" acquired by impresario Sal Satori (Jeff Chandler) in order to locate the "hoochie dancer" Eagels near New York City. Cyclone Racer becomes the dramatic focus of his enterprise introduced with "…let's ride!" and while establishing park expansion/refurbishment. With her heart set on her name in lights filling a Broadway marquee, Eagels succeeds on stage and film after acting lessons lands her the lead understudy gig in Rain. The Strand Theatre (formerly The Plunge bathhouse) on The Pike (with the '1000-Lights' strings temporarily removed) is re-branded Satori Theatre for this film capturing both interior and exterior scenes of the stage and nearby shops of The Pike for her alcohol fueled decline.
- It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) the Pike can be seen in the background as the climactic car chase through downtown Long Beach turns south on Pine from Ocean Bl. past the Ocean Center Building then around Rainbow Pier.
- Roustabout (1964), the Sky Wheel double Ferris wheel is seen in Elvis Presley's motorcycle movie.
- The Incredibly Strange Creatures Who Stopped Living and Became Mixed-Up Zombies (1964) The Pike's best known appearance is in this cult film.
- The Stewardesses (1969), The Wilde Maus and several other Pike attractions & rides are seen.
- Nightside (1973), The Pike was featured in this TV pilot.
- Cannon (1974) episode The Avenger
- Three the Hard Way (1974) blaxploitation film.
- Emergency! (1975) Queens Park Kiddie-Land is documented in the Transition (#4.15) episode. Roy, John and Gill Robinson, a new Paramedic, assist Chuck, a child suffering a nosebleed from the Go-Karts - Giant Slide and Wheel of Fun, a kiddie Ferris wheel, can be seen after Squad 51 parks in front of the Carousel and kiddie-go-round. Then Squad 51 returns to "50 Ocean, intersection of Pacific" to rescue a heart attack victim and others stranded aboard Space-Capsule/Hi-Ride by a jammed cable - scenes include views of Octopus, Rotor, Laff-in-the-Dark, Sky-Ride, Round-Up, the double Ferris wheel Sky Wheel, all in motion, and the halted Hi-Ride in white Queen's Park paint.
- Columbo (1975) episode Identity Crisis
- Starsky and Hutch (1975) episode Texas Longhorn
- S.W.A.T. (1975) Queens Park - Walk of 1000 Lights is documented in Sole Survivor (#1.12) episode. The team is called to respond to a sniper on the roof of "Ocean and Magnolia." Scenes include views of the truck arriving south down the Cedar Ave. one-way incline from Ocean Bl. with city hall construction in Lincoln Park past Der-Wienerhausen and Penny Arcade to Bust-em-up in the Looff Hippodrome at 300 Walk of a Thousand Lights, Queenspitch, the carousel, kiddie-land rides and Giant Slide, views from the roof of the Skeeball Bowling to Shrimp Mile Long Dog 39¢ and West shopfronts on the North side of the Walk of 1000 Lights - Target Shooting Machine Guns, PIKE Room Seal Game and Penny Arcade, pedestrians scrambling east from Cat Rack (conversion from Shoot) to Rudy's, past the pink painted Target Shooting Machine Guns, Play Ball & Bust 'em Up Balloons. When the team enters 339 Windsor more views from the rooftops include Peppermint Pike Dancing, the newly constructed Shoreline Drive, Magnolia Bridge and RMS Queen Mary. Footage from this episode was recycled in Deadly Weapons (#2.19) creating continuity errors.
- The Six Million Dollar Man (1977) During the set-up to film the Carnival of Spies (#4.17) episode inside The Pike's "Laff in the Dark" dark ride in December 1976, when a stage hand moved the "hanging man" prop, a waxy finger broke off. The human bone inside revealed the mummy to be more than a mere prop - it was a real human corpse. Examination of the body by the Los Angeles County Medical Examiner's Office discovered that it was the arsenic embalmed human remains of Elmer McCurdy, an outlaw who had been killed in 1911 after a botched train robbery. His last words to his captors were "You'll never take me alive!". They obliged him.
Demise of the amusement zone
In the 1970s, the city of Long Beach began redevelopment of the area, expanding into the Pacific Ocean, eliminating the recreational bathing beach by pouring landfill over it. The city had purchased the RMS Queen Mary in 1967 and permanently docked the ship in Long Beach across the mouth of the Los Angeles River from the shoreline area of the Nu-Pike where a new road circled the parking lot and Londontowne shopping-dining complex serviced by a London Double Deck omnibus to Downtown Long Beach. The Nu-Pike was renamed "Queens Park" when the Queen Mary opened to the public in 1971 as a self-guided maritime museum tour on the upper decks and former engine room, hotel utilizing the former luxury staterooms of the mid-decks and Jacques Cousteau's The Living Sea. Focus and attention was further diverted from Queens Park with Shoreline Village and Rainbow Harbor marina, serviced by Shoreline Drive, built to connect to the Long Beach Freeway on even more ocean landfill south of the Pike, as locals continued to call it. Planning for Shoreline Drive and a cloverleaf connection to the new Magnolia Bridge was the excuse to demolish the Cyclone Racer in 1968. Since 1975, the area has been a major portion of the Grand Prix of Long Beach route.
In 1979 the Pike amusement zone was officially closed and demolished. By the time the lease with the city ended, The Pike had fallen into disrepair and most of the businesses had already left. The City of Long Beach then removed the remaining structures. Various plans for development of the area took form over the next twenty years. In 1999, the California Coastal Commission approved a plan for the construction of The Pike at Rainbow Harbor commercial and entertainment complex in the downtown shoreline area. The name is only a nod in reference to the original amusement zone, bathing beach and boardwalk — the outdoor shopping mall bears no resemblance whatsoever to its historic predecessor.
After the amusement zone
With numerous debates over the area, and its use as a portion of the track for the Long Beach Grand Prix, the main development of the area did not occur until the construction and opening of The Pike at Rainbow Harbor in 2003.
The Pike at Rainbow Harbor is located between the Long Beach Convention Center and the Aquarium of the Pacific. The tourist-oriented development has a large number of restaurants and a 14-theater megaplex Cinemark movie theater. The Gameworks keystone attraction closed and has re-opened as Kitchen-Den-Bar. There is also a four-level, fee parking-structure, metered street parking, a pedestrian overpass supporting teaser artwork resembling a steel rollercoaster, an outdoor amphitheater, an antique Spillman carousel (1920) and a solar-powered Ferris wheel.
Although the area has been developed into a retail-entertainment center that pays homage to its past as an amusement zone in name only, it has yet to become as successful as hoped. There continues to be controversy over the lack of a nearby recreational bathing beach and solutions are being sought for bringing back the excitement of the area’s heyday.
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- The Pike on Modern Day Ruins
- The Pike - fan history page.
- The Pike, 1902-1979, Fun Zone in Long Beach, California Flickr photo group.
- Photos of the Forgotten May 1980, between closure and demolition.
- The Pike at Rainbow Harbor outdoor shopping mall.
- The Pike at Rainbow Harbor, Long Beach, CA, since 2004 Flickr photo group.